V rdet av skapande i f rskolan - DiVA 404090/   V rdet av skapande i f rskolan En studie

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Vrdet av skapande i frskolan En studie om pedagogers frhllande till skapande verksamhet i

Stockholm och i Tornedalen

Ida Maria Isaksdotter Westerberg

Institutionen fr utbildningsvetenskap med inriktning mot tekniska,

estetiska och praktiska kunskapstraditioner

Examensarbete 15 hp

Skapande verksamhet i frskolan

Sjlvstndigt arbete inom allmnt utbildningsomrde 3, AUO 3 (15 hp)

Hstterminen 2010

Examinator: Ulrika Von Schantz

English title: The value of creativity in preschool - A study on how

pedagogues in Stockholm and in Tornedalen relate to creative activities

Vrdet av skapande i frskolan

En studie om pedagogers frhllande till skapande verksamhet i

Stockholm och i Tornedalen

Ida Maria Isaksdotter Westerberg

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate how preschool pedagogues in Stockholm and in Tornedalen speak about and relate to creative activities. By qualitative interviews in two geographically distant areas, one minority culture and one majority culture, I have collected information from six pedagogues, three in each area. Values in, and the significance of culture in creative activities have been the main focus. From this study I conclude that all pedagogues agreed upon the creative activity having an extensive role in the preschool work. The role of the individual pedagogue within the creative activity is multiple and dependent on where, when and how the activity is carried out. The focus in creative activities varied; while the pedagogues in Stockholm mostly spoke about creativity as a phenomenon of art, the pedagogues in Tornedalen spoke about creativity in a wider sense and often connected to practical problems. Another important factor relevant to creative activities was the environment like the preschool, the home, the nature and the society. The way the pedagogues used these environments differed remarkably; in Tornedalen they spoke more about the family and different professions in the society while the pedagogues in Stockholm spoke about the nature and exhibitions. My opinion, after this study, is that it is difficult to discriminate the creative activities from other preschool work, since creativity is permeated with playing and vice versa. Creativity is also a natural part of children exploring and if you like creative activities can permeate everything a pedagogue attends to.

Keywords

Creative activities / Preschool / Culture / Bourdieu / Sociology

Innehllsfrteckning

Inledning ................................................................................................... 5

Bakgrund ................................................................................................... 6

Tidigare forskning............................................................................................... 6

Vad r skapande verksamhet? ............................................................................. 7

Fantasi och kreativitet...................................................................................... 8

Pedagogens roll, material och milj ................................................................... 9

Reggio Emilia .................................................................................................10

Vad r kultur? ...................................................................................................11

Sociokulturellt lrande .......................................................................................12

Syfte................................................................................................................13

Frgestllningar .............................................................................................13

Teoretiskt perspektiv............................................................................... 14

Bourdieus sociologi ............................................................................................14

Metod ....................................................................................................... 17

Val av metod .................................................................................................17

Urval ............................................................................................................17

Genomfrande ...............................................................................................18

Databearbetning ............................................................................................19

Tillfrlitlighetsfrgor........................................................................................19

Etiska aspekter ..............................................................................................19

Resultat.................................................................................................... 21

Stockholm ........................................................................................................21

Barngrupperna...............................................................................................21

Skapande i styrdokument ................................................................................21

Pedagogiska frhllningsstt............................................................................22

Praktik ..........................................................................................................24

Utveckling av verksamhet ...............................................................................26

Tornedalen .......................................................................................................26

Barngrupperna...............................................................................................26

Skapande i styrdokument ................................................................................27

Pedagogiska frhllningsstt............................................................................27

Praktik ..........................................................................................................28

Utveckling av verksamheten ............................................................................30

Analys av resultat..............................................................................................31

Pedagogerna..................................................................................................31

4

Milj .............................................................................................................33

Barnen..........................................................................................................34

Sammanfattning................................................................................................35

Diskussion................................................................................................ 36

Resultatdiskussion .............................................................................................36

Vrdet av skapande verksamhet.......................................................................36

Kulturens betydelse fr skapande verksamhet....................................................37

Tanken med den skapande verksamheten .........................................................38

Metoddiskussion ................................................................................................39

Vidare forskning ................................................................................................40

Avslutande kommentarer ...................................................................................40

Referenslista............................................................................................ 41

Bilagor ..................................................................................................... 43

5

Inledning

Jag r nu inne p min sista termin p lrarutbildningen. Under min utbildning har jag lst inriktningen

praktisk-estetiska lroprocesser fr barn i yngre ldrar, vilken riktar in sig mot bild och sljd fr barn

i rskurs 0-3. Jag gr denna underskning av tv anledningar; fr det frsta har inriktningen ftt min

nyfikenhet p skapande verksamhet i frskolan att ka. Hsten 2007 flyttade jag till Stockholm och

det r hr, genom min utbildning, som jag har ftt den mesta kunskapen om lraryrket. Ursprungligen

dremot kommer jag frn Norrbotten. Mina rtter gr mig nyfiken p hur synen p den skapande

verksamheten norrver verensstmmer med den syn jag ftt frn min utbildning, och hur den i sin tur

stmmer verens med pedagogers syn p skapande verksamhet i Stockholm. Jag vill, genom att

underska skapande verksamhet i frskolan, gra en tvrkulturell studie mellan en minoritetskultur

och en majoritetskultur som geografiskt i Sverige r verksamma mer n hundra mil ifrn varandra.

Med majoritetskultur menar jag en kultur dr majoritetssprket r dominant och med minoritetskultur

menar jag en kultur dr det tillsammans med majoritetssprket ven talas ett minoritetssprk (De

nationella minoriteterna och kulturlivet, 2001 s.41 ff.). I den litteratur jag behandlat om skapande

verksamhet lyfts olika vrden fram som speciellt betydelsefulla fr barnens utveckling. Sociologen

Pierre Bourdieu talar om vrden som blir tillgngar i det kulturella och det sociala kapitalet.