- Introduction to concepts of TQM
SHAILENDRA DAF 3.
- TQM is a philosophy which applies equally to all parts of the
- TQM can be viewed as an extension of the traditional approach
- TQM places the customer at the forefront of quality decision
- Greater emphasis on the roles and responsibilities of every
member of staff within an organization to influence quality.
SHAILENDRA DAF 4. Total Quality Management Doing things right..
.FIRST time. Internetix (2005) 5.
- Total quality management.Guide to management principles.
- Total quality management. Guidelines for quality
SHAILENDRA DAF 6.
- Top management vision, planning and support.
- All employees assume responsibility for the quality of their
- Product/Process Excellence
- Involves the process for continuous improvement.
SHAILENDRA DAF 7.
- A concept that recognizes that quality improvement is a journey
with no end and that there is a need for continually looking for
new approaches for improving quality.
- Customer Focus on Fitness for Use
- Specific characteristics of a product that determine its value
in the marketplace.
- The degree to which a product meets its design
SHAILENDRA DAF 8.
- A set of inter-related resources and activities which transform
inputs into outputs.(ISO 8402) .
- Any activity that accepts inputs, adds values to these inputs
for customers, and produces outputs for these customers. The
customers may be either internal or external to the organization.
SHAILENDRA DAF 9. SHAILENDRA DAF (Source:BS 7850:1992, Total
Quality Management) Controls Process Outputs Inputs Resources 10.
SHAILENDRA DAF (Source:BS 7850:1992, Total Quality Management) As
customer Process owner As customer As supplier Process owner As
supplier Process 1 Process 1 Input Output Output to customer Input
from supplier 11. TQM & organizational Cultural Change
Traditional Approach Lack of communication Control of
staffInspection & fire fightingInternal focus on ruleStability
seekingAdversarial relationsAllocating blame TQM Open
communications Empowerment Prevention External focus on customer
Continuous improvement Co-operative relations Solving problems at
their roots SHAILENDRA DAF 12. Customers expectations for the
product or service Customers perceptions of the product or service
Customers perceptions of the product or service Customers
expectations for the product or service Customers perceptions of
the product or service Expectations > perceptions Expectations =
perceptions Expectations < perceptions Perceived quality is
governed by the gap between customers expectations and their
perceptions of the product or service Customers expectations of the
product or service Source: Slack et al. 2004 SHAILENDRA DAF Gap
Perceived qualityis poor Perceived quality is good Gap 13.
- Technical Quality versus Functional Quality
- Technical quality the core element of the good or service.
- Functional quality customer perception of how the good
functions or the service is delivered.
- Expectations and Perceptions
- Customers prior expectations (generalized and specific service
experiences) and their perception of service performance affect
their satisfaction with a service.
- Satisfaction = (Perception of Performance) (Expectation)
SHAILENDRA DAF 14. A Gap model of Quality Source: Parasuraman,
Zeithman and Berry. 1985 SHAILENDRA DAF Customers expectations
concerning a product or service Customers perceptions concerning
the product or service Previous Experience Word of mouth
communications Image of product or service Customers own
specification of quality Managements concept of the product or
service organizations specification of quality The actual product
or service Gap 1 Gap 2 Gap 3 Gap 4 15.
- Philosophy that seeks to make never-ending improvements to the
process of converting inputs into outputs.
- Kaizen: Japaneseword for continuousimprovement.
SHAILENDRA DAF 16.
- Successful Implementation of TQM
- Requires total integration of TQM into day-to-day
- Causes of TQM Implementation Failures
- Lack of focus on strategic planning and core competencies.
- Obsolete, outdated organizational cultures.
SHAILENDRA DAF 17.
- Lack of a company-wide definition of quality.
- Lack of a formalized strategic plan for change.
- Lack of a customer focus.
- Poor inter-organizational communication.
- Lack of real employee empowerment.
- Lack of employee trust in senior management.
- View of the quality program as a quick fix.
- Drive for short-term financial results.
- Politics and turf issues.
SHAILENDRA DAF 18.
- Blind pursuit of TQM programs
- Programs may not be linked to strategies
- Quality-related decisions may not be tied to market
- Failure to carefully plan a program
SHAILENDRA DAF 19. SHAILENDRA DAF Time Performance Continuous
improvement Plan Do Check Act 20.
- Promotion of high quality goods and services
- Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA) (United
- European Quality Award (European Union)
SHAILENDRA DAF 21. SHAILENDRA DAF Source: 2004 Criteria for
Performance Excellence,U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Baldrige National
Quality Program, National Institute of Standards and Technology,
Gaithersburg, MD 20899. (www.quality.nist.gov) 22. Product
Continual improvement of the quality management system Customers
(and other interestedparties) Requirements Management
responsibility Resource management Measurement, analysis and
improvement Product realisation Output Satisfaction Input Source:
BS EN ISO 9001:2000 Key:Value adding activityinformation flow
Customers (and other interestedparties) SHAILENDRA DAF 23.
SHAILENDRA DAF 24.
- All take holistic approach
- Measurable characteristics
SHAILENDRA DAF 25.
- High prominence on customer