UKM Quantitative and Qualitative Research Design

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<p>Quantitative and Qualitative Research DesignPrepared By: Dr. Nik Rahimah Yacob</p> <p>Positivist Paradigm</p> <p>Interpretivist Paradigm</p> <p>Quantitative Methods</p> <p>Qualitative Methods</p> <p>Verification</p> <p>Discovery</p> <p>The Research Process by Cavana et al. (2001)Catalyst for business research Management action Plan Implement Monitor Report preparation and presentation Interpretation of findings Data analysis Qualitative Quantitatve Data collection Qualitative Quantitative Problem definition Framework development Conceptual Theoretical Research objectives Research questions Hypotheses Research design Opportunity Problem Preliminary information gathering and literature survey</p> <p>Research Design by Cavana et al. (2001)Purpose of the study Types of investigation Clarification Causal Correlational Experimental Extent of Researcher Interference Minimal Manipulation Measurement and measures Operational definition Items (measure) Scaling Qualitative data collection Interviews Focus groups Observation</p> <p> Exploration Description Hypotheses testing Case Study</p> <p>Problem Statement</p> <p>Data analysis</p> <p>Unit of Analysis Individuals Dyads Groups Organisations Machines, etc.</p> <p>Study setting Contrived Noncontrived</p> <p>Time Horizon One-shot (crosssectional) Longitudinal</p> <p>Sampling design Probability/ nonprobability Sample size</p> <p>Quantitative data collection Questionnaires Experimental designs</p> <p>A Classification Of Research DataRESEARCH DATA</p> <p>SECONDARY DATA</p> <p>PRIMARY DATA</p> <p>QUALITATIVE DATA</p> <p>QUANTITATIVE DATA</p> <p>QUALITATIVE DATA</p> <p>QUANTITATIVE DATA</p> <p>DESCRIPTIVE</p> <p>CAUSAL</p> <p>SURVEY DATA</p> <p>OBSERVATIONAL &amp; OTHER DATA</p> <p>EXPERIMENTAL DATA</p> <p>A Classification of the Qualitative Research MethodsQUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROCEDURES DIRECT (NONDISGUISED) INDIRECT (DISGUISED)</p> <p>CASE STUDY</p> <p>SECONDARY DATA</p> <p>FOCUS GROUPS</p> <p>DEPTH INTERV</p> <p>PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES</p> <p>ASSOCIATION TECHNIQUES</p> <p>COMPLETION TECHNIQUES</p> <p>CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES</p> <p>EXPRESSIVE TECHNIQUES</p> <p>Quantitative Research Approaches/Methods</p> <p>A Classification Of Survey MethodsSURVEY METHODS</p> <p>TELEPHONE</p> <p>PERSONAL</p> <p>MAIL</p> <p>IN-HOME</p> <p>MALL INTERCEPT</p> <p>COMP-ASSISTED PERSONAL INTERVIEWING</p> <p>TRADITIONAL TELEPHONE</p> <p>COMPUTER-ASSISTED TELEPHONE INTERVIEWING</p> <p>MAIL INTERVIEW</p> <p>MAIL PANEL</p> <p>A Classification Of Observation MethodsOBSERVATION METHODS</p> <p>PERSONAL OBSERVATIO N</p> <p>MECHANICAL OBSERVATIO N</p> <p>AUDIT</p> <p>CONTENT ANALYSIS</p> <p>TRACE ANALYSIS</p> <p>A Classification Of Experimental DesignsEXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS</p> <p>PREEXPERIMENTAL One-Shot Case Study One Group PretestPosttest Static Group</p> <p>TRUE EXPERIMENTAL Pretest-Posttest Control Group Posttest Only Control Group Solomon Four Group</p> <p>QUASI EXPERIMENTAL Time Series Multiple Time Series</p> <p>STATISTICAL Randomized Blocks Latin Square Factorial Design</p> <p>Qualitative Research Approaches/Methods</p> <p>The continuum model for interviewsStructured interviews Semi-structured interviews Unstructured interviews</p> <p> Standardised interviews * Survey interviews</p> <p>* In-depth interviews * Survey interviews * Group interviews</p> <p>* In-depth interviews * Group interviews Oral or life-history interviews</p> <p>The Pattern of an Interview(Source: Delahaye (2000:166))Level of defence barriers</p> <p>Ritual Pass time Reason Rules Preview Activity no.1 Final questions Future action</p> <p>Ritual Pass time</p> <p>Activity no. 2 a series of question sequences Intimacy Entrance time investment Exit time investment Rapport zone</p> <p>Time elapsed</p> <p>Focus GroupsDepth interviewing of a group of 5 to 12 people; researcher serves as a moderator Logistics Group Composition Homogeneity Representation Strangers vs acquaintances Size of group</p> <p>Case StudyBy understanding a single system a researcher can better understand similar instances and address the problems and issues identified in one case. As bounded systems of time and space (context), cases rely on multiple sources of information to provide an in-depth picture of an organisation or situation (phenomenon) under study. Via observation, interviews, documents, or surveys.