Textile Wet Processing - Production in Textile Wet Processing ... for example, filters, environment. ... higher concentrations of the substance in each management control of ...

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    Cleaner Production8 iD Textile Wei


    1 A Workbook for Trainers 1

    First Edition .March 1996

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    TEL: (33)0144371450FAX: (33)0144 3714 74E-MAll. : unepie@unep.frbup:/ /www.unepie.org/home.bbnl


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  • -)!t') Ind~stry and Cleaner Production -'

    ~ "~ Env~ronment in Textile Wei Processing~~..~d Envlronmental .

    Training Unit A Workbookfor TramersUNEF This package is one of a series that provides practical support material to

    teachers and trainers wishing to commence or enrich their curriculum withup-to-date approaches in environmental management.

    It is based on extended experience with training workshops by UNEP andother agencies, and is now being made available for wider use in ail regionsthroughout the world.




    The flfst version of this trainers workbook was prepared in

    March 1996 by Dr Prasad Modak for UNEP lE and later

    edited by Fritz Balkau.

    It was subsequently trialled in workshops and courses in

    several places, leading to subsequent revis ions to produce

    this current document.

    UNE? wou Id like to thank the many individuals andorganizations who contributed ideas and materials, or who

    assisted in reviews and redrafting.

    Copyright If:) UNEP 1996Ali rights reserved. No part ofthis publication may be produced, stored ina retrieval system or transmitted in any fonn or any means: electronic. )electrostatic, magnetic tape, mechanical, photocopying, recording orotherwise, without pennission in writing from the copyright holder.

    First edition March 1996

    The designations employed and the presentation of the material in thispublication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on thepart of the United Nations Environment Programme conceming the legalstatus of any country, territory, city or area or of ilS authorities, orconceming delimitation of ilS frontiers or boundaries. Moreover, theviews expressed do not necessarily represent the decision or the statedpolicy of the United Nations Environment Programme, nor does citing oftrade names or commercial processes constitute endorsement.

    United Nations Publication

    1 ISB~ 92-807-1608-5 1


  • 8Table 01 Contents

    Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing

    Evaluation Form i

    Users Guide """.".'..".""""""""""""""""""""'."""'."'.".""""".'.'...""""""""" iii

    Glossary v

    Part 1 Introduction Part V Environmental Aspects of the Dyeing Process

    1.1 This package 1:4 5.1 Dyeing v:3

    1.2 Contents ofthis package [:4 5.2 Dyes and their applicability v:4

    Part Il Organizing Effective Training Activities 5.3 Dyeing machineries v:6

    2.1 Introduction 11:3 5.4 Dyeing pollutionalloads v:9

    2.2 Notes on interactive 5.5 Exercises V: II

    workshop organization 11:4 5.6 Solutions V 17

    8 2.3 Some.ideas for m~re .Part VI Environmental Aspects of the Printing

    effective commurncatlon 11:9 and Finishing Processes

    2.4 Some personal suggestions 6.1 Printing vI:3

    for effective training Il: 10 6 2 F .. h 'ng V I .4.mIs 1 , ,2.5 Resource persons guide Il: II 6.3 Printing and finishing pollution

    2.6 Suggestions for self study Il: 13 loads , vI:7

    Part III Introduction to Current Environmental 6.4 Exercises vI:8

    Issues and Aspects of 6.5 Solutions v[:9

    Textile Wet Processing Part VII Application of Environmental Audit to

    3.1 Introduction 1113 identify Cleaner Production Measures

    3.2 Understanding 7.1 Achieving cleaner production VII:3

    environmental problems 1II4 7.2 Cleaner Production audit VII: 5

    3.3 Env!ronmental. as~ects of the 7.3 Conducting a waste audit VII:6 .

    textIle processmg mdustry 1II:67 4 Ph 1 P t VII 7ase re-assessmen 3 4 :Exercises 1II9 7' 5'

    Ph 2 l~ t .1 b 1 ce..ase JVJa erla a an :

    3.5 Solutions III: II process inputs and outputs VII: 9

    Part IV Environmental Aspects of 7.6 Economic and environmental

    Preparatory Processing evaluation VII: 24

    8 4.1 Sizi~~ (slashing) lv3 7.7 Solutions VII:294.2 Deslzmg Iv:4 Part VIII References

    4.3 Scouring Iv:6 8.1 Some background documents

    4.4 Bleaching Iv8 on the environment VIII:345M " IvlO ..

    5.ercerlzmg 8.2 Audlovlsuals VIII:4.6 Exercises [V 12

    4.7 Questions , IV 15

    4.8 Solutions [v: 17

    Annexes ..3

    1 Data related to Pollution Issues mcludmg Health and Safety Aspects Il A Compilation of the Best Environmental Practices in Textile WeI Processing 13

    Appendices1 S . D t fi th ' s Package 3

    upportmg ocumen s or 1 11 List of Training Resource Packages available from UNEF lE 5

    /II About UNEF Industry and Environment 7


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  • iii


    Users Guide

    T his is a trainers support package, not a problem-solving. Such work needs to be guidedreference book. It does flot give a by a rotor who is a recognized expert in the field.

    systematic, comprehensive overview This method allows the full complexity of real(there is flot enough room to do fuis); rallier, it decision-making to be explored.focuses on some selected aspects that are central Where calculations are required, the exercisesto the subject. The structure of the document are more oriented towards throwing light onallows further sections to be easily developed and useful approaches or management decisions thanadded as additional modules. simply fmding the 'correct' answer. Trainers are

    The package is written for trainers to provide strongly urged flot to see this package merely as athem with support material and ideas. It bas flot set of arithmetic exercises.

    8 been intended as a study book for students. The ln some instances, answers are indicated. Theaverage trainee will only ever see a few pages or 'correct' answer often depends on the context ofexercises reproduced from this document. the question. It is here that a tutor or extemal

    One of the purposes ofthis package is to resource expert is useful.provide some case studies and situation scenarios Many trainers find fuis disturbing. They shouldthat can be used as a basis for interactive training remember that real decision-making depends onand simulated decision-making. The exercises the wider circumstances surrounding the

    only explore a small part of the potential of the problem, and that a numerical answer which iscase studies, and train ers are strongly encouraged politically or socially unacceptable, orto develop further exercises or tasks. administratively unworkable (even though

    The package is oriented at developing insights accurate), is flot in effect 'correct'.and decision-making ski Ils. It is not particularly The simulation of reallife situations andsuited to teaching the factual knowledge base of decision-making that is the basis ofthis packagethe subject. For this, trainers are referred to the makes it most suitable for senior students and

    reading lists in the bibliography. trainees, and especially for professional trainingWork exercises are predominantly based on (or retraining) courses.

    interactive groupwork and a team approach to

    8 Do flot forget to also refer to the package on Cleaner Production

    for teaching the underlying concepts and approaches in this workbook.

    Finally, we must stress again that fuis package does flot cover ail aspects of the subject. Its primepurpose is to lead trainers into this field, and to help and encourage them to develop their own material,appropriately tailored to their specific leaming situation. UNEP is prepared to work further with trainers

    who wish to extend this package into new directions, or go into greater depths on some subjects.

    8 --A Workbook for rrainers : Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processlng

  • iv United Nations Environment Programme elndustry and Environment

    How 10 sian a Iraining aclivitv )

    based on Ibis workbook

    1 Remember that this is a starters kit, not a 3 Refresh Jour memory by reading some of thecomplete recipe book. Remember also that the background papers and studying the overhead

    workbook aims to develop insights and decision- transparencies. Write your own notes in the

    making skills, not to convey knowledge or facts. spaces provided.

    2 Understand the needs ofyour trainees. What 4 Identify some expert resource persans whoinsights or skills do you intend to develop? cou Id be invited as rotors to help you in

    Define your learning objectives. discussion sessions.

    5 Select some of the exercises you wish to 7 DeveloP other exercises or questionspresent to trainees. yourself. "

    6 Examine carefully tire case study or 8 Develop Jour own local case study if you can, )

    scenario on which they are based. Be sure and use this instead of the one in the package.

    that you have at least one solution to the exercise 9 prepare some background questions andthat you can explain and defend. preliminary exercises for train ers to carry out

    before they start the workshop/course.

    1 Q In session, summarize tire issues for a rotor. Discuss and compare results. Be opentrainees using the overheads given, and to ideas and experiences from trainees, and

    others you may have. Discuss the problems and discuss these.

    difficulties decision-makers face. Discuss where 12 Return to tire learning objectives, andfactual information can be round to help in check that they have been achieved.

    decision-making. 13 Consider how to follow up and reinforceIl Commence tire work sessions, preferably the learning experience by establishing

    in small groups, and preferably guided by some ongoing projects, or periodic reunions.

