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Total quality-management-tqm

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  • 1.


  • Introduction to concepts of TQM
  • Standards and TQM
  • TQM Reasons for failure
  • Measurement of Quality


  • TQM is a philosophy which applies equally to all parts of the organization.
  • TQM can be viewed as an extension of the traditional approach to quality.
  • TQM places the customer at the forefront of quality decision making.
  • Greater emphasis on the roles and responsibilities of every member of staff within an organization to influence quality.
  • All staff are empowered.

SHAILENDRA DAF 4. Total Quality Management Doing things right.. .FIRST time. Internetix (2005) 5.

  • BS 7850-1:1992
  • Total quality management.Guide to management principles.
  • BS 7850-2:1994,
  • ISO 9004-4:1993
  • Total quality management. Guidelines for quality improvement.


  • Leadership
    • Top management vision, planning and support.
  • Employee involvement
    • All employees assume responsibility for the quality of their work.
  • Product/Process Excellence
    • Involves the process for continuous improvement.


  • Continuous Improvement
    • A concept that recognizes that quality improvement is a journey with no end and that there is a need for continually looking for new approaches for improving quality.
  • Customer Focus on Fitness for Use
    • Design quality
      • Specific characteristics of a product that determine its value in the marketplace.
    • Conformance quality
      • The degree to which a product meets its design specifications.


  • A set of inter-related resources and activities which transform inputs into outputs.(ISO 8402) .
  • Any activity that accepts inputs, adds values to these inputs for customers, and produces outputs for these customers. The customers may be either internal or external to the organization. (BS 7850)

SHAILENDRA DAF 9. SHAILENDRA DAF (Source:BS 7850:1992, Total Quality Management) Controls Process Outputs Inputs Resources 10. SHAILENDRA DAF (Source:BS 7850:1992, Total Quality Management) As customer Process owner As customer As supplier Process owner As supplier Process 1 Process 1 Input Output Output to customer Input from supplier 11. TQM & organizational Cultural Change Traditional Approach Lack of communication Control of staffInspection & fire fightingInternal focus on ruleStability seekingAdversarial relationsAllocating blame TQM Open communications Empowerment Prevention External focus on customer Continuous improvement Co-operative relations Solving problems at their roots SHAILENDRA DAF 12. Customers expectations for the product or service Customers perceptions of the product or service Customers perceptions of the product or service Customers expectations for the product or service Customers perceptions of the product or service Expectations > perceptions Expectations = perceptions Expectations < perceptions Perceived quality is governed by the gap between customers expectations and their perceptions of the product or service Customers expectations of the product or service Source: Slack et al. 2004 SHAILENDRA DAF Gap Perceived qualityis poor Perceived quality is good Gap 13.

  • Technical Quality versus Functional Quality
    • Technical quality the core element of the good or service.
    • Functional quality customer perception of how the good functions or the service is delivered.
  • Expectations and Perceptions
    • Customers prior expectations (generalized and specific service experiences) and their perception of service performance affect their satisfaction with a service.
      • Satisfaction = (Perception of Performance) (Expectation)

SHAILENDRA DAF 14. A Gap model of Quality Source: Parasuraman, Zeithman and Berry. 1985 SHAILENDRA DAF Customers expectations concerning a product or service Customers perceptions concerning the product or service Previous Experience Word of mouth communications Image of product or service Customers own specification of quality Managements concept of the product or service organizations specification of quality The actual product or service Gap 1 Gap 2 Gap 3 Gap 4 15.

  • Philosophy that seeks to make never-ending improvements to the process of converting inputs into outputs.
  • Kaizen: Japaneseword for continuousimprovement.


  • Successful Implementation of TQM
    • Requires total integration of TQM into day-to-day operations.
  • Causes of TQM Implementation Failures
    • Lack of focus on strategic planning and core competencies.
    • Obsolete, outdated organizational cultures.


  • Lack of a company-wide definition of quality.
  • Lack of a formalized strategic plan for change.
  • Lack of a customer focus.
  • Poor inter-organizational communication.
  • Lack of real employee empowerment.
  • Lack of employee trust in senior management.
  • View of the quality program as a quick fix.
  • Drive for short-term financial results.
  • Politics and turf issues.


  • Blind pursuit of TQM programs
  • Programs may not be linked to strategies
  • Quality-related decisions may not be tied to market performance
  • Failure to carefully plan a program

SHAILENDRA DAF 19. SHAILENDRA DAF Time Performance Continuous improvement Plan Do Check Act 20.

  • Promotion of high quality goods and services
    • Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA) (United States)
    • Deming Prize (Japan)
    • European Quality Award (European Union)
    • ISO9000 certification

SHAILENDRA DAF 21. SHAILENDRA DAF Source: 2004 Criteria for Performance Excellence,U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Baldrige National Quality Program, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899. (www.quality.nist.gov) 22. Product Continual improvement of the quality management system Customers (and other interestedparties) Requirements Management responsibility Resource management Measurement, analysis and improvement Product realisation Output Satisfaction Input Source: BS EN ISO 9001:2000 Key:Value adding activityinformation flow Customers (and other interestedparties) SHAILENDRA DAF 23. SHAILENDRA DAF 24.

  • All take holistic approach
  • Customers/people
  • Measurable characteristics
  • Visible
  • Basis taken from TQM


  • TQM a way of working
  • Involves everyone
  • High prominence on customer
  • Awards based upon TQM