THE INFLUENCE OF TURTLE ISLANDIN TANJUNG BENOA BALI ON TURTLE POPULATIONIN THE WORLDScholarly Paper Submitted to fulfill task of scholarly paper writingin SMA Negeri 1 Sumedang school year 2014/2015
Written by:TENDI NUGERAHA WIJAYAXII IPA 1121310308
SEKOLAH MENENGAH ATAS NEGERI 1 SUMEDANGJalan Prabu Geusan Ulun no. 38 Sumedang2014APPROVAL PAGETHE INFLUENCE OF TURTLE ISLANDIN TANJUNG BENOA BALI ON TURTLE POPULATIONIN THE WORLDApproved By:First Adviser,
Hj. Lin Gustini, S.Pd.NIP 19650803 198703 2 007Second Adviser,
Acih Mintarsih, S.Pd., M.MPd.NIP 19641230 198703 2 003
Drs. Yosep Raharja, M.MPd.NIP 19621126 198703 1 011Homeroom Teacher,
Dede Juangsih, S.Pd.19630727 198703 2 005
This paper is dedicated to my parents and my sister.For their endless love, support, and encouragement.
A fear will only make you weak and lose confidence. Ignore the fear and proceed your step.
PREFACEFirstly, lets praise and gratitude to God that has given an abundance of grace and help, so that the writer can finish writing this paper well. This paper is done in order to fulfill the final task of natural science program in SMA Negeri 1 Sumedang. Various challenge and problems have been experienced by the author on writing this paper. But because of the help, guidance, and motivation from the various side, the writing of this paper can be completed well. Therefore, the author would like to thank to:1. Mr. Drs. Yosep Raharja, M.MPd as The Principal of SMA Negeri 1 Sumedang 2. Mrs. Hj. Lin Gustini, S.Pd. as the material adviser who has guided the writer in writing the paper.3. Mrs. Acih Mintarsih, S.Pd., M.MPd. as the technical adviser who has helped me in correcting the English translation in this paper.4. Mrs. Dede Juangsih, S.Pd. as the homeroom teacher who has given the spirit to her students to finish the paper well.5. My beloved parents and grandmother who always motivate, pray and support me in study.6. My sister, who always helped and guided me in writing this paper.7. My dearest deceased mother who always exists in my heat and become a reason for the writer in reaching dreams. 8. All of my friends who have become my second family who always asked my paper progress and it made the writer motivated to finish the paper well.In the end, the writer wishes that Allah SWT pleased to reply all the people goodness who have helped in writing this paper. Hopefully, this paper will give the good advantage to the readers.
Sumedang, September 2014
LIST OF CONTENTSCOVER PAGEiAPPROVAL PAGEiiDEDICATION PAGEiiiPREFACEivLIST OF CONTENTSviLIST OF IMAGESviiiLIST OF TABLESixCHAPTER I INTRODUCTION11.1.Background11.2.Problem Formulation21.3.Research Purpose21.4.Time and Place of Research31.5.Methods and Technique of Research31.5.1.Methods of Research31.5.2.Technique of Research31.6.The Systematics Writing4CHAPTER II ITERATURE REVIEW52.1.Turtle52.2.Turtle Breeding102.3.Turtle Island Tanjung Benoa Bali122.3.1.Tanjung Benoa122.3.2.Turtle Island As The Recreation Place122.3.3.Turtle Island As The Breeding Place13CHAPTER III PROBLEM DISSCUSSION143.1.Current Turtle Population143.1.1.Worlds Most Threatened Turtle Population153.1.2.Worlds Most Healthiest Turtle Population163.2.Threats on Turtle183.3.The Influence of Turtle Island on Turtle Population253.3.1.The Positive Impact253.3.2.The Negative Impact273.4.The Benefits of Turtle283.5.The Way To Preserve The Turtle Population30CHAPTER IV CLOSING314.1.Conclusion314.2.Suggestion32BIBLIOGRAPHYxBIOGRAPHYxi
LIST OF IMAGESImage 2. 1 Green Turtle5Image 2. 2 Hawksbill Turtle6Image 2. 3 Kemp's Ridley Turtle7Image 2. 4 Olive Ridley Turtle8Image 2. 5 Leatherback Turtle9Image 2. 6 Flatback Turtle10Image 2. 7 Loggerhead Turtle11
LIST OF TABLESTable 2. 1 Scientific Classification of Green Turtle5Table 2. 2 Scientific Classification of Hawksbill Turtle6Table 2. 3 Scientific Classification of Kemps Ridley7Table 2. 4 Scientific Classification of Olive Ridley Turtle8Table 2. 5 Scientific Classification of Leatherback Turtle9Table 2. 6 Scientific Classification of Flatback Turtle9Table 2. 7 Scientific Classification of Loggerhead Turtle10Table 3. 1 Worlds Most Threatened Turtle Population15Table 3. 2 Worlds Most Healthiest Turtle Population..17
CHAPTER IINTRODUCTION1.1. BackgroundIt has been known for a long time, Bali is famous for its natural beauty and the culture which make Bali become an interesting tourism object for domestic and foreign tourists. The tourists who come to Bali are very fond of the presence of the tourism objects which are beautiful and clean. There are cultural tourism object such as Garuda Wisnu Kencana and Bajra Sandhi Monument and natural tourism objects as Kuta Beach, Tanah Lot, Bedugul Lake and Tanjung Benoa. In Tanjung Benoa is available a transportation to Turtle Island, that is a live place for turtle and other animals. Turtle Island has a clean beach, sandy and ramps beach and also has an intact ecological system that makes it suitable as a place for turtle to live.The existence of Turtle Island is not only as an interesting tourism object, but also as turtle breeding for protected animals. Turtle is a marine animal which is currently the world's turtle populations which are in a worrying state. As the species which has vulnerable life circle naturally, the continuity of turtle populations is getting threatened because of increasing human activity. These activities include turtle habitat destruction and illegal trade of turtle meat by people who are not responsible.From seven species of sea turtles in the world, the number of leatherback turtles decreased from approximately 115,000 adult female turtles to less than 3,000. Leatherback turtles has decreased 97% in