Application of Bio technology in Textile Wet Processing

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Application of Bio technology in Textile Wet Processing

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<ul><li> 1. 1 Personal Details of Student Daffodil International University Faculty of Engineering Textile Engineering Department Family Name Md. Shahiduzzaman Given Name (s) Shuvo ID 111-23-2350 Email shahid23-2350 @diu.edu.bd Assignment Details Assignment Title Application of Bio-technology In Textile Wet Processing Course Code TE-408 Course Title Specialized Wet Processing Submitted To Asst. Professor Sumon Mazumder Submission Date Declaration: 1. This work is substantially my own. 2. The assessment has not been submitted previously for assessment in this or any other unit, or another institution 3. I have retained a duplicate copy of the assignment. Md. Shahiduzzaman Shuvo </li> <li> 2. 2 1. Application Of Bio-technology In Textile Wet processing Introduction: The textile wet processing sector is the one of the biggest production sector of Asia which drain highest amount of hazardous effluent and directly involved to create ambient problem now it is became serious problem to major textile producing zones like Pakistan ,China, India ,Bangladesh. It also creates negative impact on textile market of those countries who doesnt take serious action against environmental issues like zero drainage eco-friendly products. Therefore, The researchers and scientists are working to solve economical, ecological, eco- friendly issues by troubleshooting converting the chemical treatments into biological treatments, recently successful working on biological treatments appeared in the field of wet processing specially in pretreatment sector and are in industrial practices biological evolution. [1] Application of living organism to the industries are called bio textile. Biotechnology in Textile Processing examines recent trends, techniques, and developments in the finishing and processing of natural fibers. Bio textiles are structures composed of textile fibers designed for use in specific biological environments where their performance depends on biocompatibility and bio stability with cells and biological fluids. Bio-Textile is the latest and updated technology for Textile Industry where the Enzymes are used in different process in order to achieve different goals. Living organism is used to carry out the enzymatic process. Bio textiles include implantable devices such as surgical sutures, hernia repair fabrics, arterial grafts, artificial skin and parts of artificial hearts. [2] </li> <li> 3. 3 1.1 Importance of Bio-Technology in Textile Processing: The importance of using bio-technology in Textile is worth-mentioning. Let us know some of them: Enzymatic process enhances the variety of plants used in Textile Fiber productions. It also influences the inner properties of fibers. The influence of enzymatic pre-treatment on color of bleached and dyed flax fibers It is very useful during waste managing. Prevents the adulteration. Bio-technology helps the quality control. Enhance the low energy type detergents. Using enzymes in finishing department. Used instead of harmful dyestuffs and chemical treatments. Tend to use micro-organism and bio-polymer in Textile which develop the total process of textile. Enzymatic scouring for better textile properties of knitted fabrics Designing wood fiber morphology and mechanical properties of fiberboards Enzymatic finishes of wool fabrics The effects of ultrasound on the performance of industrial enzymes used in cotton bio-preparation and bio-finishing applications [3] 2. What are Enzymes? Enzymes are the organic complex &amp; soluble bio-catalysts, formed by living organisms that catalyze chemical reaction in biological process. Enzymes are quite specific in their action on a particular substance. A small quantity of enzyme is able to decompose a large quantity of substance it acts upon. Enzymes are usually named by the substances degraded in the reaction it catalyzes. They are naturally occurring high molecular weight proteins. Their molecular weight ranges from104 105. [3] </li> <li> 4. 4 2.1 Properties of Enzyme I. Enzymes are living organism which is based on protein. II. Its main function is fermentation of starch. III. Soluble in water &amp; insoluble in acid &amp; alcohol. No risk of hydrocellulose formation during pilling. [4] An enzyme accelerates the rate of particular reaction by lowering the activation energy of reaction. IV. Enzymes operate under mild condition that means each enzyme have its optimum temperature &amp; pressure. So this is easy to control V. Enzymes are biodegradable &amp; environment friendly. 