</p> <p>Survey Methods</p> <p>Survey as a Research Approach It is a quantitative method Capitalizes on the communication approach (respondents are required to communicate their responses to the researcher through a structured or unstructured questionnaire) Involves the creation and selection of the measurement questions Sampling issues which drive contact and call-back procedures Instrument design which incorporates attempts to reduce error and create respondent-screening procedures Data collection processes which create the need for follow-up procedures and possible interviewer training</p> <p>A Classification of Survey MethodsSurvey Methods</p> <p>Crosssectional design</p> <p>Longitudinal design</p> <p>On Sampling.. Capitalizes on a relatively large sample size The sample can either be drawn on a probability sampling procedure or a nonprobability sampling procedure, depending on the purpose of the study</p> <p>On Instrument Design. The instrument for a survey is a questionnaire. The questionnaire can either be highly structured (close-ended questions) or highly unstructured (open-ended questions) The norm is to utilize a structured questionnaire for ease of data coding and analysis. The questionnaire design has to take into consideration the data collection method (personal interview, telephone interview, mail survey, Internet survey, mall intercept or selfadministered)</p> <p>Data Collection MethodSURVEY METHODS</p> <p>TELEPHONE</p> <p>PERSONAL</p> <p>MAIL</p> <p>IN-HOME</p> <p>MALL INTERCEPT</p> <p>COMP-ASSISTED PERSONAL INTERVIEWING</p> <p>TRADITIONAL TELEPHONE</p> <p>COMPUTER-ASSISTED TELEPHONE INTERVIEWING</p> <p>MAIL INTERVIEW</p> <p>MAIL PANEL</p> <p>Examine the pros and cons of each method prior to selecting a particular method for your study.</p> <p>Observation Methods</p> <p>Observation as a Research Approach It can either be a quantitative method or a qualitative method depending on whether the purpose of your study is to verify or to discover Capitalizes on visual data collection. It also involves listening, reading, smelling and touching Monitors a full range of behavioural (nonverbal, lingusitic, extralinguistic and spatial analysis) and nonbehavioural (record, physical condition and physical process analysis) activities and conditions Sampling issues Instrument design Data collection process</p> <p>A Classification of the Observation MethodsObservation methods</p> <p>Direct observation</p> <p>Indirect observation</p> <p>On Sampling.. Capitalizes on a relatively large sample size for a quantitative study and a small sample size for a qualitative study The sample can either be drawn on a probability sampling procedure or a nonprobability sampling procedure for a quantitative study The sample is almost always drawn on a nonprobability sampling procedure for a qualitative study</p> <p>On Instrument Design. The instrument for an observation study is known as an observation checklist or an observation form The observation checklist or form can either be highly structured (clear indications of what to observe and how to tally the observation) or highly unstructured (vague ideas on the scope of observation and what to observe) Observation checklist or form for quantitative research would tend to be more structured than that of a qualitative research The observation checklist or form has to take into consideration the data collection method (personal observation, mechanical observation, audit, content analysis or trace analysis)</p> <p>Data Collection Methods for Observation StudiesOBSERVATION METHODS</p> <p>PERSONAL OBSERVATIO N</p> <p>MECHANICAL OBSERVATIO N</p> <p>AUDIT</p> <p>CONTENT ANALYSIS</p> <p>TRACE ANALYSIS</p> <p>Examine the pros and cons of each method before selecting a particular method for your study</p> <p>Experimentation</p> <p>Ex post facto research designs, where a researcher interviews respondents or observes what is or what has been, also have the potential for discovering causality. The distinction between these methods and experimentation is that the researcher is required to accept the world as it is found, whereas an experiment allows the researcher to alter systematically the variables of interest and observe what changes follow.Source: Cooper &amp; Schindler (2003, pp.424-425)</p> <p>Beaumind Soft sdn bhd</p> <p>What is experimentation? Involves at least one independent variable (IV) and one dependent variable (DV) in a causal relationship. The IV constitutes the intervention or manipulation and its effect on the DV is measured. Three requirements for drawing a causal conclusion are: Concomittant variation Time occurrence of variables Control over extraneous factors</p> <p>Beaumind Soft sdn bhd</p> <p>Advantages &amp; Disadvantages of ExperimentationADVANTAGES: Ability to manipulate the IV Increases the probability that changes in the DV are a function of the changes in the IV Use of control group strengthens the causality finding Convenient and cost effective Ease of replication DISADVANTAGES: Artificiality of the setting Generalizability of the study findings For some experiments, they can be costly Limited to issues of present and immediate future not past Due to ethical considerations, there is a limitation on manipulation on people</p> <p>Beaumind Soft sdn bhd</p> <p>IV and Experimental Treatments Experimental treatments are the various levels in the manipulation of the IV Normally, one level of the IV constitutes the control For the following RQ of an experiment: Does the new ad generate more sales than the existing ad? IV = Advertisement DV = Sales Levels of IV = Treatments = 1. New ad (experimental treatment) 2. Existing ad (control)</p> <p>Beaumind Soft sdn bhd</p> <p>Sampling and Randomization With two treatments in the experiment, there must be two experimental groups Randomization can happen at three stages: Stage 1 - Sample selection Stage 2 Group division Stage 3 - Assignment of treatment to group Stage 1 randomization is not as important as the other stages. Stage 2 randomization is important to equate the characteristics of the two groups. When this is not possible then use a matching technique. Stage 3 randomization defines the experimental method. Without this randomization the experimental design is flawed.