    Refer also to other packages and workbooks, where useful addition al teaclring material is found.

    To facilitate using this workbook, the header of odd-numbered pages describes the contents ofthat

    particular section. This information is also repeated in the footer of even-numbered pages. You can track

    your progress through the workbook by referring to the calibrations on the bar across the bottom of odd-

    numbered pages:

    The shading shows your current position in the text.


    Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing : A Workbook for Trainers


  • v



    T his glossary contains some tenns which are used in the background papers and exercises, orwhich you may corne across when gathering infonnation about the topic. You may want to addsome tenns to this list.

    These tenns have been taken from the Australian and New Zealand Guidelines for the Assessment and

    Management ofContaminated Sites, the Code of Practicefor the Investigation and Mitigation ofPossible Petroleum-Based Land Contamination, the UNIDO training course on EcologicallySustainable Development, some US EPA publications, and some UNEP lE publications.

    8 Absorptivity The ability to absorb matter in bulk level(s): i.e. where the site specific assessment(e.g. water, dissolved chemicals, gases). deems that a response is required to protect

    Aquifer An underground rock fonnation health or the environment.composed of materials such as sand, soil or Cradle-to-grave Tenn used to imply the wholegravel that tan store and supply ground water to life cycle of a product, from raw material towells and springs. final disposai.

    Background levels Levels of substances or End-of-pipe treatment Treating pollutants at thechemicals that are commonly found in the local end ofa process (by, for example, filters,environment. catalysts and scrubbers) instead ofpreventing

    Bioaccumulation The retention and concentration their occurrence.of a substance by an organism. Environmental auditing The management tool

    Biodegradation Decomposition of substances into comprising a systematic, documented, periodicmore elementary compounds by the action of and objective evaluation ofhow weilmicro-organisms. environmental organization, management and

    Biomagnification The serial accumulation of a equipment are perfonning. The aim is to help tochemical by organisms in the food chain, with safeguard the environment by: (i) facilitatinghigher concentrations of the substance in each management control of environmental practice;succeeding trophic level. and (ii) assessing compliance with company

    8 Biological monitoring Measurement of a policies, which would include regulatorycontaminant or metabolite in body tissue or requirements.fluid. Environmental impact assessment An analysis to

    Clean-up The removal, treatment or containment detennine whether an action wouldofsoil contaminated with chemicals at significantly affect the environment.unacceptable concentrations. Environmental risk assessment The process of

    Cleaner production The continuous application of estimating the potential impact of a chemical oran integrated preventive strategy to processes physical agent on a specified ecological systemand products, in order to reduce environmental under a specific set of conditions.risks and impacts. Exposure Contact with a chemical, physical or

    Contaminated A condition or state which biological agent.represents or potentially represents an adverse Exposure assessment The estimation (qualitativehealth or environmental impact because of the or quantitative) of the magnitude, frequency,presence of potentially hazardous substances. duration, route and extent (for example, number

    Contaminated site A site where the level(s) of of organisms) of exposure to a chemical

    hazardous substances is (are) above response substance or contaminant.

    8A Warkbaak for Trainers : Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processlng


  • vi United Nations Environment Programme olndustry and Environment

    Hazard The capacity to produce a particular type of Pollution Degradation or impairment of the purity )adverse health or environrnental effect: e.g. one of the environrnent by causing a conditionhazard associated with benzene is leukemia. which is hazardous to public health, safety,

    Health risk assessment The process of evaluating aesthetics or welfare, or to animais, birds,the potential impact of a chemical or physical wildlife, fish or aquatic life, or to plants.agent on a specified human population system Porosity Property of a solid which contains manyunder a specific set of conditions. small channels or open spaces.

    Hydrology The science dealing with the Preliminary assessment The process of collecting

    properties, movement, and effects ofwater on and reviewing available information about athe earth's surface, in the soil and rocks below, known or a suspected hazardous waste site orand in the atmosphere. release. If further study is needed, a site

    Incineration Buming of certain types of solid, inspection is undertaken.liquid, or gaseous materials under controlled Receptor An organism, plant or physical structure

    conditions to destroy hazardous waste. that receives, may receive or bas receivedIndicator analytes Readily measured chemicals environrnental exposure to a chemical.

    that can indicate the probable presence of Remediation The clean-up or mitigation ofcertain classes of chemicals or substances. pollution/contamination of soil by various ..

    Investigation level The concentration level of a methods. )contaminant above which further appropriate Response level Response levels apply to a

    investigation and evaluation will be required. specific site and site assessment and are levelsln-situ ln the original place or location. at which some form ofresponse to protect

    Leachate A contaminated liquid resulting when public health and/or the environment with awater percolates, or trickles, through waste wide margin of safety is required.materials and collects components ofthose Risk The probability that an adverse outcome willwastes. occur in a person, a group, or an ecological

    Life cycle analysis A quantitative assessment of system that is exposed to a particular dose orthe total environrnental impacts caused by a concentration of a hazardous agent: i.e. it

    particular process or product, from resource depends on both the level of toxicity ofconsumption to contamination, from the cradle hazardous agent and the level of exposure.to the grave. Risk management The process whereby decisions

    Mass/material balance A precise account of ail the are made to accept a known or assessed risk

    inputs and outputs of a process, based on the and/or the implementation of actions to reducelaw of conservation of mass. the consequences or probabilities of occurrence.

    Metabolite A substance produced or modified by Site inspection A technical phase that follows a

    metabolism in an organism. preliminary assessment designed to collect )Mobility The ability of particles and substances to more extensive information on a '

    move, either by random motion or under the contaminated site.

    influence of field forces. Sustainable development Meeting the needs of

    Monitoring wells Special wells drilled at specific the present generation without compromisinglocations on or off a hazardous waste site where the ability of future generations to meetgroundwater can be sam pied at selected depths their needs.and studied to determine such things as the Technology assessment An analytical tool useddirection in which groundwater flows and the to help understand the likely impact of the use

    types and amountsof contaminants present. of a new technology by an industry or society.Persistence The ability of a substance to remain Toxicity The quality or degree ofbeing

    unaltered for prolonged periods. poisonous or harmful to plants, animais

    Phytotoxicity Toxicity ofa substance for plants. or humans.

    ).Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing : A Workbook for Trainers

  • "'"


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    Part 1

    1 ntrad u cti 0 n\


    1.1 This package , 1:4

    1.2 Contents of this package 1:4


    )A Workbook for Trainers : Cleaner Production ln Textile Wet Processlng


  • 1:3


    1 Introduction

    M any teaching institutions and ln 1993, in response to these findings, UNEP,individual trainers have difficulty in WHO, and ILO jointly initiated the programmefollowing the rapid evolution of on Training Approaches for Environmental

    environmental issues that are relevant to their Management in Indust!)'. The programme aims tocourses. enhance the capacity of national institutions to

    This is particularly true when teaching subjects offer local training on topics concemed with the8 such as pollution and environmental manage- prevention of industrial pollution.

    ment. And yet it is important that new graduates ln this context, trainers' packages have beenhave a good knowledge of issues in which they prepared on different areas of environmentalmay eventually provide consulting services or management. These packages are intended topolicy advice to govemments and industry. help educators and trainers to develop their own

    The fact that development and environment are workshops or curricula, or to integrate some ofinterrelated means that it is more vital than ever the ideas and information into already existingthat: teaching programmes.

    .ail professionals have a basic environmental /t is important to keep in mind thatliteracy that helps them to incorporate these training resource packages merelyenvironmental priorities into their specialized pro vide afirst orientation to the topic.work, whatever their profession;

    .specialized environmental courses are relevant ln no way does the package constituteto today 's environmental agenda. a 'course' in ils own right.


    8 .iiP:"""i"~" .A Warkbaak for Trainers : Cleaner Production ln Textile Wet Processlng

  • 1:4 United Nations Environment Programme' Industry and Environment

    1.1 Tbis package l

    T his package is a workbook that complements balanced curriculum in response to the needs ofthe trainer's package on 'Cleaner his/her audience. Any missing elements may be

    Production '. For best results, both should be used found in one of the other UNEP manuals, to betogether. ln many cases, it would be useful to use converted into training format based on the casethe Cleaner Production material as an studies and scenario included here.introduction to any curriculum-based material in Thus, the package is not static.this workbook. As feedback is received from users and

    The workbook is balanced between curriculum- technical specialists, the material will bebased content (useful for technicians) and a more modified and enriched.management systems approach (useful for Users are encouraged to report on theirsupervisors and managers). ln practice, both will experiences in using this package, and to send inbe needed, and the trainer is urged to develop a suggestions for improvements.