2.2 Factors affecting the efficiency of Enzymes: 1) Substrate concentration 2) pH value 3) Temperature 4) Time 5) Activator 6) Inhibitor [5] 2.3 Types of Enzyme According to the source Enzymes are Mainly 2 types: 1. Vegetable Enzyme 2. Animal Enzyme: Enzymes which we get from slaughterhouse wastes like pancreas, cattle blood lever. Example: Pancreatic (which form milky emulsion in water &amp; capable of modifying starch, albumen, pectins &amp; fats), Novofermasol, Degomma Working condition: Temperature-50C-55C, pH- 5.5-7.5 Vegetable Enzymes are two types: </li> <li> 5. 5 I. Malt extract Enzyme: Malt extract is made from germinated barley or extraction of fresh barley cones. These are particularly used in desizing process. Trade name: Ferment D, Terhyd MD, Diastafor, Diastase, Maltostase. Working condition: Temperature- 55C-60C, pH- 6-7.5 II. Bacterial Enzyme: Enzymes which are commercially produced by growing cultures of certain microorganisms (i.e. fermented rice produce bacteria Extract grow enlarge prepared). Working condition: Temperature-70C-75C, pH- 6.5-7.5 Trade name: Rapidase, Biolase, Bactolase, Gelatase, Acry, Protease, Catalase. [6] 2.4 Role of Enzymes In textile Wet-Processing Enzymes are proteins formed by long linear chains of amino acids linked by peptide bonds. They are present in all living cells which carry out vital functions in the metabolic process, of growth &amp; cellular reproduction, transforming &amp; conserving energy. They are biological catalysts capable of notably accelerating the chemical reactions which occur in living organisms. They are produced by cells, but they arent viruses or bacteria &amp; they cant reproduce autonomously; they are therefore alive even though not biologically active, in determined conditions of pH, temperature, liquor composition &amp; so on. From the beginning of nineties till today, the biggest development of modern enzymology is made in the textile segment with the introduction of [7] (Enzymes used in Textile &amp; their effects): Enzyme Effects 1) Amylose Amylase is used in desizing that hydrolyses &amp; reduce the molecular weight of amylose &amp; amylopectin molecules in starch, rendering it water soluble enough to be washed off the fabric. </li> <li> 6. 6 2) Cellulase Cellulase enzymes are used in cotton bio-polishing which selectively acts on the loose fibers protruding from the fabric or yarn surface. This enzyme can also be used in bio-stoning of jeans. 3) Pectinase Pectinase enzyme is used in bio-scouring of cotton to remove hydrophobic (oils, fats) &amp; other non-cellulosic components (dusts, dirts). Retting of Flax and Hemp. 4) Catalase After bleaching with hydrogen peroxide (22), Catalase enzyme is used in the subsequent process which functions to catalyze the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water (2) &amp; oxygen (2) 5) Protease Protease is used in the scouring of animal fibers, degumming of silk &amp; modification of wool fiber properties. [8] 6) Laccase Laccase enzyme is used for oxidation of dyes such as Indigo [9] Peroxidases Used as an enzymatic rinse process after reactive dying, oxidative splitting of hydrolyzed reactive dyes on the fiber and in the liquor, providing better wet fastness, decolorized wastewater and potentially toxic decomposition compound. Ligninases Removal of burns and other plant compound from raw wool. Collagenases Removal of residual skin parts in wool. Esterases 1. In development polyester finish removal of oligomers. 2. In development polyacrylonitrile preparation for better coloration. 3. Polyester finish (removal of oligomers) 4. Reduction of hydrophobicity and electrostatic charges of polyester [10] </li> <li> 7. 7 Amidase Finishing of Nylon Nitrilase Finishing of Polyacrylonitrile Xylanases Carbonizing of wool [11] 2.5 Enzymatic Desizing Enzymatic desizing is the classical desizing process of degrading starch size cotton fabrics using enzymes. Amylase are the enzymes that hydrolyze &amp; reduce the molecular weight of amylose &amp; amylopectin molecules in starch, rendering it water soluble enough to be washed off the fabric. [12] The modern agencies used desizing into three groups. The only amylase convert the starch mixture very rapidly soluble Dextrin &amp; then more slowly convert this to reducing substances &amp; sugar, such as maltose. Starch (Insoluble) Dextrin (Insoluble) Soluble Dextrin Maltose Alpha glucose (soluble) [13] 2.5.1 Action of Amylase Enzyme in Enzymatic Desizing Amylase enzymes are used in enzymatic desizing process that consists of two parts, amylase &amp; amylase. amylase attacks the starch chain randomly so that the degree of polymerization of starch is rapidly reduced &amp; be transferred into Glucose (6126) &amp; Water (2). amylase successively removes the terminal Maltose unit so that the polymeric chain can be shortened gradually. [14] </li> <li> 8. 