the last 22 years. According to The World Conversation Union (IUCN), an endangered species of sea turtle is the Kemp's Ridley and hawksbill. Both of them entered into the red list of endangered species. In addition, four other turtle species are also at risk of extinction, although it is not in a short time.Based on the problems above, this research is given the title "THE INFLUENCE OF TURTLE ISLAND IN TANJUNG BENOA BALI ON TURTLE POPULATIONS IN THE WORLD".1.2. Problem FormulationBased on the background that have been presented, the problems formulation in a scientific paper is as follows1. How is the condition of Turtle Island as tourist spot and turtle breeding?2. How is the influence of Turtle Island on turtle population in the world?3. How to conserve sea turtles in the world?1.3. Research PurposeThis paper is organized with the following purposes1. To determine the situation of Turtle Island Tanjung Benoa Bali as a tourism place and a turtle breeding.2. To determine the effect of Turtle Island Tanjung Benoa Bali on turtle populations in the world.3. To know the way to preserve the turtles in the world.1.4. Time and Place of ResearchThe research was conducted by the author at the time of following the activity of Study Tour Sumedang Bali on 19 26 June 2014 in several tourism objects in Bali. In addition, the author also conducted research through other sources that have relevance to the research by the author after the activity of Study Tour is completed.1.5. Methods and Technique of Research1.5.1. Methods of ResearchIn organizing this scientific paper, the author used descriptive research method.1.5.2. Technique of Research1. Literature StudyThis method is done by collecting data from a variety of relevant sources such as books and internet, browsing articles related to the discussion of the problem.2. InterviewThis method is done by directly asking the respondent and aims to obtain information related to the discussion of the problem.1.6. The Systematics Writing This scientific paper entitled "The Influence of Turtle Island in Tanjung Benoa Bali on Turtle Population in The World" which consists of 1. CHAPTER I Introduction, discusses the basic things in this paper, which consists of: background, problem formulation, the purpose of research, time and place of the research, methods and techniques of research and systematic writing. 2. CHAPTER II Literature Review, discusses the basic theories, which describes a study on the condition of Turtle Island Tanjung Benoa Bali as a tourist spot and a turtle breeding. 3. CHAPTER III Problem Study, contains discussion of the data obtained by literature study and interviews. The data is about the influence of Turtle Island Tanjung Benoa Bali on turtle population in the world and ways to conserve sea turtles.4. CHAPTER IV Closing, the last part of this paper, which contains conclusions and suggestions from the author.
CHAPTER IILITERATURE REVIEW2.1. TurtleTurtle is one of the most ancient creatures on earth. Seven species that can be found until now have been existed for 110 million years ago, since the time of dinosaurs. Turtle shell or carapace is efficient to swim in the water. Unlike tortoises, turtles cant retract their legs and head into their shell. Their color is varies between yellow, green and black depend on the species. The seven species of turtles that will be described below:1. Green TurtleThe green sea turtle is a large sea turtle of the family Cheloniidae. It is the only species in the genus Chelonia. Its range extends throughout tropical and subtropical seas around the world, with two distinct populations in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The common name comes from the usually green fat found beneath its carapace. Unlike other members of its family, such as the hawksbill sea turtle, C. mydas is mostly herbivorous. The adults usually inhabit shallow lagoons, feeding mostly on various species of seagrasses.Table 2. 1 Scientific Classification of Green TurtleImage 2. 1 Green TurtleKingdom Animalia
2. Hawksbill TurtleThis turtle has a flat body shape, with a carapace as protector, and fins like arm is adapted to swim in the ocean. Hawksbill shell can change color, according to the water temperature. Although these turtles spent half of his life in the ocean, sometimes they also come to the shallow lagoons and coral reefs.This species has spread throughout the world, with two subspecies found in the Atlantic and Pacific. E. imbricata imbricata is the Atlantic subspecies, while E. imbricata bissa is a subspecies in the Indo-Pacific region.The food of Hawksbill turtle specialize on certain prey, such as sea sponges which are the main food of Hawksbill. Beside sponges, hawksbill also feeds on algae and cnidarians, comb jellyfish, jellyfish and other sea anemones.Table 2. 2 Scientific Classification of Hawksbill TurtleImage 2. 2 Hawksbill TurtleKingdom Animalia
3. Kemps Ridley TurtleKemp's ridley is a small sea turtle species, reaching maturity at 6090 cm (2435 in) long and averaging only 45 kg (99 lb). Typical of sea turtles, it has a dorsoventrally depressed body with specially adapted flipper-like front limbs and a beak. The Kemp's ridley turtle is the smallest of the sea turtles, with adults reaching about 2 feet in length and weighing up to 100 pounds. The adult Kemp's ridley has an oval carapace that is almost as wide as it is long and is usually olive-gray in color. The carapace has five pairs of costal scutes. In each bridge adjoining the plastron to the carapace, there are four inframarginal scutes, each of which is perforated by a pore. The head has two pairs of prefrontal scales.Hatchlings are black on both sides. The Kemp's ridley has a triangular-shaped head with a somewhat hooked beak with large crushing surfaces. This turtle is a shallow water benthic feeder with a diet consisting primarily of crabs.Table 2. 3 Scientific Classification of Kemps RidleyImage 2. 3 Kemp's Ridley TurtleKingdom Animalia
