Principles and Strategies of Teaching- Learning Makabayan
Makabayan The learning area that lays most stress on the development of social awareness, empathy and a firm commitment to our common goal as a nation.It entails the use of integrated units, which enable the individual to personally process, assimilate and systematically practice wide range of values and life skills including work ethic.
Principles of Teaching-Learning MAKABAYAN The main principle of teaching and learning Makabayan is to do integration.Integration is characterized by the following (Kovalik and Olsen, 1994)Prefers questioning and problem solving to direct the process of acquiring knowledge and skillsCuts across subject-matter linesBrings together various aspects of the curriculum into a meaningful association
Focuses upon broad areas of studyReflects the interdependent real worldInvolves the learners body, thoughts, feelings, senses, and intuition in learning experienceUnifies knowledge and provides a greater understanding than that which could be obtained by examining the parts separately
Bases its practices on the characteristics of the human learner and on the interdependent nature of realityImmerses students in an enriched environment that reflects the complexities of lifeProvides a holistic context for learningLeads to a greater ability to make a number of connections and to solve problems
The Integrative and Interactive Strategies of Teaching
The Integrative Strategies of TeachingMakabayan shall be delivered using the integrative teaching strategies which include thematic, content-based, focusing inquiry, and generic competency models.
Integrative TeachingIt focuses on connections rather teaching isolated facts. For instance, a certain different subject may be integrated in teaching another subject (Like the content ofSciencebe taught in teaching Language). With this, learners will be able to realize that subjects being taught to them are not separate and isolated field of knowledge, but are linked to each other in order to achieve understanding and concept attainment.
Integrative teaching aims to connect what is learned in school to real life situations, thus it is more on developing problem solving and discussions of issues in the real world. Learners will learn to relate what they learn and apply it to their own daily lives.
Integrative teaching involves consideration on the learners' individual differences. These include multiple intelligences andlearning styles. The teacher therefore must present the lesson in various ways that can cater each learner's uniqueness.
Finally, when we say integrative teaching, we must remember the ABC domain of our objectives. The cognitive, behavioral and affective dimensions in teaching must be given balanced consideration. Values must be integrated ininstructionacross all subject areas. Through this, we are molding "integrated" learners, or well rounded individuals
Examplesof integrative teaching: Content-BasedInstructionThematic TeachingFocusing Inquiry GenericCompetency Model.
Thematic TeachingCharacteristicsIt recognizes learning around ideas.It provides a framework for linking content and process from variety of discipline.The theme provides coherence activities that accompany the unit.It also help to see the learners see the meaningful connection across the discipline or skill areas.It conveys clear, compelling purpose to learners, teachers and parents.
It links ideas to action. Topics are relevant and are of interest to children.An array of lessons is built around central ideas.It enhances childrens concept development. It provides a means for integrating content learning and process learning in ways that are meaningful to them.
Content LearningIt uses such mental abilities as attending, listening, observing, remembering, and recalling.It consists of socio-conventional knowledge around which the theme is designedIt gathers data about people in the community and their work through field trips, observation, interviews and the likeIn the classroom, it engages in hands-on activities, replicates, simulates the work of the people from the community.It provides stories, books and other sources of information such as videos or demonstrations by resource persons.
It is comprised of the cognitive, social, emotional and physical elements that form the basis for all experience in the classroom.It encompasses the whole child.The process involved range from mental abilities such as grouping, differentiating, inferring and concluding, to such physical skills as developing strength or endurance, to the social skills of learning; how to delay gratification or how initiate an interaction.
Learners gain factual insight into the life of workers and can also test their ideas.Learners gain opportunities to reach compromises.It creates symbols.Learners draw conclusions.
A concrete example: Supposing the theme would be, "Philippines, A Spanish Experience". Using this theme, the following objectives can be formulated on each subject:
Science: Evaluate the technological advancements in the Philippines from Spanish Era up to the present
Mathematics: Develop a pictograph on the duration of Spanish regime in relation to other foreign colonizers who controlled the Philippines.
English: Identify infinitives by reading a selection entitled, "Philippines: 0n the Hands of Spain"
Filipino: Matukoy ang mga gamit ng pangngalan sa pagbasa ng kwentong, "Ang Buhay ni Andres"
MAPEH: Maawit ang ilan sa mga kundimang umusbong sa panahon ng himagsikan
Araling Panlipunan: Masuri ang pagbabagong naidulot ng pagsakop ng Kastila sa Pilipinas
HELE: Makapagluto ng putaheng impluwensya ng Kastila
Values Education: Express the value of freedom by writing a short credo for the country
Content-Based instructionThe focus of a CBI is on the topic or subject matter.During the lesson the students are focus on learning about something by the use of the content of another subject.Example: When Filipino as subject integrates lesson content in HKS to teach Filipino grammar.
Content LearningStudents learn about what interest them using the language they are trying to learn, rather than their native language.They develop linguistic ability in the target language.It is a natural way of developing language ability that corresponds to the way the first language was earned.
Process LearningPreparationIn the preparation, teacher chooses a subject of interest to students.He/ She finds three or four suitable sources that deal with the different aspects of the subject.
During the LessonTeacher divides the class into small groups and assigns each group a small research task and a source of information to use.Once research is done, students from new groups with those that used other information sources and share and compare their information.There should be some products as the end result of the sharing of information.
For example, when a teacher teaches about a lesson in English, like "Good Qualities of a Paragraph", he/she may use sample paragraphs with topics containing or relating to other subjects like Science or History. Or when teaching a lesson about Filipino, he she can utilize selections pertaining to Araling Panlipunan or HELE.
Focusing inquiryFocusing means the center of interest or activity is the focus of attention and concentration.Inquiry is sometimes termed discovery, heuristic and problem solvingIt is defined simply as a teaching method which is modeled after the investigative processes of scientistIt puts premium in obtaining information through direct experience.
Content Learning It is focused on using learning content as a means to develop information-processing and problem solving skills.It puts mere emphasis on how we come to know and less on what we know.It is student-centered with the teacher as facilitator of learning.Students are more involved in the construction of knowledge.
Students ask questions that are more open and reflective in nature.Assessment is focused in determining the progress of skills development in addition to content understanding.It stresses skill development and nurtures the development of good habits of mind.
Process Learning -The steps:1) Getting started, by identifying preliminary questions and information2) Planning, by specific unknown and formulating hypotheses3) Focusing by refining the preliminary question4) Identifying and mapping possible resources5) Evaluating resources
6) Tracking what fits and what doesnt7) Assessing preliminary answers 8) Making sense of multiple piece of information9) Telling a particular audience the personal story of the learning journey
Generic Competency ModelIn this approach, learners are enrolled in three to four linked courses.These link between the course rest essentially on generic competencies.
Content LearningLearners are enrolled in three to four limited courses link among the sources essential on generic competencies.Learners are assisted in developing competencies that will transfer readily from one discipline to another.Competencies are clustered into personal development, social competence, and work/special skills.The subject specialist teaches his or her subject.Instructional integrity of the discipline is maintained.Activities draw on the processes and skills important to each discipline .
Process LearningDescribe a generic competency (social, personal, productivity/work/special skills) that allows related competencies from many subjects to enter the integration process.Identify the culminating performance (what, why, and how).Brainstorm the specific skills that would expect the learners to derive from the project.E