UKM Quantitative and Qualitative Research Design

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Quantitative and Qualitative Research DesignPrepared By: Dr. Nik Rahimah Yacob

Positivist Paradigm

Interpretivist Paradigm

Quantitative Methods

Qualitative Methods

Verification

Discovery

The Research Process by Cavana et al. (2001)Catalyst for business research Management action Plan Implement Monitor Report preparation and presentation Interpretation of findings Data analysis Qualitative Quantitatve Data collection Qualitative Quantitative Problem definition Framework development Conceptual Theoretical Research objectives Research questions Hypotheses Research design Opportunity Problem Preliminary information gathering and literature survey

Research Design by Cavana et al. (2001)Purpose of the study Types of investigation Clarification Causal Correlational Experimental Extent of Researcher Interference Minimal Manipulation Measurement and measures Operational definition Items (measure) Scaling Qualitative data collection Interviews Focus groups Observation

Exploration Description Hypotheses testing Case Study

Problem Statement

Data analysis

Unit of Analysis Individuals Dyads Groups Organisations Machines, etc.

Study setting Contrived Noncontrived

Time Horizon One-shot (crosssectional) Longitudinal

Sampling design Probability/ nonprobability Sample size

Quantitative data collection Questionnaires Experimental designs

A Classification Of Research DataRESEARCH DATA

SECONDARY DATA

PRIMARY DATA

QUALITATIVE DATA

QUANTITATIVE DATA

QUALITATIVE DATA

QUANTITATIVE DATA

DESCRIPTIVE

CAUSAL

SURVEY DATA

OBSERVATIONAL & OTHER DATA

EXPERIMENTAL DATA

A Classification of the Qualitative Research MethodsQUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROCEDURES DIRECT (NONDISGUISED) INDIRECT (DISGUISED)

CASE STUDY

SECONDARY DATA

FOCUS GROUPS

DEPTH INTERV

PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES

ASSOCIATION TECHNIQUES

COMPLETION TECHNIQUES

CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES

EXPRESSIVE TECHNIQUES

Quantitative Research Approaches/Methods

A Classification Of Survey MethodsSURVEY METHODS

TELEPHONE

PERSONAL

MAIL

IN-HOME

MALL INTERCEPT

COMP-ASSISTED PERSONAL INTERVIEWING

TRADITIONAL TELEPHONE

COMPUTER-ASSISTED TELEPHONE INTERVIEWING

MAIL INTERVIEW

MAIL PANEL

A Classification Of Observation MethodsOBSERVATION METHODS

PERSONAL OBSERVATIO N

MECHANICAL OBSERVATIO N

AUDIT

CONTENT ANALYSIS

TRACE ANALYSIS

A Classification Of Experimental DesignsEXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS

PREEXPERIMENTAL One-Shot Case Study One Group PretestPosttest Static Group

TRUE EXPERIMENTAL Pretest-Posttest Control Group Posttest Only Control Group Solomon Four Group

QUASI EXPERIMENTAL Time Series Multiple Time Series

STATISTICAL Randomized Blocks Latin Square Factorial Design

Qualitative Research Approaches/Methods

The continuum model for interviewsStructured interviews Semi-structured interviews Unstructured interviews

Standardised interviews * Survey interviews

* In-depth interviews * Survey interviews * Group interviews

* In-depth interviews * Group interviews Oral or life-history interviews

The Pattern of an Interview(Source: Delahaye (2000:166))Level of defence barriers

Ritual Pass time Reason Rules Preview Activity no.1 Final questions Future action

Ritual Pass time

Activity no. 2 a series of question sequences Intimacy Entrance time investment Exit time investment Rapport zone

Time elapsed

Focus GroupsDepth interviewing of a group of 5 to 12 people; researcher serves as a moderator Logistics Group Composition Homogeneity Representation Strangers vs acquaintances Size of group

Case StudyBy understanding a single system a researcher can better understand similar instances and address the problems and issues identified in one case. As bounded systems of time and space (context), cases rely on multiple sources of information to provide an in-depth picture of an organisation or situation (phenomenon) under study. Via observation, interviews, documents, or surveys.