4. Olive Ridley TurtleOlive ridley turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) are the smallest marine turtle, living in warm waters close to shore as adults. Olive ridley turtles live in warm waters in the region of the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic. Female olive ridleys take part in mass nestings that can involve 150,000 individual turtles crawling up a beach at night to find a spot for their clutch of around 100 eggs.In some places in India and Mexico this turtle came in thousands to spawn together on the beach, which is called as "arribadas".Table 2. 4 Scientific Classification of Olive Ridley TurtleImage 2. 4 Olive Ridley TurtleKingdom Animalia
5. Leatherback TurtleLeatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) is the largest turtle in the world and the fourth largest reptile in the world after three types of crocodiles. Even though the way of walking is slow, but when swim the turtle is the fastest reptile in the world at speeds up to 35 Km per hour. This species can be easily identified from its carapace that is shaped like the lines on the star fruit. Carapace is not covered by bone, but only covered by skin and oily flesh. Leatherbacks are the only family members of Dermochelyidae who are still alive. Most of the leatherback turtle is carnivores, especially in the adult phase of their life cycle. The prey is consists of proto chordates or invertebrates, which can be caught in shallow marine or estuarine habitats. Leatherback turtles also prey on jellyfish, tunicates, sea urchins, bryozoans, bivalves, snails, shrimp, crab, rock lobster, and sipunculid worms. Besides the jellyfish, leatherback turtles also eat other soft-bodied organisms, such as tunicates and squid.Table 2. 5 Scientific Classification of Leatherback TurtleImage 2. 5 Leatherback TurtleKingdom Animalia
6. Flatback TurtleAdult flatback turtles have a low-domed carapace, with upturned edges, which is approximately 90-95cm long. The carapace is olive to grey coloured and the plastron is cream coloured. Flatback hatchlings have grey carapaces with the scutes distinctively outlined in black. The plastron and the edges of the carapace are white.Flatback turtles are usually found in bays, shallow, grassy waters, coral reefs, estuaries, and lagoons on the northern coast of Australia and off the coast of Papua New Guinea. It eats a variety of organisms such as seaweeds, marine invertebrates, including mollusks, jellyfish, shrimp and fish. Flatback also consume soft corals, sea cucumbers and other soft-bodied creatures.Table 2. 6 Scientific Classification of Flatback TurtleImage 2. 6 Flatback TurtleKingdom Animalia
7. Loggerhead TurtleCompared with other turtle, loggerhead turtle has a large head and powerful jaws. This is allow to destroy crabs, lobsters, and other hard-bodied prey. In the waters off, they usually float on the surface. They stand near the base in estuaries and bays, and only up to the surface to breathe. Loggerhead turtles breed only every 2 years or longer, and spawn up to 5 times, each time about 100 grains. Loggerhead sea turtle is omnivorous, feeding mainly on bottom living invertebrates, such as gastropods, bivalves, and decapods. Table 2. 7 Scientific Classification of Loggerhead TurtleImage 2. 7 Loggerhead TurtleKingdom Animalia
2.2. Turtle BreedingTurtle breeding need approximately 15 50 years to be able to mate. During the mating period, the male turtle attract female by rubbing their head or biting females neck. The male then hooked his body to the back of the females shell. Then he folded the long tail under the females shell. Some males can compete to grab the attention of the female.When the time of turtle breeding is comes, only the female turtles who will go up to the beach to lay their eggs. Turtles will lay eggs only in a place he usually lay eggs. Although the turtle has been swimming around the world, but when the breeding period comes, the turtle will always return to the same beach. Parent turtles will come back to the same beach to lay eggs after 2-3 years. A mother usually go up to the beach 5 times in 1 nesting period, with an interval of 2 weeks. Usually the time they chose is in the night because the temperature is cooler and few predators.The turtles parent spawn 50-150 eggs, depending on the type of nest depth between 50-80 cm. Turtle eggs are very delicate and very liked by the predators. Female turtle will not guard the nest, after spawning, the parent will close the nest with sand using the back fin, then it returned to the sea. This process occurs for about 3 hours.After the spawning period is finished, the parent turtle will return to the sea. Turtle egg incubation period is 45-60 days. The nest temperature will decide the gender of the turtle. If the temperature is low, it will produce more turtles with the male sex as the opposite applies.Newly hatched turtle, commonly called hatchlings. It will find a way to the nest surface best for 3 to 7 days, then the hatchlings will come out from the nest at night because the temperature is cooler and to avoid the threat of the predators. Hatchlings that have been out of the nest will go directly to the sea. When the natural breeding process is happen, according to data from World Wildlife Fund (WWF) from 1000 hatchlings, only one who will survive to adult.
