CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1 AbstractTextile industries of Bangladesh are large growing industries where the people are contributing efficiently for the growth of better economy. Development of the textile industries calls for preparation of a pragmatic road map with synchronized strategic action plans in respect of technology, inputs, HRD, quality, productivity, compliances and other trade promotion aspects.Textile Wet processing industries may be a bright future in the economic growth of our Country but pollution in textile is a big issue of concern. Here in our literature we discussed about pollution; different forms of pollution; pollution related to textile wet processing industries. Many articles are provided in here as examples of waste reduction techniques, successfully implemented at textile mills. Also there are articles consists of clear concepts and benefits of pollution prevention. We also discussed about situation of Bangladesh in case of pollution and action of Bangladesh Government to reduce the hazardous affect of pollution. In the study we also showed that the pollution prevention audit on four textile mills located in Gazipur and Bhaluka. The intention of the companies towards pollution prevention has been observed carefully and their action has been analyzed thoroughly. The study was also consists of modern pollution prevention techniques and their implementation as well as the responsibility of ours for the environment to protect.
1.2 INTRODUCTIONThe textile industries of Bangladesh have a major impact not only on the nations economy but also on the economic and environmental quality of life in many communities. In Bangladesh, textile is the leading provider of the manufacturing jobs. Only 5% of the established textile mills are owned by the foreigners where it is the sector which is the result of Bangladeshi investors new ideas and hard leadership.
Textile wet processing industry is a complex one where the main objective is to coloring the material with appropriate dyes and chemicals. Textile wet processing industry requires vast amount of water, dyes and chemicals, so therefore they have important effect on environment quality in the textile manufacturing regions. It is very much believed that the textile wet processing industry is one of the pollutant industry where careful monitoring of the pollution is must necessary. The most suitable idea of reducing the dyes & chemicals related to pollution is to reduce their amount of use. Less toxic material is less pollution.
Air quality is also an issue in textile where the toxicity of our air is increasing day by day. In addition to air toxicity concerns, textile factories should take some incentives, some of the mills are very aware but most of them are ignoring the case. In addition now a days indoor air quality of the textile industries are also an emerging issue.
1.3 Objectives1. To study the pollution in Textile Wet Processing Industries.
2. To investigate Pollution Prevention opportunities in the Textile Wet Processing Industries.
3. Ideas on the scope of modern Pollution Prevention Techniques
4. To study the policies of Textile Wet Processing Industries of Bangladesh against Pollution Prevention..
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Pollution:It is the introduction of contaminants into a natural environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem i.e. physical systems or living organisms. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat, or light. Pollutants, the elements of pollution, can be foreign substances or energies, or naturally occurring; when naturally occurring, they are considered contaminants when they exceed natural levels. Pollution is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution. Also we can define pollution as it is the discharge of unwanted materials, residue and energy into the environment. Some of these residues are unconverted raw materials, some are converted products and some are by products produce during the manufacturing or processing. In other words, pollution is a sign of inefficiency in industrial production & it can be considered as money that is going up the chimney, down the sewerage and out of the plant in waste truck, thus causing loss to the manufacturer.Pollution is a very concerning area for the environmental structure. Day by day the pollution is increasing and it is destroying the natural balance of the environment, causing it to breakdown as a natural disaster every year around the globe. Bangladesh is a delta, situated near the Bay of Bengal. For a third world country like us we do not have the luxury to play with the environment that causes pain to us in various forms of natural disaster each year. As a result Bangladesh government has created pollution prevention law. Country like Bangladesh there is various sources of pollution. Industrial pollution is the area of our concern in here and to highlight exactly the Textile Wet Processing is going to be the theme of our topic.
2.2 Forms of Pollution:There are different types of pollution around the world, in the different sectors of industries. In general pollution mainly divided into following categories 2.2.1 Water Pollution: By the discharge of wastewater from commercial and industrial waste (intentionally or through spills) into surface waters; discharges of untreated domestic sewage; release of waste and contaminants into surface runoff flowing to surface waters (including urban runoff); waste disposal and leaching into groundwater; and littering.
2.2.2 Air Pollution: The release of chemicals and particulates into the atmosphere. Common gaseous air pollutants include carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) and nitrogen oxide produced by industry and motor vehicles. Photochemical ozone and smog are created as nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons react to sunlight.
2.2.3 Noise Pollution: This encompasses roadway noise, aircraft noise, industrial noise as well as high-intensity sonar.
2.2.4 Soil Contamination: It occurs when chemicals are released by spill or underground leakage. Among the most significant soil contaminants are hydrocarbons, heavy metals, herbicides, pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons.
2.2.5 Light Pollution: This includes light trespass, over-illumination and astronomical interference.
2.2.6 Littering: Leaving litter here & there is not an environmental friendly option, causes to degrade the environmental condition of the industry.
2.2.7 Radioactive Contamination: Resulting from 20th century activities in atomic physics, such as nuclear power generation and nuclear weapons research, manufacture and deployment. 2.2.8 Thermal Pollution: It is a temperature change in natural water bodies caused by human influence, such as use of water as coolant in a power plant.
2.2.9 Visual Pollution: This can refer to the presence of overhead power lines, motorway billboards, and scarred landforms (as from strip mining), open storage of trash or municipal solid waste.2.3 Affects of Pollution:Pollution around the world is a name of big burden. Day by day the increasing affect of pollution in our daily life, making it more miserable to tolerate. Affects of pollution cannot be described totally in short words but we are trying to give a brief idea of its hazardous affect.2.3.1 Affects of Pollution in Human Health:1. Adverse air quality is very dangerous not only for humans but also many organisms. Many diseases are the result of this obnoxious air quality like; respiratory diseases, cardiovascular disease, throat inflammation, chest pain, and congestion. Air pollution is so threatening in Bangladesh that it is called that Dhaka is the most air polluted metropolitan city of the world.2. Approximately 14,000 deaths per day are caused by water pollution, mostly due to contaminated drinking water from untreated sewage in developed countries. An estimated 15 million Bangladeshis have no access to a proper toilet. The availability of safe drinking water in the rural area of Bangladesh is a hard catch.3. Oil spills is also dangerous for human health, it can causes skin irritations and rashes.4. Noise pollution can cause hearing loss, high blood pressure, stress and sleep disturbance.5. Children and infants are also at serious risk. Lead and other heavy metals have been shown to cause neurological problems. Chemical and radioactive substances can cause cancer and as well as birth defects.
2.3.2 Affects of Pollution in Environment:Pollution has been found to be present widely in the environment. There are a number of effects of this:1. Biomagnifications describes situations where toxins (such as heavy metals) may pass through tropic levels, becoming exponentially more concentrated in the process.2. Carbon dioxide emissions cause ocean acidification, the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth's oceans as CO2 becomes dissolved.3. The emission of greenhouse gases leads to global warming which affects ecosystems in many ways.4. Invasive species can outcompete native species and reduce biodiversity. Invasive plants can contribute debris and bimolecular (allelopathy) that can alter soil and chemical compositions of an environment, often reducing native species competitiveness.5. Nitrogen oxides are removed from the air by rain and fertilize land which can change the species composition of ecosystems.6. Smog and haze can reduce the amount of sunlight received by plants to carry out photosynthesis and leads to the production of tropospheric ozone which damages plants.7. Soil can become infertile and unsuitable for plants. This will affect other organisms in the food web.8. Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides can cause acid rain which lowers the pH value of soil