    12 Contents oltbis package

    T his package is conceived principally to .work exercises and questions;help trainers prepare a seminar, .annexes containing supplementary technicalworkshop, or extended course. It is not a information to support some work exercises;

    course per se. .appendices with further information aboutThe package contains: UNEP and its programmes.

    .suggestions and hints for effective training; Trainers are encouraged to extend the package by.a short background to the subject, drawn from adding their own case studies and exercises, and

    other existing publications; expanding the subject coverage into new topics..overhead transparencies to introduce and For example, trainers in environmental health may

    illustrate the main ideas; wish to add some modules on occupational safety.case studies and situation reports and scenarios and ecotoxicity by building on the chemical

    drawn from actual experience; information already presented. )

    Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing : A Workbook for Trainers }Part 1 .Introduction

  • o.'.,~","."q"




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    Part 2

    Organizing Effective! Training Activities

    2.1 Introduction """"""""""'" II:3

    2.2 Notes on interactive workshop organization II:4

    2.3 Some ideas for more effective communication II:5)

    2.4 Some personal suggestions for effective training 11:6

    2.5 Resource persons guide II:7

    2.6 Suggestions for self study 11:9

    l, C A Warkbaak for Trainers: Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing


  • Il:3


    2 Organizing EffectiveTraining Activities

    2.1 Introduction

    C ommunication and organizational ski Ils Accordingly, this package relies on interactive8 are just as important as a technical teaching methods, using working exercises, case

    appreciation of the subject. Professional studies, and groupwork problem-solving, rather

    educators already understand this point, but than on lecture format.teaching is a very individual matter, and Interactive techniques are more complex tointeractive teaching can be very demanding on a organize than simple lecture-giving, but they givebusy person. better results. ln particular, interactive methods

    Here, we recall some of the key aspects of the are more likely to provide students with practical

    leaming process. skills. This is important where skill developmentThis text contains suggestions about: rather than factual knowledge is the objective.

    .how to ensure maximum effectiveness as a Lectures are better at providing factualtrainer knowledge than at developing skills.

    .how to organize effective training activities and For example, a workshop format is verypresentations. effective in providing training on the effectiveWe have provided this advice before use of management tools such as Environmental

    consideration of the technical material, so that Impact Assessment (ElA), or audits. For highreaders can remind themselves of the importance level environmental management, bothof the advice when choosing work exercises and knowledge and ski Ils are required, so the

    8 training projects, later in this package. appropriate mixture of techniques should be used.The notes in this Part are based on the

    Adults learn best wl,en tl,ey are actively experiences ofUNEP lE and WHO in organizingengaged. They remember 20% ofwhat they hear, workshops and other training sessions.40% of what they see, and 80% of what they Personal advice on how to be an effective trainerd . fi h l is also given by several experienced trainers, who

    lscover or t emse ves.ail use interactive training approaches.

    8A Workbook for Trainers : Cleaner Production ln Textile Wet Processlng

  • Il:4 United Nations Environment Programme' Industry and Environment

    2.2 Notes on interactive workshop organization )

    2.2.1 Workshops

    W or~hoPs provide a stimulating learning .pre~~tion of a country report by eachenVIronment where people with a wide partIcIpant before the workshop

    range of experiences and skills can join together .short introductory or overview lectures on keyto address practical problems beyond the ability issuesof an individual to resolve. .practical problem-solving work exercises on

    Interactive workshops use a combination of case studiesseveral techniques to bring about a deeper and .feedback by experts and discussions onmore pragmatic learning experience than is workshop exercisespossible with a lecture-style format. .panel sessions (that is, question-answer

    Workshops also provide excellent opportunities dialogues) with expertsfor exchanging personal experiences, problem- .individual study sessions, computer quizzes,solving through panel sessions and direct and so on.consultations with experts, and discussing some .structured oral presentations of country reports lof the complex situations which surround most leading to a regional overviewenvironmental problems. .audiovisuals such as videos, films, and slides

    The UNEP/WHO workshop format .field visits where appropriateincorporates the following elements: .personal action planning by participants for

    .sending out pre-workshop reading material, follow-up activity.with some simple exercises


    2.2.2 Preparation

    Sessions need to be carefully prepared, withparticipants knowing in advance what they It cannot be overstressed how important it is

    will do or see. A profonna report form for that participants should be thorouglrly preparedcountry reports gives a common format to these for the workshops, and tllat ail tl,e pre-sessions. Country reports should also try to link workshop activities I,ave been completed.the issues with other sessions.-~~=.._~ l

    2.2.3 Organization ',f

    T he organization ofworking group sessions The foIe ofresource experts as advisors isalso requires care. Groups should first meet crucial. They should have sufficient experience to

    infonnally, elect their own chairman, and then act assist in ail sessions and provide general adviceas a pennanent team in various workshop on ail subjects in workshops, discussion or panelsessions. They are guided, but DOt instructed, by sessions. They should not, however, dominate the

    technical experts. workshops.It is useful to finish the workshop by preparing The five clay fonnat is ideal for covering ail

    personal action plans. Participants should develop these requirements. If less than five days is taken,and present their proposaIs for what they can you can be sure that important issues will be leftinitiate immediately on their retum home. Such out. If more time is available, consider includingaction includes: social events and private study sessions, along.what they can achieve unassisted, and with more extensive project work for the.what else they could achieve if some assistance students.

    were available.

    Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing : A Workbook for Trainers )Part 2 .Organizing Effective Training Activities

  • ij'rJ Il:5

    82.3 Some ideas lor more enective communication

    I f the training is to be successful, effective .trainees who are traditionally used to lecturescommunication is essential- from recognition are suddenly required to take part in discussion

    of the training need to the fmal evaluation of the groups, which might feel alien to them.event. Most ofthese issues can be anticipated and

    Without good communication, ail manDer of overcome by good communication between thethings can go wrong: course designers, writers, and event organizers.the training is too early -or too late -to make and presenters on the one side, and the students

    any impact on performance and their organizations on the other..trainees do not know what the training is about Some simple communication considerations will

    or what to expect help to improve outputs in training and avoid.the course is planned for a local public holiday disasters.

    8 Before the learning eventFind out:.how the learners have been taught in the past.the real needs and situation of the learners.whether the facilities are adequate for the envisaged training.whether the training has the support of senior people.how success will be measured.

    Make a project plan for the organizers, giving details of howthe event will be organized. Send the plan to them, with detailsof the key dates and needs.

    During the learning.find out how relevant the topics are to the work situation of the

    participants.start with the familiar ail can -not a video of an oi 1

    spill disaster.communicate using topics, themes and issues in the

    local press8 .store unanswered questions, and remember to answer

    them before the end.keep notes for participants to bullet-point fonTlat.ensure the participants keep notes for future reference -few

    read essays, or even articles.if you are working in a foreign language, at least translate the

    si ides.

    After the learning event.always communicate your thanks and best wishes.infonTl participants on follow-up study procedures, and how the

    instructor can help to analyze the evaluations and infonTl theorganizers of the results

    .communicate to colleagues the results of the training and whatcan be learned from these results.

    8 1_!lill:1itim:A Workbook for Tra;ners : Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processlng

    ._-~""_. "." "__h~.~,",~,,,,",.."'--

  • Il:6 United Nations Environment Programme' Industry and Environment

    2A Some personal suggestions )

    for enective training

    T he following suggestions corne from four teachers with long experience in training. They are aildifferent in character, and therefore in teaching approaches. However, they aIl believe in an

    enthusiasm for the subject which is critical when teaching students.

    To be an effective educator/teacher: The outstanding educator/teacher:

    .Provide an enjoyable learning situation that expands .Is fully acquainted with, and believes iD, the

    ail of the participants' network. educational merit of the subject matter.

    .Model courses and teaching styles on examples that .Utilizes clear and graphic illustrations to inform

    you think are outstanding. Ask yourself about the and motivate the students to leam. )

    qualities of a good instructor or a good course, and .Utilizes leaming approaches including multi-

    follow the answers you corne up with. media, projects, interviews, questionnaires,

    .Allow the subject matter to be discussed and debates, and similar interactive approaches to

    discovered by students -not hammered in. ensure full involvement of the students.