2.3. Turtle Island Tanjung Benoa Bali2.3.1. Tanjung BenoaOne of beach which is known as the paradise of water tourism object in Bali Island is Tanjung Benoa. The beach is located in the district of Tanjung Benoa, Badung regency. Tanjung Benoa is one of the beach which has the white sand and the quite wave, make this beach perfect for family holiday destination. This place is good for tourists who love water sports. Various water sports activity in this beach is banana boat, jet ski, parasailing, snorkeling, and many more. Beside the water sport, another charm of this beach is turtle island. It is called the turtle island, because the island is the place for various turtle species which are already scarce.2.3.2. Turtle Island As The Recreation PlaceTurtle island is a small delta which is covered by mangrove forests, with the with sand, calm waves and right facing the port of Benoa. Turtle island is located in the village of Tanjung Benoa, District of South Kuta, Badung Regency. The distance to this site from Denpasar City approximately 27 miles and approximately 35 minutes from Ngurah Rai Airport if using the motor vehicle by first crossing with the motorboat from the port of Benpoa. The used boat is bare glass boat that enable the traveler to see the beautiful underwater scenery of Southern Bali.In this island, the visitors can see the turtle eggs which is still in cramps, a small turtle, teen turtle, up to adult turtles who ready to be parents. The types of turtles are not only one, but there are several types. Beside that, there are also the other animal in this location such as monkeys, birds, snakes, bats and others.2.3.3. Turtle Island As The Breeding PlaceIn the beginning this location is to serve as a breeding place because turtles are marine turtle which are protected, but in reality many hunters hunt turtles for sale. They hunt as much advantage with hunting turtles not irresponsibly. In fact, the numbers of turtles are fewer and fewer.Therefore, to maintain the populations of turtles, World Wildife Fund (WWF) and the Local Government chose this location as a place of captivity. This location was developed not only known as a turtle breeding locations, but also as tourist sites.As its name, this small island is a breeding turtles place. This location is used as a turtle breeding place because it has an intact ecological system, clean beach and maintained, and lush mangrove forest.There are shelter ponds or tanks which are specifically provided to accommodate and care for turtles newly hatched to adult. The age of turtles at Turtle Island even reached seventy years. There are several types of turtle which is bred and protected such as the green turtle, olive ridley turtles, hawksbill, and flatback. Travelers who come can hold the turtles directly, feed, take pictures, and get into the breeding pond.
CHAPTER IIIPROBLEM DISSCUSSION3.1. Current Turtle PopulationTurtle population is being threatened. It is estimated that more than 7.700 turtles become victim of fishing or net arrest each year. It is only from not accidental net and fishing arrest in the sea. If arresting is accidentally included, the number would be much larger. Turtles used as meals like turtle soup, food or jewelry. Their lives are threatened as a result of some human behavior. Human activity now threatens the entire human life.Top sea turtle experts from around the globe have discovered that almost half (45%) of the worlds threatened sea turtle populations are found in the northern Indian Ocean. The study also determined that the most significant threats across all of the threatened populations of sea turtles are fisheries by catching, accidental catching of sea turtles by fishermen targeting other species, and the direct harvest of turtles or their eggs for food or turtle shell material for commercial use.The report, done by the IUCN Marine Turtle Specialist Group (MTSG) of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and supported by Conservation International (CI) and the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation (NFWF), was a collaboration of over 30 experts from 6 continents and more than 20 countries with diverse expertise in all aspects of sea turtle biology and conservation. The study, designed to provide a blueprint for conservation and research, evaluated the state of individual populations of sea turtles and determined the most threatened populations, as well as the healthiest populations.3.1.1. Worlds Most Threatened Turtle PopulationFour of the seven sea turtle species have populations among the world's most threatened. Almost half (five) of these populations are found in the northern Indian Ocean, specifically on nesting beaches and in waters within Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) of countries like India, Sri Lanka, and Bangladesh. Other areas that proved to be the most dangerous places for sea turtles were the East Pacific Ocean (from the U.S. to South America) and East Atlantic Ocean (off the coast of west Africa.Table 3. 1 Worlds Most Threatened Turtle PopulationNo.SpeciesHabitatKey Nesting SiteThe Causes
1. Olive Ridley Turtle(L.olivacea)West Indian OceanIndia and Oman Trawl bycatch Consumption of eggs and turtle Coastal development and shipping
2. Arribada population in the Northeast Indian OceanIndia Intense pressures from trawl bycatch Consumption of turtle eggs and meat Development of major shipping ports along the coast of India
3. Northeast Indian OceanIndia and Sri Lanka Widespread decline in turtle nests beach Trawl bycatch Consumption of turtle eggs and meat
4. Loggerhead Turtle (C.caretta)Northeast Indian OceanSri Lanka, Bangladesh and Myanmar Fisheries bycatch in trawls and nets Ongoing development of coastal areas where they nest
5. Northeast Atlantic OceanCape Verde Consumption of meat and eggs Bycatch in Cape Verde and in feeding areas along the African mainland coast
6. North Pacific OceanJapan Severe bycatch in Mexico and Japan Coastal development in Japan
7. Hawksbill Turtle(E. imbricata)Northeast Indian OceanIndia, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh No adequate conservation
8. East Atlantic OceanCongo and Sao Tome et Principe Severe threat from coastal net bycatch Consumption of eggs and meat Exploitation of shell material for handicrafts and jewelry
9. East Pacific OceanEl Salvador, Nicaragua and Ecuador Severe threats of coastal bycatch Egg consumption
10. West Pacific OceanMalaysia, Indonesia and Philippines Exploitation of turtle shell material Climate change
11. Leatherback Turtle (D. coriacea)East Pacific OceanMexico, Nicaragua and Costa Rica Egg consumption Bycatch
3.1.2. Worlds Most Healthiest Turtle PopulationThe study also highlighted the healthiest sea turtle populations in the world, which are generally large populations with increasing trends under relatively low threats. Five species among these dozen healthy populations are found in nesting sites and feeding areas in Australia, Mexico, and Brazil. Other areas that harbor healthy turtle populations included the Southwest Indian Ocean, Micronesia and French Polynesia.Table 3. 2 Worlds Most Healthiest Turtle PopulationNo.SpeciesHabitatsKey Nesting SitesThe Causes
1. Loggerhead Turtle (C. caretta)Northwest Indian OceanOman The consistent monitoring efforts to the turtle
2. Green Turtle(C. mydas)Southeast Indian OceanAustralia The existence is monitored. So it becomes abundant, although some still consume turtle eggs