8 Most of the companies offer 2-3 types of desizing enzymes that can be used for different temperature &amp; pH ranges. At Matex, a universal kind of desizing enzyme, Metazyme BIO-DS has been developed which can be used at varied pH &amp; temperature range. [15] 2.5.2 Advantages of Enzymatic Desizing: No risk of mildew formation on fabric in enzymatic desizing, which observed in rot steeping or acid desizing process. No risk of hydro-cellulose formation in fabric, which are seen in the acid desizing. There is no risk of shrinkage problem which can be observed in case of alkali desizing. Less time consuming process so higher production can be achieved. It is also a economic process Fiber damage is very less. Amylase enzyme used in desizing is bio-degradable 7 environment friendly. So, effluent load from this process is very less. [16] 2.6 Enzymatic Bio-Scouring: A Cost Effective and Eco-friendly Process for the Generation Next The bio-scouring of raw cotton as an alternative to alkaline scouring has been studied in depth over recent years. The basic idea is simply that of hydrolyzing those non-cellulosic components responsible for water repellency of cotton, using enzymes. This is done by using a specific degradation process in delicate pH &amp; temperature conditions &amp; then removing them with a successive hot rinse. The Pectinase destroys the structure of the cuticle, hydrolyzing the pectins &amp; removing the links with wax &amp; protein, as well as between these &amp; the remaining fiber structure. The pectin links the wax to the cellulose of the primary wall, but it is not necessary to eliminate all the pectins for providing hydrophilic properties. Even when 30% of the residual pectins remains on the fabric, a wash at 80C-90C after a dwelling stage eliminates the solubilized waxes. </li> <li> 9. 9 2.6.1 Advantages of Bio-Scouring over Traditional scouring: 1. Saving of water &amp; energy. 2. Lower environmental impact &amp; easier to treat wastewater. 3. Better compatibility with other processes, machinery &amp; materials. 4. Lesser attacks on the fiber structure, loss of weight &amp; resistance. [17] 5. Quality perspective: To get the adequate absorbency for further subsequent processes. To get the minimum degree of whiteness for medium to dark shades and maximum degree of whiteness for light and white shades. The AATCC recommended absorbency standard for drop test is in the range of (1- 5) sec. So the absorbency of bio scoured fabric is quite satisfactory. Treatment Absorbency (time) Scourzyme L ( 0.4%) 3 sec. Scourzyme L ( 0.5%) 2 sec. Scourzyme L ( 0.6%) 1 sec. Caustic scouring 1 sec. 6. Economic perspective: Bio scouring process is very much economical and cost effective comparing to traditional scouring. By considering the following parameters for cost analysis it is found that this process reduces 10-20% of total annual cost which adds a significant amount of profit to the companys annual turnover. Less chemical cost Energy saving Time saving Less water consumption Less weight loss of fabric Less dye loss Less effluent treatment cost </li> <li> 10. 10 Less chemical cost: Cost of Traditional Scouring Chemicals %, g/l Rate Qty/100 kg fabric Cost/100 kg fabric Softening agent 0.5 140.46 0.4 56.18 Sequestering agent 0.3 207 0.24 49.68 Nonionic Surfactants 1.0 235 0.80 188.00 Dispersants 0.5 112 0.4 44.80 Caustic Soda 3.0 38 2.4 91.20 Stabilizer 0.3 107 0.24 25.68 Hydrogen Peroxide 2.5 42.88 2.0 85.76 Jet 0.1 235 0.08 18.80 Acetic Acid 1.0 60.5 0.8 48.40 Total Cost 608.50 Cost/kg 6.09 Courtesy: Sinha Knitting Ltd. (Dyeing Division) </li> <li> 11. 11 Cost of Bio-Scouring Chemicals %, g/l Rate Qty/100 kg fabric Cost/100 kg fabric Softening agent 0.5 140.44 0.4 56.17 Soda Ash 0.4 27.67 0.32 8.85 Nonionic Surfactants 0.3 235 0.24 56.4 Scouring enzyme 0.8 258 0.64 165.12 Jet 0.7 235 0.56 131.6 Dispersants 0.5 112 0.40 44.8 Total Cost 462.94 Cost/kg 4.63 Courtesy: Sinha Knitting Ltd. (Dyeing Division) Energy saving: Time saving: </li> <li>...</li></ul>

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