Tuberculosis (T.B.). Randy Kim. What is TB?. Tuberculosis is pneumonia primarily in the lungs. Caused by a bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis . TB can attack any part of the body including the brain, Kidneys, and Spine. If not treated, Tuberculosis can kill. Symptoms. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Randy KimTuberculosis (T.B.)Tuberculosis is pneumonia primarily in the lungs.Caused by a bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis.TB can attack any part of the body including the brain, Kidneys, and Spine.If not treated, Tuberculosis can kill.What is TB?
TB can remain in an inactive (dormant) state for years without causing symptoms or spreading to other people.Patients with TB may have symptoms such as:- a bad cough that lasts 3 weeks or longer- pain in the chest- coughing up blood or sputum- weakness or fatigue- weight loss- no appetite- chills- fever- sweating at nightSymptoms
TB is spread through the air from one person to another. The TB bacteria are put into the air when a person with active TB disease of the lungs or throat coughs, sneezes, speaks, or sings. People nearby may breathe in these bacteria and become infected.Major misconceptions: shaking someones handsharing food or drinktouching bed linens or toilet seatssharing toothbrusheskissing
How Does TB spread?
Latent TB Infection- most people who breathe in TB bacteria and become infected, the body is able to fight the bacteria to stop them from growing. People with latent TB infection do not feel sick and do not have any symptoms. Only way to prove is tuberculin skin test and special TB blood test.TB Disease- TB bacteria become active and the immune system can't stop them from growing. Can spread the DiseaseHigher chances of TB disease occur when:people who live with individuals who have an active TB infection,poor or homeless people,foreign-born people from countries that have a high prevalence of TB,nursing-home residents and prison inmates,Alcoholics and intravenousdrug users,people withdiabetes, certain cancers, and HIV infection (theAIDS virus),health-care workers.
Latent TB Infection (TBIF) and TB Disease
Latent TB: The medicine usually taken for the treatment of latent TB infection is called isoniazid (INH). INH for 9 months is the preferred regimen. INH kills the TB bacteria that are in the body. Children and people with HIV infection may need to take INH for a longer time. TB Disease: TB disease can be treated by taking several drugs for 6 to 12 months. It is very important that people who have TB disease finish the medicine, and take the drugs exactly as prescribed. If they stop taking the drugs too soon, they can become sick again; if they do not take the drugs correctly, the germs that are still alive may become resistant to those drugs. TB that is resistant to drugs is harder and more expensive to treat. isoniazid (INH)rifampin (RIF)ethambutol (EMB)pyrazinamide (PZA)
TreatmentBCG, or bacille Calmette-Gurin, is a vaccine for TB disease. This vaccine is not widely used in the United States, but it is often given to infants and small children in other countries where TB is common. BCG vaccine does not always protect people from getting TB.VaccinationOne third of the worlds population are infected with TB.In 2010, nearly 9 million people around the world became sick with TB.And, there were around 1.4 million TB-related deaths worldwide.TB is a leading killer of people who are HIV infected.A total of 11,182 TB cases (a rate of 3.6 cases per 100,000 persons) were reported in the United States in 2010. Both the number of TB cases reported and the case rate decreased; this represents a 3.1% and 3.8% decline, respectively, compared to 2009.
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