3. Southwest Atlantic OceanBrazil Collaborative conservation efforts made by Brazil and neighboring countries
4. East Pacific OceanGalapagos Islands, Ecuador and Mexico Stricter controls on turtle trade
5. South Central Pacific OceanFrench Polynesia There is no serious threat so its existence is still abundant
6. Southwest Pacific OceanAustralia There is no serious threat so its existence is still abundant
7. Hawksbill Turtle (E. imbricata)Southeast Indian OceanAustralia A good nesting place The low threat attack
8. Southwest Indian OceanSeychelles, French and British Overseas Territories The long-term monitoring is good Good protection on coral reefs as their nest
9. Southwest Pacific OceanAustralia The maintenance of coral reefs is good and healthy
10. Leatherback Turtle (D. coriacea)Southeast Atlantic OceanGabon Good conservation from neighboring countries
11. Northwest Atlantic OceanTrinidad, Guyana, French Guiana and Suriname The population is still growing despite severe bycatch
12. Olive Ridley Turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea)East Pacific OceanMexico, Nicaragua and Costa Rica Existence is abundant though the nesting place is not good
3.2. Threats on TurtleEach year thousands of hatchling turtles emerge from their nests along the southeast U.S. coast and enter the Atlantic Ocean. Sadly, only an estimated one in 1,000 to 10,000 will survive to adulthood. The natural obstacles faced by young and adult sea turtles are staggering, but it is the increasing threats caused by humans that are driving them to extinction. Today, all sea turtles found in U.S. waters are federally listed as endangered, except for the loggerhead which is listed as threatened.1. Natural ThreatsIn nature, sea turtles face a host of life and death obstacles to their survival. Predators such as raccoons, crabs and ants raid eggs and hatchlings still in the nest. Once they emerge, hatchlings make bite-sized meals for birds, crabs and a host of predators in the ocean. After reaching adulthood, sea turtles are relatively immune to predation, except for the occasional shark attack. These natural threats, however, are not the reasons sea turtle populations have plummeted toward extinction. To understand what really threatens sea turtle survival, we must look at the actions of humans. 2. Harvest for ConsumptionAlthough sea turtles have spiritual or mythological importance in many cultures around the world, this has not prevented humans from consuming their eggs or meat. In many coastal communities, especially in Central America and Asia, sea turtles have provided a source of food. During the nesting season, turtle hunters comb the beaches at night looking for nesting females. Often, they will wait until the female has deposited her eggs to kill her. Then, they take both the eggs and the meat. Additionally, people may use other parts of the turtle for products, including the oil, cartilage, skin and shell. Many countries forbid the taking of eggs, but enforcement is lax, poaching is rampant, and the eggs can often be found for sale in local markets. 3. Illegal Sea Turtle Shell TradeHawksbill sea turtles, recognized for their beautiful gold and brown shells, have been hunted for centuries to create jewelry and other luxury items. As a result, these turtles are now listed as critically endangered. Scientists estimate that hawksbill populations have declined by 90 percent during the past 100 years. While illegal trade is the primary cause of this decline, the demand for shells continues today on the black market. The lack of information about sea turtles leads many tourists to unwittingly support the international trade in these endangered species. Buying, selling or importing any sea any sea turtle products in the U.S., as in many countries around the world, is strictly prohibited by law. 4. Commercial Fishing: Longline & TrawlEach year hundreds of thousands of adult and immature sea turtles are accidentally captured in fisheries ranging from highly mechanized operations to small-scale fishermen around the world. Global estimates of annual capture, injury and mortality are staggering 150,000 turtles of all species killed in shrimp trawls, more than 200,000 loggerheads and 50,000 leatherbacks captured, injured or killed by longlines, and large numbers of all species drowned in gill nets. The extent of gill net mortality is unknown, but sea turtle capture is significant where studied, and the drowning of sea turtles in gill nets may be comparable to trawl and longline mortality. Deaths in gill nets are particularly hard to quantify because these nets are set by uncounted numbers of local fishermen in tropical waters around the world. Other fisheries that accidentally take turtles include dredges, trawls, pound nets, pot fisheries, and hand lines. In the United States, the federal government worked with the commercial shrimp trawl industry to develop Turtle Excluder Devices (TEDs). TEDs are a grid of bars with an opening either at the top or the bottom of the trawl net. The grid is fitted into the neck of a shrimp trawl. Small animals such as shrimp pass through the bars and are caught in the bag end of the trawl. When larger animals, such as marine turtles and sharks are captured in the trawl they strike the grid bars and are ejected through the opening. Today, all U.S. shrimpers are required to put TEDs in their trawl nets. Unfortunately, not all fishermen comply with the law, and sea turtles continue to drown in shrimp nets. 5. Marine Debris - Ingestion & EntanglementIt is estimated that more than 100 million marine animals are killed each year due to plastic debris in the ocean. More than 80% of this plastic comes from land. It washes out from our beaches and streets. It travels through storm drains into streams and rivers. It flies away from landfills into our seas. As a result, thousands of sea turtles accidentally swallow these plastics, mistaking them for food. Leatherbacks especially, cannot distinguish between floating jellyfish a main component of their diet and floating plastic bags. Most of the debris is recognizable: plastic bags, balloons, bottles, degraded buoys, plastic packaging, and food wrappers. Some plastics aren't so easy to see, so small, in fact, that it is invisible to the naked eye. If sea turtles ingest these particles, they can become sick or even starve.Turtles are affected to an unknown, but potentially significant degree, by entanglement in persistent marine debris, including discarded or lost fishing gear including steel and monofilament line, synthetic and natural rope, plastic onion sacks and discarded plastic netting materials. Monofilament line appears to be the principal source of entanglement for sea turtles in US waters. 6. Artificial LightingNesting turtles depend on dark, quite beaches to reproduce successfully. Today, these turtles are endangered, in part, because they must compete with tourists, businesses and coastal residents to use the beach. This man-made, coastal development results in artificial lighting on the beach that discourages female sea turtles from nesting. Instead, turtles will choose a less-than-optimal nesting spot, which affects the chances of producing a successful nest. Also, near-shore lighting can cause sea turtle hatchlings to become disoriented when they are born. Instead, they will wander inland where they often die of dehydration, predation, or even from being run over on busy coastal streets.