    .Make courses relevant and interesting by .Reacts positively to ail questions -there are no

    understanding your audience. Ask them what they Stupid Questions, only Stupid Answers.

    already know, and then plan for their needs, .Remembers that positive reinforcement is a

    Incorporate ideas trom the group in the course. better motivational approach than criticism.

    .Remember that no amount of style will substitute for .Is available for private discussions with

    a jack of substance. individual students or groups of students.Deborah Hanlon. Environmental Scientist Don Huisingh, Environmental Consultant and Prof essor at

    Office of Environmental Engineering Erasmus University in Rotterdamand Technology Demonstration. US EPA the Nelherlands

    To be efficient ('doing things right~, and The best educatorlteacher:

    effective ('doing tire right things~: .Likes the learners, and has a true understanding of

    .Think about helping people to leam, rather than how they learn.

    teaching them. .Has the ability to communicate. )

    .Seek leamer feedback, and measure leaming .Will change the training programme and the

    achieved with objective tests. approach if necessary.

    .Set leaming time limits. .Is stilileaming, and has recent applied experience of

    .Seek conscious and unconscious leaming. the subject being taught.

    .Seek leaming that endures, based on .Has the ability to organise events and to manage

    understanding and skills. things.Bob Boland, Environmental Consultant, France Colin Sutherland, Educational Consultant, Fran

    Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing : A Workbook for Trainers )

    Part 2 .Organizing Effective Training Activities


  • m. Il:78 2.5 Resource persons guide

    A s this package relies heavily on interactive groupwork sessions, here are some guidelines on howto be an effective resource persan.

    ln a case study-based training approach, the resource persan serves more as a:

    .facilitator of the group learning process.technical adviser as needed,

    and a.catalyst of learning

    rather than a:.lecturer


    8Here are some guidelines on how to be an effective resource pers on.

    1Be sure that you have read and understood and respective organizations, etc., whichthoroughly the participant's notes before you should have been done on the flrst day anyway.

    meet your group. There's nothing like being .then ask if the objectives and pur pose of theprepared and more familiar with the case study exercise, which have been previously discussedscenario than the participants are! in the plenary session, are clear to them.2 Before every group work session, take time Sample objectives are:

    to visit your assigned meeting room and -identify and understand the options that SMEs

    check the: tan employ in their pollution prevention.seating arrangements There should be a large program

    enough table surrounded by enough chairs for -evaluate the feasibility and suitability of these

    the participants and yourself options in view oftechnical, environmental,.equipment and supplies such as flipcharts, financial, organizational, and social criteria

    flipchart papers, marker pens, whitelblack and constraints.8 board, board eraser, masking tape, transparency lt will be useful to know whether the majority

    sheets, writing pads, ballpen/pencils, calculator, of the group members have actually read the textetc. provided, which states the background and the

    .physical conditions of the room There should problem.be sufficient lighting, the room temperature lfthey have not, then you will need to directshould be comfortable, noise should be as low them to focus their attention first on what needs

    as possible, etc. to be accomplished by the end of each part.3During the initial group meeting, it is 4 lfYOUr group gets involved in.diverse issues,important to set an informai andfriendly try to steer them back on the nght track by

    atmosphere. lt is suggested that you: asking relevant questions, rather than telling

    .introduce yourselj; preferably asking everyone them what to do.

    to cali you by your first name, and then let 5Give technical assistance andeverybody introduce himself/herself in a similar supplementary information as needed,

    manner. Do not waste lime stating positions

    8 lIrfJ' ,;,"" 'in TextilWet Processing

  • Il:8 United Nations Environment Programme. Industry and Environment


    without 'spoon-feeding' the participants. persons need to be duly advised on the )However, do not lecture or dominate the group particular question.discussion process. g see to it that you compare notes, exchange6AlthOUgh you need not star with your group hints, and share strategies with other

    for 100% of the time, it is expected that you: resource persons so that you can assist one.spend at least 80% afthe rime with them during another, as weil as gauge your group's progress

    regular sessions. The crucial times are at the in comparison with the others.

    beginning, middle, and near the end of each 10If tension or heated argument arisesgroupwork session. among your group members, try rOUf

    .Ifthey decide to work beyond the prescribed best (with a sense ofhumor) to defuse it.

    regular time, just make sure that they are on the Il ln the case of absenteeism, approach theright track; your presence during overtime is person/persons in question and encouragenot mandatory, but voluntary. them to participate.7There will be critical parts during the 12 If one or two group members are

    identification of options, followed by dominating the discussions or doing ail

    technical, environmental, and economic the work, intervene and encourage everyone toevaluation, where your technical advice will be gel involved. ln order to do this effectively, you ,most needed by your group. need to be attuned to your group's 'culture' and )

    The best way to assist the participants is by trend of discussion.

    giving only the advantages and disadvantages of 13 Although division of labor is a timethe options in question. Let them weigh these saving group work strategy, you mustpros and cons and decide for themselves whether ensure that it is not done to the extent that there isto take or drop the option. no peer learning and discussion occurring. It is8 If you encounter any question about the counter-productive for group members to work

    technical content of the material that you individually on the se exercises.have not been briefed on, discuss it with the 14The most productive, meaningful andTeam Leader and agree on how to tackle the fulfilling group work is when they get tosituation. It may weil be that the other resource accomplish what they have to do as a team -and

    have fun in the process!


    Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing : A Workbook for Tra;ners )Part 2 .Organizing Effective Training Activities

  • 511~. Il:9

    8 2.6 Suggestions for self studv

    A lthOUgh this package was designed supplemented by further reading and additionalto provide resources for trainers, training materials listed in the Appendices, andthe potential for self-study should perhaps by site visits and discussions with

    Dot be ignored. professionals.The package does Dot constitute a complete The following approach is suggested for

    course on cleaner production in leather tanning, individual study.but can be seen as an introduction to be

    8 .Read the introduction, but avoid any sections on organizing training events.

    .Seek out the section containing background pa pers or subject content. Read throughthe whole section as narrative.

    .Work through the pages offered to the trainer for overhead projection, and ensureyou can relate the key points of each overhead to the text you have read.

    .Look at the section on exercises. Identify those which lend themselves to individualwork, and tackle them. Those exercises clearly constructed for teamwork, orrequiring research, may not be appropriate.

    .Refer back to the narrative text as and when you need to, to complete the exercises.

    .Check rOUf answers against those given in this resource pack. Where there arediscrepancies, check through your own working to understand why the

    discrepancies appeared.

    8 .Use the Appendices to plan rOUf own further development.

    8A Warkbaak for Trainers : Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing

    " "'-~._-"_." "' l ,.",.., ,.,--

  • Bi11 111:7to Current Environmental Issues and Environmental Aspects of Textile WeI Processing

    8 Table 3.2 and Table 3.3 below show impacts of raw material production to health and the environrnent

    of natural and synthetic fibres in the textile industry.

    Table 32 Impacts of raw material production ofnatural fibres from plants on human health and the environment

    Process Desired Area of application Chemicals employed Possible impacts on healtheffect and the environment

    Cultivation Pesticides Natural fibres: .Aldrin .acute toxicity (oral

    .cotton .Chlordane and dermal).bast (flax, jute, .DDT .local, acute effects

    hemp, ramie) .Dieldrin .short-term toxicity

    .Endrin .long-term toxicity.HCH (including .carcinogenicity

    8 Lindane) .mutagenicity.pCP .reproduction toxicity.Toxa hene .neurotoxici

    Harvesting Defoliation Natural fibres: .2, 4-d see above.cotton .2, 4, 5-t.bast (flax, jute, (agent orange)


    Table 3.3 Impacts of raw material production ofsynthetic fibres on human health and the environment

    Process Desired Area of application Chemicals employed Possible impacts on healtheffect and environment

    8 Raw Fibre material Regenerated .Solventsmaterial cellulose fibres: .Other substances

    synthesis .viscose.acetate

    Raw Fibre material Synthetic fibres: .Fossil fuels .Non-renewable energymaterial .polyamide resource

    synthesis .polyester.polyacrylic.01 vin Ichlorine

    e.g. Catalysis of Polyester Heavy metals .Toxic effects toPolyester polymerisation containing catalysts: human health

    synthesis .antimony trioxide

    .antimony pentoxide

    .ermanium dioxide

    8A Warkbaak for ila;ners : Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing

  • 111:8 United Nations Environment Programme' Industry and Environment

    :'kA h . 1. h b .th th ':J

    s t e envlronmenta Issues ave ecome waste, It en becomes necessary to select e

    more complex, a comprehensive integrated treatment strategy. If pollution avoidance,approach is required to tackle the problem of recycling and treatment are carefully chosen, thenpollution control. A voidance of waste generation there should be little residue requiring treatmentand reduction whenever and wherever possible and disposaI. Nevertheless, fuis must be carriedshould become the strategy of first priority. This out, keeping in mind the possible environmentalwould imply that utilization of aIl types of impacts as weIl as safety to the workers andresources -water, chemicals, heat, and so on -neighbouring community.should be optimal. This cou Id be done in many Nowadays, textile products -in particular,instances by the implementation of simple garments -have attained a significantmeasures, such as good housekeeping or reuse of environmental focus. Garments representresources. protection, but their contact with the skin can

    ln a few situations, a review of the existing cause irritation or even disease, deriving from theprocess technology may also be needed with following principal causes:respect to the choice of process, processing .content of metalssequence and equipment. Examples of such .content of organic substances or chemicaloptions include: elements.water conservation by counter-current washing .pH. ).recovery of chemicals such as size, caustic, This being the case, the first steps towards

    dyes and grease establishing standards for textiles have been made.substitution of low BOD (Biochemical Oxygen in Europe with the MST standards, Eco-Tex,

    Demand) chemicals for high BaD oDes which serve as worldwide references and are the.heat recovery from effluents, etc. only premises of intemationallegislation.

    Textile equipment manufacturers are becoming Moreover, new man-made 'ecological' fibresmore and more aware of the need to conserve (such as Tencel, Lyocell, Newcell, etc.) havewater, che mi cals and energy. ln fact, many new recently corne onto the market. Theirproduction technologies have (at least in part) 'ecological' character is derived partly from theirbeen spawned by that awareness, and have thus manufacture, which does Dot involve anyinfluenced the design of textile manufacturing chemical reaction, and partly from the totalequipment without impairing the product quality. recovery of the solvents used in manufacture.Examples of such process and equipment changes ParaI lei to this, a new subsidiary market withinclude modifications in equipment for washing an immense potential is developing, based onand drying and for dyeing and printing offabric. ecological disposai ofwaste textiles, such as re-

    Having explored the production processes so as use, recycling and destruction.to generate only the smallest possible amount of ;

    Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing : A Workbook for Trainers )Part 3 .Introduction to Current Environmentallssues and Aspects of Textile Wet Processing


  • 14a~ 111:910 Currenl Environmenlal Issues and Environmenlal Aspects of Textile Wei Processing

    83A Exercises

    ,,'. 1 (i) Which of the impacts mentioned earlier are the most important to the textile

    "'1' industry overall? Why are they the most important?

    () Which are most important to local people? Try to rank them in order:


    (i) Which issues are addressed in a typical factory permit? How are the othersaddressed?


    (iv) What does the textile association do to address these issues?

    8"A Textile Wet Processing

    ~...~- ""

  • 111:10 United Nations Environment Programme' Industry and Environment

    .Ii.~ 2 Listed in Table 3.4 are several different groups of chemicals/products generally )

    1 LI 1 encountered in the textile wet processing industry. These groups may becharacterized in terms of the difficultY in treatment/control according to thefollowing categories:

    1 Relatively harmless2 Moderate ta high organic load (in terms of BOD)3 Difficult ta biodegrade4 Nat suitable for biological treatment

    Assign the appropriate pollution category against each chemicaVproduct group:

    Table 3.4 Pollution capability of chemicals and productsused in the chemical processing of textiles

    .Difficulty ofChemlcals/Products


    Formaldehyde N-methylol resins .Chlorinated solvents and carriers Cationic retarders and softeners )

    Biocides Sequestering agents

    Heavy metal salis

    Waal grease Dyes and brighteners

    Polyacrylate size such as polyvinyl alcohol

    Pol ymer finishes

    Starch size Biodegradable surfactant

    Organic acids Reducing agents

    Alkalis Minerai acids .)Neutra! salis Oxidizing agents " C

    Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing : A Workbook for Trainers )Part 3 .Introduction to Current Environmental Issues and Aspects of Textile Wet Processing

  • r;: i "'.DI~~~Qn III: Il

    10 Current Environmentallssues and Environmental Aspects of Textile Wei Processing

    8 3.5 Solutions

    Question 1 (i) The most important impacts are the depletion and contamination ofwater

    resources and the impacts of energy consumption. Issues of contamination of soit,water and natural ecosystems are also important from a long term global sc ale, but aredifficult to isolate and quantify.

    () At the locallevel, the order of impacts could be:

    .depletion and contamination of water resources.impacts due to energy consumption (including associated air pollution).impacts on the health of facto!)' workers due to air emissions and noise.

    (iii) Typically, a facto!)' permit addresses issues such as water and energy

    consumption during licensing, wastewater and air emissions released during permitsfrom the environment department, worker safety and health issues in terms of noise

    insulation, ventilation and work space during safety related and architecturaVdesignrelated clearances. Additional issues are addressed through the process of

    8 Environmental Impact Assessment, if needed, depending on the size and location ofthe textile facto!)'.

    Question 2

    .Difficulty ofChemlcals/Products


    Formaldehyde N-methylol resins Not suitable

    Chlorinated solvents and carriers Cationic retarders and softeners for

    Biocides Sequestering agents bio/ogical

    Heavy metal salts treatment

    Wooi grease Dyes and brighteners Difficult to

    Polyacrylate sile such as polyvinyl alcohol biodegrade

    Polymer finishes

    Starch sile Biodegradable surfactant Moderate to

    Organic acids Reducing agents high organic

    8 load (interms of


    Alkalis Minerai acids Relatively

    Neutral salts Oxidizing agents harmless

    8 ,:'~i~J..;"IG;\1_1i1;"",llifiill.A Workbook for Trainers : Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing

    ---~""' .."~.""."

  • VI:3

    86 Environmental Aspects

    of the Printing and

    Finishing processes

    8 6.1 Printing

    W aShing the fabric after printing results Some approaches to eliminate or replace urea inin coloured effluents which carry the cellulose printing have been suggested:

    unfixed print paste with its .adoption of two-phase flash printingingredients. Some of the hard-to-treat printing .complete or partial substitution ofurea with anwastes include colour residues, phosphate and alternative chemical Metaxyl FN- T

    nitrogen-containing chemicals, and non- andbiodegradable organic materials such as .the mechanical application ofmoisture tosurfactants and solvents. These products can printed fabric prior to entering the steamer.resist effluent treatments, causing subsequent ln the flash-ageing process, highly reactive dyesenvironmental problems. are printed from a paste free of alkali and urea,

    Nowadays alkylphenol-ethylene oxide products and then overpadded with high concentrations ofare being replaced by eco-friendly surfactants and caustic soda and electrolyte followed by flash-white spirit, with water emulsion thickening by steaming. However, it is observed that adoption

    aqueous thickeners in pigment printing. More ofthis technique may Dot solve effluentserious problems arise in printing with reactive problems, because the flash-age process involves

    8 dyes where large quantities ofurea are used to use ofhigh salt and high pH liquors.swell cellulosic fibres, bringing about the Moisture spraying systems have been round to bedisaggregation of dyes, an increased solubility of useful in conditioning viscose fabrics after printingdyes, retarded evaporation of water during and drying but before steaming. These systemsdrying, and increased condensation of water on eliminate the use of urea totally by printing from a

    prints during steaming. urea-free print paste followed by applyingmoisture ofup to 30% prior to steaming.

    8A Warkbaak for Trainers : Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing

  • VI:4 United Nations Environment Programme' Industry and Environment

    6.2 Finishing ')

    T he finishing process imparts the final aesthetic, chemical and mechanical properties to the fabric asper the end use requirements. Several fmishing methods have been developed to improve the feel,

    drape, antistatic, antisoiling, anti shrinking, anti-crease, water repelling and flame retardancy propertiesof the fabric.

    The fmishing can be broadly classified into two categories: mechanical fmishing and chemicalfmishing. ln the case of mechanical fmishing, the effect is produced mechanically, while for chemical

    finishing, chemicals are used.The fmishes can be further classified as permanent and nondurable finishes.

    6.2.1 Resin finishingT he main objectives ofresin fmishing are batched in wet conditions and left to react underto improve dry and wet crease recovery rotation for 10 to 16 bourg, depending on theand sharp crease retention of the fabric. amount of catalyst used. ')

    This fmish is largely applied to cotton and its Durable press treatment is based on differentblends with manmade fibres. requirements. It gives high wrinkle recovery.