</p> <p>Beaumind Soft sdn bhd</p> <p>Experimental Research Designs Pre-Experimental Designs One-Shot Case Study One-Group Pretest-Post-Test Static Group Comparison O2 True Experimental Designs Pretest-Post-Test Control Group R O1 X R O3 Post-Test-Only Control Group R R X O1 O2Beaumind Soft sdn bhd</p> <p>O X</p> <p>X X O1</p> <p>O O</p> <p>O2 O4</p> <p>Internal Validity of Experiments Maturation Testing Instrumentation Selection Statistical regression Experiment mortality</p> <p>Beaumind Soft sdn bhd</p> <p>Depth Interview</p> <p>Accuracy and Replicability1. Trustworthiness 2. Verification 3. Acknowledging subjectivity and bias 4. Process and sequence 5. Interpretation 6. Referential adequacy 7. Paint the path</p> <p>Field Interview TechniquesIt takes two people to speak the truth-one to speak, and the other to listen (Henry Thoreau 1849) Interviewing in the field requires a researcher to develop a rapport with interviewees or informants. Researchers often apprehensive about engaging strangers in conversation. The objective is to keep the informant talking .</p> <p>Field Interviews Building Rapport / RelationshipsGain confidence through purposeful conversation. By explaining what you want to know. Repeating key phrases used by interviewee. Restating what they say in your own words. Dont have questions asking for meanings or motives: what do you mean? or why would you?These contain hidden judgments, interviewees may think they have not clearly explained things or answered your questions!</p> <p>Improving Interviewee Responses The basic probe: repeat the initial question, is useful when interviewee wanders off track. Explanatory probe: building onto incomplete or vague statements; asks: what did you mean by that? Focused probe: to obtain specific information; asks: what sort of X? The silent probe: pause and let interviewee break silence drawing out: when interviewee has halted or slows simply repeat the last few words from the interviewee then look expectant or say tell me more Giving ideas or suggestions: offering an idea or suggestion to think about; have you thought about? Did you know? Mirroring or reflection: express in your (interviewer) own words what interviewee just said; what you seem to be saying is X?</p> <p>Focus Group Method</p> <p>Design Issues Logistics Group Composition Homogeneity Representation Strangers vs acquaintances Size of group</p> <p>Conducting the Focus Group1. Use pattern of interview as guide 2. Specific considerations Facilitator team Recording Use of visual aids Thinking time Group dynamics</p> <p>Procedure for Planning and Conducting Focus GroupsDetermine the objectives of the Marketing Research Project and Define the Problem Specify the objectives of Qualitative Research State the objectives/questions to be answered by Focus Group Write a Focus Group Protocol Develop a moderators outline Conduct the Focus Group interviews Review tapes and analyze the data Summarize the findings and plan follow-up research or action</p> <p>Case Study Method</p> <p>Case studies Case studies can be single or multiple Within case analysis or across cases analysis Case studies are: where a researcher explores a single entity or phenomenon (the case) bounded by time and activity (a program, event, institution, process or group) and collects detailed information by using a variety of data collection procedures (Yin 2001).</p> <p>Selecting a Research MethodResearch Strategy Type of research Question HOW , WHY WHO, WHAT, WHERE, HOW MANY, HOW MUCH WHO, WHAT WHERE, HOW MANY, HOW MUCH HOW, WHY HOW, WHY Requires Control over Events YES NO Focus on Contemporary Events YES YES</p> <p>Experiment Survey</p> <p>Archival Analysis</p> <p>NO</p> <p>YES/NO</p> <p>History Case Study</p> <p>NO NO</p> <p>NO YES</p> <p>Source: Yin (1989:17)</p> <p>Case Study for four design tactics.Tests Construct Validity Case Study Tactic Use multiple sources of evidence. Establish chain of evidence. Have key informants review draft report. Do pattern matching Do explanation building Do time-series analysis Use replication logic in multiple case studies Use case study Protocol Develop case study data base Phase of Research Data collection Data collection Composition Data analysis Data analysis Data analysis Research design Data collection Data collection</p> <p>Internal Validity</p> <p>External validity Reliability</p> <p>Source: Yin(1989:p41)</p> <p>Case study protocol componentsCase Study Protocol Components Overview Component Requirements Objectives &amp; Auspices Study Issues Relevant Readings Credentials Access to Site General sour es of Information c Procedural Reminders Specific Questions Potential sources for Answers Outline Format Additional Documentation</p> <p>Field Procedures</p> <p>Case Study Instrument Questions Case Report Guide</p> <p>Source: Yin(1989:p70)</p> <p>Quality Case Study Designs (design &amp; collection issues)Construct Validit...</p>


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