7. Coastal ArmoringSea turtle nesting beaches everywhere have been substantially altered by urbanization and development. To protect this prime real estate, many coastal property owners have built coastal armoring structures such as sea walls, rock revetments and sandbags to help protect their property from natural erosion. These man-made structures threaten sea turtles nesting habitat by interrupt the natural nesting process through a reduction of nesting habitat and displacement of turtles to less optimal nesting areas. Florida's beaches, for example, host approximately 90% of all the sea turtle nesting in the U.S. But sadly, over 40% of Florida's beaches are classified as critically eroding due to changes in the natural landscape of these beaches. 8. Beach ErosionOne way to address beach erosion is through beach nourishment. This consists of pumping, trucking or otherwise depositing sand on a beach to replace what has been lost to erosion. While beach nourishment is often preferable to armoring, if it is not done correctly, it can negatively impact sea turtles. Dredging for the sand to nourish a beach can cause direct threats to sea turtles and their nearshore marine habitats. Hopper dredges have been directly responsible for the incidental capture and death of hundreds, if not thousands, of sea turtles in the US. 9. Beach ActivitiesHuman use of nesting beaches can result in negative impacts to nesting turtles, incubating egg clutches and hatchlings. The most serious threat caused by increased human presence on the beach is the disturbance to nesting females. Night-time human activity can prevent sea turtles from emerging on the beach or even cause females to stop nesting and return to the ocean.Beach Furniture and other recreational equipment (e.g., cabanas, umbrellas, hobie cats, canoes, small boats and beach cycles) can reduce nesting success and increase false crawls on nesting beaches. There is also increasing documentation of nesting females becoming entrapped in beach furniture.Beach Driving, either at night or during the daytime, can negatively impact sea turtles. Night time driving can disturb nesting females, disorient emerging hatchlings, and crush hatchlings attempting to reach the ocean. Tire ruts left by vehicles can extend the time it takes a hatchling to reach the ocean and increase their chance of being caught by a predator. Driving during the day can cause sand compaction above nests resulting in lower nest success. Additionally, beach driving contributes to erosion, especially during high tides or on narrow beaches. 10. Invasive Species PredationAround the globe, sea turtles and hatchlings alike are victim to natural predators. Crabs, raccoons, boars, birds, fish and sharks all play their role in the natural food chain. However, urban development along coast lines has introduced many non-native species that have become invasive predators for sea turtles and other coastal wildlife. Florida itself has one of the most severe invasive species problems in the United States. Domesticated dogs and cats will devour eggs and hatchlings and even attack nesting turtles. In many areas, trash left behind by humans encourages inland animals to migrate to beaches for food, further increasing sea turtle predators. 11. Marine PollutionMarine pollution can have serious impacts on both sea turtles and the food they eat. New research suggests that a disease now killing many sea turtles (fibropapillomas) may be linked to pollution in the oceans and in near-shore waters. When pollution enters the water, it contaminates and kills aquatic plant and animal life that is often food for sea turtles. Oil spills, urban runoff from chemicals, fertilizers and petroleum all contribute to water pollution. Because the ocean is so large, many incorrectly assume that pollutants will be diluted and dispersed to safe levels, but in reality, the toxins released from these pollutants become more concentrated as they break down in size. As a result, these smaller, more toxic particles become food for many links in the food chain, including sea turtles. 12. Oil SpillsMarine pollution can have serious impacts on both sea turtles and the food they eat. New research suggests that a disease now killing many sea turtles (fibropapillomas) may be linked to pollution in the oceans and in near-shore waters. When pollution enters the water, it contaminates and kills aquatic plant and animal life that is often food for sea turtles. Oil spills, urban runoff from chemicals, fertilizers and petroleum all contribute to water pollution. Because the ocean is so large, many incorrectly assume that pollutants will be diluted and dispersed to safe levels, but in reality, the toxins released from these pollutants become more concentrated as they break down in size. As a result, these smaller, more toxic particles become food for many links in the food chain, including sea turtles. 13. Climate ChangeBecause sea turtles use both marine and terrestrial habits during their life cycles, the affects of climate change are likely to have a devastating impact on these endangered species. Climate change affects nesting beaches. With melting polar ice caps and rising sea levels, beaches are starting to disappear. As the water level begins to rise, the size of nesting beaches decrease. Stronger storms, predicted as a result of increasing temperatures, will continue to erode coastal habitats. Higher temperatures can adversely affect sea turtle gender ratio. Increasing incubation temperatures could result in more female sea turtles, which reduces reproductive opportunities and decreases genetic diversity.3.3. The Influence of Turtle Island on Turtle Population3.3.1. The Positive Impact 1. Keeping the turtle population Turtle populations which is now being dropped, can be helped by the various breeding places like Turtle Island in Tanjung Benoa, Bali. Turtle Island has become a new habitat for turtles. One of the turtles in this place is green turtle which its population is now declining. In this place, we can see the process of turtle life from still eggs, birth, children, to adults.At this location, turtle population is greatly increased. In the breeding season, turtle eggs are rescued and hatched by citizen. 50 % total population of 1 month old hatchlings are released freely to the sea. The rest is kept to be raised again. If all hatchlings are released, they will die because eaten by predators. After approximately 1 year old, half of the remaining 50% pet turtle which is still live will be released back to the sea. And the rest will be maintained used as brood stock.2. Increasing awareness of travelers in cultivation turtles In the 1990s turtle population is nearly reached extinction in Bali. Balinese liked to consume turtles meat, because the taste is good. In addition turtles also be required to become sacrifice animals to be used as lawar (Balinese food) when the ritual. As a result, turtle population is decline drastically. Therefore, the Government then made a ban to catching turtles and purchase turtle with any reason. And for the ritual, only allowed for big temples and big religious ritual only.Therefore, the present of Turtle Island as a turtles conservation is to prevent the extinction. The reasons of selecting Turtle Island as a breeding place because the area is suitable for turtle live. At high tide, the land is covered by sea water. And turtle absolutely need sea water to life. Turtle Island is the awareness for people and tourists how important it is to keep the turtle population to avoid the extinction.