    There are three main types of resin finishing However, in certain types of garments (such astreatments: men's suiting and shirts), creases are introduced.anti-crease finishing deliberately. The creases should last as long as.wash and wear finishing possible and should survive normallaunderings,

    .durable press treatment. whilst at the same time, the rest of the garmentThough the anti-crease finish and wash and should be wrinkle free.

    wear finish methods are basically the same, the Different methods, such as the post-cure

    difference lies only in the type and level of crease process and garment treatment, are used forrecovery. ln anti-crease finishing, a dry-crease durable press treatment. Ofthese, the post-curerecovery of about 230 (warp and weft) is and pre-cure process are mainly used.regardedas satisfactory. However, in wash and ln the post-cure process, the fabric iswear fabrics, it is DOt only the dry crease recovery impregnated with a solution containingwhich is important but also the wet crease thermosetting resin, acidic catalyst, softener etc.,

    recovery. Dry and wet crease recovery of about and dried under conditions which do Dot cause a240 (warp and weft) each cao be considered as complete reaction between the cotton and the )satisfactory for wash and wear fabrics. cross-linking agent. At this stage, the fabric is said

    For anti-crease and 'wash and wear' finishing, to be 'sensitised'. Garments are stitched from thetwo processes are mainly used: pad-dry-cure and 'sensitised fabric, lightly ironed to their properwet cross linking. ln the case of the pad-dry-cure shape, and then cured in a garment curing aven. lnmethod, the fabric is padded with the resin, dried the pre-cure process, however, after the usual pad-on the stenter and cured in polymeriser. After dry-cure afterwash technique, the garment iscuring, the fabric is washed with soap and soda ash manufactured from the crease resistant fabric. The

    to remove decomposed products from the cured creases are then heat-processed after localfabric, whereas in the wet cross linking process, application of a small amounts of cross-linkingthe chemical reaction is allowed to take place agent, together with an acidic solution and anbetween a cross linkingagent and cellulose in an acidic catalyst. ln the durable press treatment toacidic wet condition. The fabric is padded with cotton fabrics, the combination ofhigh resin(80% pick-up) a solution containing thermosetting content and prolonged curing at high temperaturesresin with a highly acidic or alkaline catalyst and causes severe strength los ses and reduces abrasionthermoplastic resin. After padding, the fabric is resistance below acceptable limits.

    Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing : A Workbook for Trainers .)Part 6 .Environmental Aspects a/the Printing and Finishing Processes


  • P.~: VI:5

    8 6.2.2 Anti-shrink finishing

    The main objective of ibis fmish is to overcome mechanically shrunk between a drum and a rubberthe problem of shrinkage of cotton and belt. The sanforising machine consists of an entry

    cotton-blended fabric during washing. The process roll, a cloth damping unit, a small clip stenter towas originally patented and treated fabric was adjust the width of the fabric, a cloth shrinkingknown as 'Sanforised' fabric. The cloth is unit, and a felt palmer unit to impart the felt finish.

    6.2.3 Stenter finishingThe main function of the stenter is to impart .the use offormaldehyde scavengers during

    dimensional stability to the fabric. Fabric application and storage of resin fmished goods.structure is stabilized by controlling the A wide variety of products is used in textilelongitudinal and transverse tension and heat finishing, depending on the characteristics to besetting the fabric in tension. Length is controlled imparted to the consultant fabric. Most ofthese

    by positive overfeeding, whereas width is products are either polymeric in nature orcontrolled by mounting the fabric on parallel anionic, cationic or non-ionic compounds. ln

    8 running chains. Stentering is a critical process, several cases, catalysts are used along with theseand determines the dimension stability of the products to bring about a chemical reactionfabric and shrinkage during use. between them and the fibre substance to make

    These machines normally fUn at around them more durable during use. Precise0-150m/min., depending on the type of machine, information is DOt readily available regardingthe process used, and the fabric. Overfeeding can biodegradability and toxicity of these products; it

    be carried out between -15% and +60%. Heat is therefore difficult to evaluate their impact on

    setting is clone in a long closed chamber, where receiving streams.the fabric is dried at a high temperature by means ln order to overcome the problems connectedof hot air. with non-ecofriendly products used in the chemical

    Amongst the different products used in the finishing of textiles, research is DOW concentratedfinishing of textiles, the most eco-friendly products in the mechanical finishing of textiles wherebyare formaldehyde-based cross-linking agents desired properties -namely softness, stiffness,which are applied to cellulosic textiles to impart bulk, drape, smoothness, handle etc. -can becrease-resistance and dimensional stability. imparted to textiles by changing the morphology or

    } During their application, the evolution offree surface characteristics of the fabrics by mechanicalformaldehyde can arise due to unreacted means. ln turn, this completely obviates the use of

    8 formaldehyde in the product, liberation of chemical products, thereby reducing considerablyformaldehyde during the cross-linking reaction, the problems oftoxicity and stream pollution.and slow generation offormaldehyde during the Vacuum extraction bas been utilized in manystorage ofresin-finished fabrics and garments. capacities. The technology bas been used for lintVarious countries have prescribed tolerance limits removal, water removal, chemical finishing,for free formaldehyde, depending on the end use of dyeing, washing, and removal and recovery ofthe treated fabrics and garments. The presence of chemicals. Vacuum extraction lint removalformaldehyde in the atmosphere and in wastewater systems rem ove lint from fabric prior to printing,streams is considered as highly objectionable. eliminating a potential unprinted spot where lint

    Two different approaches have been adopted to is attached to the fabric. ln addition, by removingminimize the problems connected with free the lint prior to the printing process, lint does DOt

    formaldehyde in textile wet processing: become attached to the printing screen, thereby.the development offormaldehyde-free cross- resulting in repeated unprinted spots along the

    linking agents for cellulosic textiles and length of the printed fabric. By removing lint

    formaldehyde-free dye-fixing agents before the fabric is printed, the quality,

    8 A Warkbaak for Trainers : Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing

    C"," .,.

  • VI:6 United Nations Environment Programme' Industry and Environment

    }consistency, and appearance of the printed fabric using a squeeze roll. Vacuum extractionis improved. equipment is space efficient, tan be added to

    One of the most common and simplest uses of existing systems, and requires relatively lowvacuum extraction is for water removal prior to capital outlay.drying. Moisture removal before drying saves Applications ofthese systems include waterenergy in the drying process, increases removal prior to drying fabric and chemicalproduction speed by decreasing the overall drying application, and as a means of improving thetime, and assists in washing the fabric. washing process. Some of the benefits ofremoving

    ln wet processing, it is critical that the fabric water prior to the drying of fabric includebas the correct moisture level to prevent bath increased drying and process speed, reduceddilution from fabric which is too wet. Vacuum energy requirements for drying, a reduction oflintcontrai is crucial to maintain consistent extraction accumulation on rails and dry cans, andrates for even chemical application. By applying elimination of a drying process for wet-on-wetreactive chemicals on wet fabric as opposed to chemical fmishing. Water removal before chemicaldry fabric, savings are not only realized application removes fabric contaminants andchemically, but drying is eliminated. The period assures uniform wet pick-up prior to chemicalof retum on investment is extremely short. application. The washing process is improved by

    Utilizing vacuum extraction technology in vacuuming out, not squeezing in, contaminants, )washing significantly increases the contaminant and allows controlled counterflow and filtering ofremoval from fabric compared to water removal water in the wash line.


    Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing : A Workbook for Trainers jPart 6. Environmental Aspects of the Printing and Finishing Processes

    ~,- ..

  • liai VI:7

    8 6.3 Printing and linishing pollution loads

    Table 6.1 Pollution loads for printing and finishing operations (50/50 polyester/cotton)

    Process pH BOD TDS

    kg per 1000kg of product


    Pigment (woven goods) 6-8 1.26 5.0 0.13 2.5

    8 Pigment (knot goods) 6-8 1.26 5.0 0.13 2.5

    Vat dye (woven goods) 10.0 21.5 86 25 34

    Vat dye (knit goods) 10.0 21.5 86 25 35


    Resin finishing 6-8 22(woven goods)

    Resin finishing flat curing 6-8 6.32 25 12 17.3(woven goods)


    8A Warkbaak for Trainers : Cleaner

    .",," _.

  • VI:8 United Nations Environment Programme' Industry and Enviranment

    BA Exercises )

    .,~.m~" 1& 1 processes? What are the local enVlfonmentallmpllcatlons?