Survey Methods

Survey as a Research Approach It is a quantitative method Capitalizes on the communication approach (respondents are required to communicate their responses to the researcher through a structured or unstructured questionnaire) Involves the creation and selection of the measurement questions Sampling issues which drive contact and call-back procedures Instrument design which incorporates attempts to reduce error and create respondent-screening procedures Data collection processes which create the need for follow-up procedures and possible interviewer training

A Classification of Survey MethodsSurvey Methods

Crosssectional design

Longitudinal design

On Sampling.. Capitalizes on a relatively large sample size The sample can either be drawn on a probability sampling procedure or a nonprobability sampling procedure, depending on the purpose of the study

On Instrument Design. The instrument for a survey is a questionnaire. The questionnaire can either be highly structured (close-ended questions) or highly unstructured (open-ended questions) The norm is to utilize a structured questionnaire for ease of data coding and analysis. The questionnaire design has to take into consideration the data collection method (personal interview, telephone interview, mail survey, Internet survey, mall intercept or selfadministered)

Data Collection MethodSURVEY METHODS

TELEPHONE

PERSONAL

MAIL

IN-HOME

MALL INTERCEPT

COMP-ASSISTED PERSONAL INTERVIEWING

TRADITIONAL TELEPHONE

COMPUTER-ASSISTED TELEPHONE INTERVIEWING

MAIL INTERVIEW

MAIL PANEL

Examine the pros and cons of each method prior to selecting a particular method for your study.

Observation Methods

Observation as a Research Approach It can either be a quantitative method or a qualitative method depending on whether the purpose of your study is to verify or to discover Capitalizes on visual data collection. It also involves listening, reading, smelling and touching Monitors a full range of behavioural (nonverbal, lingusitic, extralinguistic and spatial analysis) and nonbehavioural (record, physical condition and physical process analysis) activities and conditions Sampling issues Instrument design Data collection process

A Classification of the Observation MethodsObservation methods

Direct observation

Indirect observation

On Sampling.. Capitalizes on a relatively large sample size for a quantitative study and a small sample size for a qualitative study The sample can either be drawn on a probability sampling procedure or a nonprobability sampling procedure for a quantitative study The sample is almost always drawn on a nonprobability sampling procedure for a qualitative study

On Instrument Design. The instrument for an observation study is known as an observation checklist or an observation form The observation checklist or form can either be highly structured (clear indications of what to observe and how to tally the observation) or highly unstructured (vague ideas on the scope of observation and what to observe) Observation checklist or form for quantitative research would tend to be more structured than that of a qualitative research The observation checklist or form has to take into consideration the data collection method (personal observation, mechanical observation, audit, content analysis or trace analysis)

Data Collection Methods for Observation StudiesOBSERVATION METHODS

PERSONAL OBSERVATIO N

MECHANICAL OBSERVATIO N

AUDIT

CONTENT ANALYSIS

TRACE ANALYSIS

Examine the pros and cons of each method before selecting a particular method for your study

Experimentation

Ex post facto research designs, where a researcher interviews respondents or observes what is or what has been, also have the potential for discovering causality. The distinction between these methods and experimentation is that the researcher is required to accept the world as it is found, whereas an experiment allows the researcher to alter systematically the variables of interest and observe what changes follow.Source: Cooper & Schindler (2003, pp.424-425)

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What is experimentation? Involves at least one independent variable (IV) and one dependent variable (DV) in a causal relationship. The IV constitutes the intervention or manipulation and its effect on the DV is measured. Three requirements for drawing a causal conclusion are: Concomittant variation Time occurrence of variables Control over extraneous factors

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Advantages & Disadvantages of ExperimentationADVANTAGES: Ability to manipulate the IV Increases the probability that changes in the DV are a function of the changes in the IV Use of control group strengthens the causality finding Convenient and cost effective Ease of replication DISADVANTAGES: Artificiality of the setting Generalizability of the study findings For some experiments, they can be costly Limited to issues of present and immediate future not past Due to ethical considerations, there is a limitation on manipulation on people

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IV and Experimental Treatments Experimental treatments are the various levels in the manipulation of the IV Normally, one level of the IV constitutes the control For the fol