3. Attracting travelers to learn the life cycle of turtlesAs a tourist spot, Turtle Island is very interesting place because the location is not far from Tanjung Benoa, which is the center of the water attractions. Turtle Island can be reached within 15 minutes by using a glass bottom boat from Tanjung Benoa. Turtles Island can be an educative tool for travelers who want to know more about turtles, both kinds, behavior, appearance, etc.3.3.2. The Negative Impact 1. Tourism activities that cause the turtle population decline Tourism activity became one of the causes of environmental degradation and the inhibition of the flora and fauna development in Turtle Island. Tourism activity nowadays give adverse impact on the flora and fauna development environment. The tourism activities can increase the pollution to the environment, for example marine pollution caused by plastic waste brought by the tourists and dumped into the sea. In addition. air pollution due to transport used by the travelers. And the most severe is the number of poaching endangered animals which protected because of the many tourism love souvenirs from endangered animals. It is the factors which led to the turtle population has decreased.2. Development around the turtle breeding Construction of the various resorts, hotels and residential areas in the coastal threatens nesting turtles place. This is because of turtles is very sensitive to light, the crowds, and noises that make turtles scared for landed to lay eggs. The presence of human activity around the nesting area also increases levels of disturbance to turtles. For example, disruption caused by the lights on the beach, lit a bonfire, taking pictures with a camera flash, noise generated by the voices of singing people which were having a bonfire on the beach, water sports like jet ski, and motor vehicle. Newly hatched hatchlings will go towards the beach with light guide. This is because the light in the sky over the sea is brighter than the mainland sky and this applies at times of day and night. Human-made light at night, such as the lights of hotels and resorts make hatchlings lost and disoriented. Thus causing them off guard and easily become prey when noon came. Therefore important not to install lights that leads to the beach at turtle nesting season to avoid this from happening.3.4. The Benefits of TurtleTurtle is not only unique and cute species, but also very useful for human life. Just to let it live freely in nature, without interference by humans, turtles provides many benefits. Such benefits include aspects of economic growth through the fisheries sector (and its multiplier effect), maintaining the balance of the ecosystem chain, science and the development of ecotourism.First, ecosystem services (environmental balance). Turtles play an important role in maintaining the balance in the ocean, such as what done by the Green Turtle is. Turtles that have mileage reaches up to thousands of miles of ocean plays an important role in the spread of nutrients to the sea by their feces. This dung as fertilizer or feed for other marine plants and animals.Second, the increase in economic growth of the fisheries sector. Turtle actually plays a vital role for the availability of marine fish, such as leatherback turtle, which eat the Jellyfish. Jellyfish are marine animals that eats fish. It is a food chain. If there is no large leatherback turtle, jellyfish populations will increase. Jellyfish overpopulation would endanger child fish populations. Will be more and more jellyfish who eat children fish. Due to the many jellyfish who eat child fish, the availability of fish in the sea will be reduced. This eventually will reduce fish catches of fishermen. Different case with. This type of turtle is eating unhealthy reefs the corals become healthy again. Healthy coral reefs are a good food source and a place to live (habitat) fish breeding. In the end, this will make the area into a source of fish (more fish to be caught).Third, the potential for tourism development or other economic alternatives. As mentioned earlier that the turtles play an important role maintaining the health of coral reefs. Coral reefs that well preserved, especially if the area possess natural beauty and supportive culture, would provide underwater scenery is quite beautiful. It has the potential for tourism development. Snorkelling and diving can be attractions offered to tourists.Fourth, science. Turtles and their habitats is also a means for the improvement of the human sciences, for example, through research and development. According to one of the founders of YPB which is also eco-tourism expert,, turtle known as one of the remaining animals from antiquity. Therefore, turtle may be "entrance" for mankind to know what happened in the past and other important information. It is very important for the development of science, especially biology and the environment.3.5. The Way To Preserve The Turtle Population Turtle has been listed in the list of Appendix I of the Convention of International Trade in Endangered Species of Flora and Fauna (Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species - CITES). The convention prohibits all international trade in all products / results that turtle, be it eggs, meat, and shells. In order to remain sustainable and turtles develop into much more, it needs to be done the following ways: 1. Escort and supervise UU no. 77 year 1999 about turtle protection;2. Do not consume food derived from turtle eggs and meat;3. Do not use items made from turtle shell;4. Do not throw plastic waste and other things that are harmful into the sea; 5. Do not disturb the turtles who laying eggs, because they can stop the process of laying eggs when feeling threatened;6. Not taking turtle eggs because it would destroy their populations; 7. Maintaining the health of coral reefs. Healthy coral reefs are places to eat and good shelter for turtles; 8. Supports sea turtle conservation program; 9. Campaigning the turtle conservation; 10. Donate funds to support conservation activities.