    )2 What are the environmental problems ofusing:

    [a] kerosene in pigment printing?

    [b] urea in the printing paste?


    [c] formaldehyde in finishing?


    Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing : A Warkbaak for Trainers )Part 6 .Environmental Aspects of the Printing and Finishing Processes


  • I~; VI:9

    8 6.5 Solutions

    Question 2 [a] At elevated temperatures, kerosene can lead to the release ofhydrocarbons,

    which in turn leads to the generation of carcinogenic compounds and affects the healthof workers.

    [b] When washed-out or wasted, printing paste containing urea can reach the waterbodies nearby. The escape of urea into water bodies can lead to an increase in nutrients

    promoting the growth of algae and subsequently eutrophication.[ci When on the fabric, free formaldehyde can react with perspiration or

    rubbing skin, and can lead to skin diseases depending on skin sensitivity(especially in case of children).



    8 A Warkbaak for Trainers : Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing

    -'.""'AU"'" ""',.

  • VIII: 1

    ! ~..c'

  • VIlI:3

    88 References

    8.1 Some backgrounddocuments on the environment

    Saving Our Planet: challenges and hopes [1992] Beyond the Limits: global collapse or aM.K. Tolba (Executive Director of UNEP). sustainable future? [1992] D.H, Meadows;ISBN 0412473704. D.L. Meadows; J. Randers. ISBN 185383131 X.

    8 This book analyses the changes that have Using World 3, a computer model, to projectoccurred in the environment in the past two the future, and by varying the basic global policydecades. It focuses not only on the state of the assumptions, a range of possible outcomes is

    environment, but also on the interactions between described. It is shown that a sustainable society isdevelopment activities and the environment. It technically and economically feasible, if growthhighlights the main responses since 1972 to if material consumption and population are

    protect the environment. ceased down and there is an increase in thePublished by: Chapman & Hall, efficiency of our use of materials and energy.

    2-6 Boundary Row, London SEI 8HN, UK. Published by: Earthscan Publications Ltd.,Environmental Data Report 1993.1994 [1993] 120 Pentonville Road, London NI 9JN, UK.

    United Nations Environment Programme. Changing Course: a global business perspectiveISBN 0 63119043 O. on developmentand the environment [1992]This report is updated biennially and provides S. Schmidheiny. ISBN 0262691531.

    the best available data and information on a wide This book provides an analysis of how therange of environmental topics, including business community tan adapt and contribute to

    pollution, health, natural resources, population the crucial goal of sustainable development,and settlements, energy, wastes and disasters. combining the objectives of environmental

    8 Published by: Blackwell Publishers, protection and economic growth.108 Cowley Road, Oxford OX4 IJF, UK. Published by: Massachusetts Institute of

    Chemical Pollution: a global overview [1992] Technology (MIT) Press, Cambridge,United Nations Environment Programme. Massachusetts 02142, USA.This book overviews the origins and impacts of Blueprint for Green Management: creating your

    pollution around the world, caused by selected company's own environmental action plan [1995]chemical pollutants and wastes. G. Winter. ISBN 0 07 709015 2.

    Publishedby: UNEP, Nairobi. This book is a handbook ofindustrial ecologyThe Earth Summit's Agenda for Change: a plain with numerous checklists for practical use and a

    language version of Agenda 21 and the other Rio concrete example of the lntegrated System ofAgreements [1993] M. Keating, ISBN 2 940070 00 8. Environmentalist Business Management (the so-

    This publication is aimed at facilitating access called Winter Model), supported by theto the very important material contained in Commission of the European Communities.Agenda 21. Published by: McGraw-Hill Book Company

    Published by: The Centre for Our Common Future, (UK) Ltd.

    52 rue des Paquis, 1201 Geneva, Switzerland.

    8 cC :iA Workbook for Trainers : Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing

    ,.."" .c ..,"" .c.."" ""","",,,

  • VIII:4 United Nations Environment Programme' Industry and Enviranment

    Life Cycle Assessment: what it is and how to do it The second part of the volume, Life Cycle )

    [1996] UNEP lE Assessment: how ta use il, examines the severnlThis report is in two parts. The flfSt, Life Cycle steps involved in making an LCA in a simplified

    Assessment: what il is, is concemed with the concep but systematic manDer. It illustt-ates the problemsofLCA, how it is currently practised and how it is involved and the kind ofresults that tan beexpected to develop. It also places LCA in the produced by working thrOUgh a real LCA that basbroader perspective of other tools for environmental been used to assess the environmental impact ofanalysis such as environmental impact assessment, different low fat spreads.risk analysis and technology assessment. Further information: UNEP lE, Paris, France.



    Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing : A Warkbaak for Trainers)

    Part 8 .References

    ~..".. , ~",,","

  • jgi~:ill', :~::iBif.iri"~~ VIII:5

    8 8.2 Audiovisuals

    IChemE has an international reputation for providing high quality, effective

    safety and environ mental training solutions using video, slide, open leamingand computer-based techniques. We draw on experts throughout industry,the regulatory bodies, the legal profession and academia to ensure that ourtraining packages are bath high quality and relevant.

    ENVIRONMENTAL PACKAGESENVIRONMENTAL AWARENESS ENVIRONMENTAL AUDITINGPackage EO2 Understanding is the key to effective Package EO4 Trainees leam how to make audits moreenvironmental improvements -bath through certified effective. ln clearly defined sections, the package explainsstandards and effective policy implementation. This package how to go about auditing a site, from defining the scope andgives a thorough grounding in environmental awareness. The objectives through on-site activities to reporting and follow-upcase studies Gaver: environmentallaw; global issues; work. Thirteen case studies and exercises, supported by overcorporate issues; and waste minimization. 120 slides, include: setting up an EMS; auditing for wasteAQUEOUS EFFLUENTS disposai, due diligen and effluence compliance; reportingVolume 1: awareness and treatment strategies audit findings; and discussion of photographs of bad practice.

    8 Package EO1 Engineers leam how to assess and deal with ENVIRON MENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMSeffluent problems; senior management gain a sound technical Package EO51f you already have an environmentaland legal grounding; and operators learn why compliance is management system, this package will help you gainimportant. Seven case studies demonstrate how effective commitment from your staff. If you are just developing atreatment strategies save money whilst benefiting the system, not only will you benefit from the training, but alsoenviron ment. And the technical guidance covers: benchmarking from the detailed case studies will save youcharacterisation of effluents; treatment strategy; safety; unit time. And if you have still not decided which system to go foroperations; and rosIs. (if any), this package will help you make an informed decision.Volume 2: measurement and monitoring ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENTPackage EO13 Trainees learn how to measure and monitor Package EO6 This training package gives you a thorougheffluents, ensuring compliance and reducing treatment costs. grounding in the ElA process and techniques. Produced inAIR EMISSIONS conjunction with the Institute of Environmental Assessment,Volume 1: key issues the package provides an effective means of training ail staffPackage EO3 This package provides comprehensive concerned with EIAs.coverage of generic air pollution issues and technologies, There are nine case studies provided by leading environ mentalbacked up with detailed sections on sours and types of consultancies. These introduce the practical aspects of the ElAemissions, atmospheric chemistry, standards and legislation process by examining projects involving a food processing plant,(UK and European). a sewage treatment works, a coastal defen scheme, a pipelineVolume 2: monitoring and control proposai, an ail refinery and a power station.Package EO12 This package follows on from AE Vol. 1: key W ASTE MIN IMllA TION8 issues, and provides detailed information on measurement Package EO7 Approaches in the package vary from goodand monitoring and contrai techniques, illustrated with housekeeping to complex techniques such as life cyclecomprehensive case studies. Sections on ambient monitoring, analysis. This training package shows how to go about il, frommeteorology and air dispersion modelling help to provide a defining a strategy through to making sure it happens.thorough grounding in the technical issues associated with air CONTAMINA TED LANDemissions. Package EOB Trainees learn why contaminated land isENERGY MANAGEMENT important, how and why a company should avoidPackage EO11 Energy efficiency affects the bottom line. contamination, and the pros and cons of the key remediationTrainees learn the basic tools and techniques for effective techniques. You will also learn how to use this knowledge toenergy management. gel the most out of the consultants you use.

    For order form contact: Mark SmithSafety Health and Environment Department .Institution of Chemical Engineers

    165-189 Railway Terrace .Rugby CV21 3HQ, UKTel +441788 578214' Fax +441788560833

    8 A Warkbaak for Trainers : Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing

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  • 3, Appendices11


    Appendix 1Supporting Documents for tbis Package

    During trials, the following documents were shawn to be of great use in supporting the use ofthispackage. They fOnD an integral part of the package.

