Slide3, Perception and Perceptual Devices for Students

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BMGT 364 umd

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BMGT 364

Session 3: Perception & Perceptual Devices

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Agenda Perception exercise What is perception? Perceptual devices and their functions Two Men, Three Women on a Raft case Stereotypes & their consequences

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Class ExerciseA well-liked college professor had just completed making up the final examinations and had turned off the lights in the office. Just then a tall, dark, broad figure appeared and demanded the examination. The professor opened the drawer. Everything in the drawer was picked up and the individual ran down the corridor. The dean was notified immediately.

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The StatementsPlease indicate whether each of the following statements is true, false, or impossible to determine (?)1.A tall figure demanded the examination. 2.The examination was picked up by someone. 3.A tall figure appeared before the lights in the office were turned off. 4.The man who opened the drawer was the professor. 5.The professor ran down the corridor.

6.During the same night, the dean was informed about the event.

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Human Perception: What is It? Perception is a process by which individuals organize

their sensory inputs in order to give meaning to their environments

Social Perception: process of interpreting information about another person. Depends on: Characteristics of perceiver Characteristics of target Characteristics of situation Copyright 2012

Perceptual DevicesSelective Perception: tendency to infer information which supports our viewpoints

can

On first sight, are there any differences between these pictures? Copyright 2012

Perceptual Devices First-Impression Error (Primacy Effect): using limited information obtained in first encounter to infer what a person is really like Schema & Scripts: categorizations and descriptions of the characteristic features of people, situations, etc.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nDOz0QnvDKs Copyright 2012

Perceptual Devices Self-Fulfilling Prophecy (Pygmalion Effect): provoking the response we expect in other people

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Perceptual Devices Projection (False Consensus Effect): assuming that our beliefs and values are commonly held and normative; overestimation of commonality.

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Perceptual Devices Halo Effect: drawing a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic Can be either positive or negative

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Perceptual Devices Contrast Effect: your evaluation of people is affected by comparisons with other recently encountered people

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Perceptual Devices Attributions: explaining causes of behavior Self-serving bias: if failure, situation responsible; if success, self responsible Differences between achievement & failure oriented individuals

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IhmK xa_FMkU

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Perceptual DevicesMental Models:Implicit generalizations, simplifications, or theories about the world (people, businessenvironment, customers, organizations) Powerful in influencing how we see, decide, act, and thus conduct our behavior

Mental models can become problematic when: Outdated: no longer match reality Left unexamined: cannot be openly examined Widely and/or strongly held: cannot examine alternative models

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2h9HYS19 H8E&feature=related

Senge, P. (1992). Mental models. Planning Review, 20, 4-10;44. Copyright 2012

Truth about Perception: Good News Our environment is too complex for us to handle as it is Perceptual devices help us process information efficiently and generate responses promptly They enable and guide our judgment, decisions, and actions

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Truth about Perception: Bad News Our perceptions often fail to match reality Many decision failures in organizations simply come from the mismatch between decision makers perceived reality and actual reality

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Case Discussion:Two Women, Three Men on a Raft What is the story in this case about? Why do you think the raft turned over?

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Case Discussion ContdNow lets look at it from perceptual theory perspective: What kind of perceptions (stereotypes) did people in the raft have in mind? How did these perceptions affect their behaviors? Is it obvious and explicit, or subtle and implicit?

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Stereotypes Generalizations about a group of people Improve efficiency of thinking Increase in strength when shared with and validated by others

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kGAk gDXVanA Copyright 2012

Discovering Stereotypes What have you heard about: Italian Americans? White Male? African American? Hispanics/Latinos? Older People? Polish Women?

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SxqwXNfYmOQ

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Discovering Stereotypes How did you feel about the generalizations about the group you personally identified with?

What are your observations? Are they positive or negative? Do you agree?

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Stereotypes: The Bad Can result in selffulfilling prophecy we become the stereotype Or can lead to a stereotype threat we put effort into acting opposite the stereotype

What could these two responses mean for todays organizations?

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Implications for OBPeople hold implicit generalizations about other people in organizations, which in many cases are untrue, exaggerated, and mostly negative. By doing this, intentionally or unintentionally, they exclude other people, as well as precious possibilities and resources within them.

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