CHAPTER IVCLOSING11.1. ConclusionThe following conclusions are taken from the analysis described in the previous three chapters:1. Turtle Island function as turtle breeding location as well as a tourist spot that is located in Tanjung Benoa, Bali. With the presence of Turtle Island, it will directly help to conserve turtle population in the world which is currently in a vulnerable state.2. There are some positive and negative influence of the presence of turtle island. One positive effect is as awareness for tourists that it is very important for humans to keep the turtle population.3. The negative impact comes from the people who make the construction of infrastructures and the traveler coming to Turtle Island. Construction of hotel will disturb the turtle habitat and destroy turtle nests. As a result, the turtle does not want to come to the beach to lay their eggs.4. Threats to turtle can come from natural or human. However, the threat that comes from human more threaten turtle. Activities such as fishing, coastal area development, the consumption of turtle eggs and meat, and trade turtle shells to be used as jewelry have made the turtle population is threatened.5. Many ways can be done to conserve turtles. From the many ways, the most important thing is everyone should have the awareness of itself to love and keep the turtle.6. With the preservation of turtles, many benefits can be taken either in the fields of economy, tourism or education facilities.11.2. Suggestion Writer propose some suggestions relating to the writing of scientific papers, as follows:1. Everyone should care the survival of this ancient species to conserve the turtle population.2. Turtles protection institution should give the right knowledge to all people to make them understand about of turtles and in order to make everyone know about turtle, such as life cycle, habitat, food, etc.3. Do not hurt the turtle's body and destroy the habitat of turtles while fishing. Therefore, it is particularly important for fishermen to know the knowledge about turtle.4. Tourists should obey the rules while visiting tourist attractions of turtle. Do not ride on turtle shell and do not throw garbage into the sea. Two of the above is a simple way that can be done to maintain the existence of turtle.5. Government must enforce Turtle Protection Law no. 77 year 1999BIBLIOGRAPHYNuitja, I Nyoman Sumertha. 1992. Biologi dan Ekologi Pelestarian Penyu Laut. Bogor : Penerbit IPB.Eckert, K. L., Bjorndal, K. A., Abreu-Grobois, F. A. and Donnelly, M. (Eds.) 1999. Research and Management Techniques for the Conservation of Sea Turtles. Washington DC : IUCN/SSC Marine Turtle Specialist Group Publication.http://blog-penyu.blogspot.com. Accessed on 19th August 2014.http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Penyu. Accessed on 5th August 2014.http://lingkunganhijau.com. Accessed on 10th August 2014.http://ocean.si.edu. Accessed on 22nd August 2014.http://www.conserveturtles.org. Accessed on 22nd August 2014.http://www.iucn.org. Accessed on 5th August 2014.http://www.terangi.or.id. Accessed on 22nd August 2014.http://www.widecast.org. Accessed on 2nd August 2014http://www.worldwildlife.org. Accessed on 10th September 2014http://www.wwf.or.id. Accessed on 10th September 2014
BIOGRAPHYThe writers name is Tendi Nugeraha Wijaya, people usually call him as Tendi. The writer is a male and he was born in Sumedang on 4th March 1998. The writer is the second child of two sibling from a spouse Mr. Wahyu and Mrs. Noneng Sartikah. But in 2003, the writers mother was died because of sick. Now, the writer has a mother who really love him named Diah Mulyani. The writers live in Sumedang, precisely in Lingk. Kebon Kalapa, Kel. Pasanggrahan Baru, Kec. South Sumedang. The writers sister has been married so she chooses to live in Depok with her husband.The writer begins his study in 2003 in Kartika Siliwangi Kindergarten and graduated in 2004, then continued to Sindangpalay Elementary School and until 2010. After he graduated there, he study at Junior High School 1 Sumedang for 2 years and graduated in 2012. And now, the writer is still studying in Senior High School 1 Sumedang.The writer like to designing by computer software in his computer. Formerly, the writer dream was want to be an architect, but now he want to be a computer engineer. It makes the writer motivated to continue his study to information system major in University of Indonesia. The writer favorite subjects are mathematics and English. He also loves to listen the music, watching television, internet browsing and sleep all day long.