    8 The Textile Industry and the Environment [1993] UNEP.

    Audit and Reduction Manualfor Industrial Emissions and Wastes [1991]UNEP / UNIDO.

    Energy Efficiency and Climate Change [1991] UNEP /IPIECA.


    -81 A Warkbaak for Tra;ners : Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing



  • 5


    8Appendix II

    List of Training Resource Packages

    available trom UNEP lE

    T he following training resource packages have been developed by UNEP lE. They ail useinteractive training methodologies to explain the subject, and are aimed at educators who,although technically skilled, may DOt have specialized knowledge in this particular area.

    The packages are available from UNEP lE.

    Some trainers' packages are still under development, and users are encouraged to assist UNEP to8 bring these to a fmal stage of publication.

    Due to the cost ofprinting of the packages (between 100 and 400 pages), the completed documentsare offered for sale to most users. However, a limited number of draft packages are free of charge tousers prepared to contribute to their further development thrOUgh review, field testing and addingmaterial. Assistance with translation would also be welcome.

    Cleaner Production: a Training Resource exercises. 110 pages. Price $120. This packagePackage [1996] First Edition. Contains also helps to explain the APELL programme.background reading, transparencies, Risk Management ofContaminated Industrialbibliography, and work exercises. 110 pages. Land: a Training Resource Package [1996]Price $120 (English, Spanish). This package First Edition. Contains background reading,cao be used with the workbooks below. case studies and work exercises. 110 pages.

    Trainer 's Workbook on Cleaner Production in Price $120. English, Spanish.Leather Tanning [1996] First Edition. Contains Hazardous Waste, Policies and Strategies: abackground reading, case studies, work Training Manual [December 1991] TRIO.

    8 exercises and answers. 120 pages. Price $120. Contains background reading, case studies,Trainer 's Workbook on Cleaner Production in work exercises, reference tables and

    the Brewing Industry [1996] First Edition. bibliography. 250 pages. Price $120. English,Con tains background reading, case studies, French, Spanish.work exercises and answers. 75 pages. Landfill of Hazardous Industrial Wastes: aPrice $100. Training Resource Package [March 1994]

    Trainer 's Workbook on Cleaner Production in TRI7. Contains background reading, caseTextile Wet Processing [August 1995] First studies, work exercises, reference tables andEdition. Contains background reading, case bibliography. 315 pages. Price $120.studies, work exercises, answers, references. Environmental and Technological Issues140 pages. Price $120. related to Lead-Acid Battery Recycling:

    Management of Industrial Accident Prevention Trainers Worbook [1996] First Edition.and Preparedness: a Training Resource Contains background reading, transparencies,Package [1996] First Edition. Contains bibliography and work exercises. 130 pages.background reading, case studies and work Price $120.

    8A Warkbaak for Trainers : Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing

    "_.~."'..".. ,.",

  • 6 United Nations Environment Programme. Industry and Enviranment

    Environmental Management of Mining Sites: a Training Manual on Chillers and Refrigerant )

    Training Manua/ [1995] UNEP/DDSMS. Management [1994] Price FF425/us$85 forContains background reading, transparencies, developed countries.case studies, work exercises and answers. Training Manual on Good Practices in200 pages. Price $160. Refrigeration [1994] Price FF400/us$80 for

    Environmental Management Systems: Training developed countries.Resource Kit [1995] UNEP/ICC/FIDIC. Environmental Impact Assessment: a trainingContains background reading, transparencies, resource manual [1996] Preliminary version.case studies, work exercises, bibliography. A vailable from UNEP Environment and492 pages. Price $190. Economics Department, UNEP, Nairobi.

    Aerosol Conversion Technology Handbook [1994]Price FF225/us$45 for developed countries.


    Enquiries UNEP lETour Mirabeau39-43 quai Andr Citron75739 Paris Cedex 15France

    Tel " 33 (1) 44 37 1450Fax 33 (1) 44 37 1474Emai/ " unepie@unep.fr



    Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing : A Warkbaak for Trainers ?


  • , 7


    8Appendix III

    About UNEP Industrv and Environment

    I ndustry and Environment was established by UNEP in 1975 to bringindustry and government together to promote environmentally sound

    industrial development.

    8 UNEP lE is located in Paris and its goals are to: the transfer of infonnation and the sharing of1 encourage the incorporation of environmental knowledge and experience, UNEP lE bas

    criteria in industrial and development plans; developed three complementary tools:2 facilitate the irnplementation of procedures and .technical reviews and guidelines;

    princip les for the protection of the environment; .Industry and Environment: a quarterly review;3 promote the use of safe and clean technologies; .a technica1 query-response service.4 stimu1ate the exchange of infonnation and ln keeping with its emphasis on technica1

    experience throUghout the world. cooperation, UNEP lE faci1itates technologyUNEP lE provides access to practical transfer and the irnp1ementation of practices to

    infonnation and develops co-operative on-site safeguard the environment through promotingaction and infonnation exchange backed by awareness and interaction, training and diagnosticregular foIlow-up and assessment. To promote studies.

    Some relevant UNEP lE publications

    Refer ta Appendix II for trainers .packages. For complete list, refer ta publications catalogue.

    Industry and Environment [quarterly] deals with Energy, Efflciency andClimate Change [1991]8 issues relevant to industrial development, such UNEP/IPIECA. 95pp.

    as auditing, waste management, industry- Hazard Identification and Evaluation in a Localspecific problems, and environmental news. Community: Technical Report No. 12 [1992]

    Government Strategies and Policiesfor Cleaner 86pp.Production [1994] 32pp. Health Aspects of Chemical Accidents:

    Cleaner Production Worldwide Vol. 1 and Il guidance on chemical accident awareness,[1995] 48pp. preparedness and response for health

    Life Cycle Assessment: what it is and how to do professionals and emergency respondersit [1996] 92pp. Technical Report No. 19 [1994] A joint

    Audit and Reduction of Industrial Emissions IPCS/OECD/UNEP/WHO publication: OECDand Wastes: Technical Report No. 7 [1991] Environment Monograph No. 81. 47pp.UNEP/UNIDO. 127pp. Environmental Aspects of Industrial Wood

    Monitoring of Industrial Emissions and Wastes: Preservation: a technical guide TechnicalTechnical Report No. 27 [1996] Report No. 20 [1994] IO5pp.UNEP/UNIDO. 188pp. The Textile Industry and the Environment

    Technical Report No. 16 [1994] 120pp.

    8A Warkbaak for Trainers : Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing

  • 8 United Nations Environment Programme olndustry and Enviranment

    )Environmental Management in the Brewing Company EnvironmentalReporting Technical 'Industry TechnicalReportNo. 33 [1995] 120pps. ReportNo. 24 [1994] 118pp.

    Storage of Hazardous Materials Technical From Regulations to Industry Compliance:Report No. 3 [1990] Building Institutional Capabilities Technical

    Companies Organization and Public Report No. 11 [1992] 62pp.Communication on Environmental IssuesTechnical Report No. 6 [1991] 130pp.

    Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing : A Warkbaak for Tra;ners



  • i


    Evaluation FormCleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing

    A s part of the continuing review ofthis trainers package, we would appreciate your cooperation inanswering the following questions. Please retum the completed evaluation form to:

    UNEP lE, Tour Mirabeau, 39-43 quai Andr Citro~n, 75739 Paris Cedex 15, FranceFax 33 (1) 44371474.

    1 Do you have any suggestions for improvement of the trainers package? How could weimprove its readability, contents, practical use, and so on?


    2 How was the package useful in preparing your own training activity?

    8 3 Did the background infonnation and transparency set provide you with enough

    infonnation? What was missing?

    continued ...

    8A Workbook for Trainers : Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processlng

    ,'""' " -~'""."

  • United Nations Environment Programme olndustry and Environment

    4 What resource infonnation was useful to you? What else should be included? )

    5 What are your experiences with the exercises? What worked, and what didn 't?


    6 Do you have training material which could be incorporated into this workbook?

    7 What additional topics related to cleaner production would you want to be included in thefinal version of this workbook? )

    Thankyoufor taking the rime to complete this evaluationform. Please return the completedform toUNEP lE, Tour Mirabeau, 39-43 quai Andr Citron, 75739 Paris Cedex 15, France.

    )Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing : A Workbook for Trainers


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