Perception OverviewPerceptual InterpretationSensory Deprivation and Restored VisionPerceptual AdaptationPerceptual Set
Perceptual InterpretationTo what extent to we learn to perceive?
Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) maintained that knowledge comes from our inborn ways of organizing sensory experiences. John Locke (1632-1704) argued that we learn to perceive the world through our experiences.
Sensory Deprivation & Restored VisionAfter cataract surgery, adults blind from birth were able to regain sight. These individuals could differentiate figure and ground relationships & color, but unable to recognize by sight things familiar by touch (Von Senden, 1932).
Facial RecognitionAfter blind adults regained sight, they were able to recognize distinct features, but were unable to recognize faces. Normal observers also show difficulty in facial recognition when the lower half of the pictures are changed.Courtesy of Richard LeGrand
Students recognized a caricature of Arnold Schwarzenegger faster than his actual photo.Features on a FaceFace schemas are accentuated by specific features on the face.
Eye & MouthEyes and mouth play a dominant role in face recognition.Courtesy of Christopher Tyler
Gore or Clinton?
Figure 6.24 Face schemas Myers: Psychology, Eighth Edition Copyright 2007 by Worth PublishersMadonna
Sensory DeprivationKittens raised without exposure to horizontal lines later had difficulty perceiving horizontal bars.Blakemore & Cooper (1970)
Perceptual AdaptationVisual ability to adjust to an artificially displaced visual field, e.g., prism glasses.Courtesy of Hubert Dolezal
Perceptual SetA mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another.
What you see in the center picture is influenced by flanking pictures.From Shepard, 1990.
Perceptual Set(a) Loch ness monster or a tree trunk; (b) Flying saucers or clouds?Other examples of perceptual set.Frank Searle, photo Adams/ Corbis-SygmaDick Ruhl
Children's schemas represent reality as well as their abilities to represent what they see.SchemasSchemas are concepts that organize and interpret unfamiliar information.
Context EffectsIs the magician cabinet on the floor or hanging from the ceiling?Context can radically alter perception.
Cultural ContextContext instilled by culture also alters perception.
People from noncarpentered cultures, cultures that do not use right angles and corners often in their buildings and architecture are less likely to be fooled by this illusion
Our brains are miswiredhttp://www.ted.com/talks/al_seckel_says_our_brains_are_mis_wired.html 14:36
Perception RevisitedIs perception innate or acquired? Both!
Is There Extrasensory Perception?Perception without sensory input is called extrasensory perception (ESP).
96% of scientists do not believe in ESP.
Claims of ESPTelepathy: Mind-to-mind communication. One person sending thoughts and the other receiving them. Clairvoyance: Perception of remote events, such as sensing a friends house on fire.Precognition: Perceiving future events, such as a political leaders death.Psychokenesis: Moving things with the mind
Premonitions or Pretensions?Can psychics see the future?
Can psychics aid police in identifying locations of dead bodies?
What about psychic predictions of the famous Nostradamus?
The answers to these questions is NO!
Putting ESP to Experimental TestIn an experiment with 28,000 individuals, Wiseman attempted to prove whether or not one can psychically influence or predict a coin toss. People were able to correctly influence or predict a coin toss 49.8% of the time.
Perception & the Human FactorHuman Factor Psychologists design machines that assist our natural perceptions. Their greatest tool is research.The knobs for the stove burners on the right are easier to understand than those on the left.Photodisc/ PunchstockCourtesy of General Electric
Human Factors & MisperceptionsUnderstanding human factors enables us to design equipment to prevent disasters.Two-thirds of airline crashes caused by human error are largely due to errors of perception.
Human Factors in SpaceTo combat conditions of monotony, stress, and weightlessness when traveling to Mars, NASA engages Human Factor Psychologists.Transit Habituation (Transhab), NASA
In black you can read the word GOOD, in white the word EVIL (inside each black letter is a white letter). It's all very physiological too, because it visualizes the concept that good can't exist without evil (or the absence of good is evil ).
You may not see it at first, but the white spaces read the word optical, the blue landscape reads the word illusion. Look again!Can you see why this painting is called an optical illusion?
The word TEACH reflects as LEARN.
You probably read the word ME in brown, but when you look through ME you will see YOU!
If your eyes follow the movement of the rotating pink dot, you will only see one color, pink. If you stare at the black + in the center, the moving dot turns to green. Now, concentrate on the black + in the center of the picture. After a short period of time, all the pink dots will slowly disappear, and you will only see a green dot rotating if you're lucky! It's amazing how our brain works. There really is no green dot, and the pink ones really dont disappear. This should be proof enough, we don't always see what we think we see. Vanishing dots http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B3Om2n7bDGk&feature=fvw
More Straight Lines
Circle & Straight Lines
Moving or Shimmering
Dot Fades Away
Which Way Blocks?
Can you build this?http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WvVfcyVCdNABill Nye illusions
Crazy Block Shape
Ladder up or down?
Which inner circle is bigger?
Shades of Gray
How many colors do you see?
Shades of Green
Shades of Red
Straight or Wavy Lines?
Are these lines parallel?
Are these lines straight?
Are these straight lines?
Rectangles or Diamonds?
Is this the Letter E?
Do these stairs go up or down?
She Looks At You
Which Way Window?
Donkey or Seal?
Duck or Rabbit?
Duck or Rabbit
Face or Dragon?
Young Lady or Old Lady?
Young Woman or Old Lady?
Old Man, Old Lady, Young Lady
Mirror or Devil Face?
How Many Faces?
Skull or Table?
What do you see here?
Do you see an old man, or two people kissing?
Animiated necker cubehttp://dogfeathers.com/java/necker.html
EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY(7th Edition in Modules) David MyersPowerPoint SlidesAneeq AhmadHenderson State University
Worth Publishers, 2008
Online linkhttp://mcs.monet.k12.ca.us/schools/TeacherWebsite/7-12/Garber.B/AP%20Psychology/Mod%2014%20Perceptual%20Interpretation/MyersExpPsych7e_IM_Module%2014%20garber%20edits.pptModule 14 09 24 12Module 14 09 24 12How important is experience in shaping our perceptual interpretation?
Module 14 09 24 12Preview Question 18: What does research on sensory restriction and restored vision reveal about the effects of experience on perception?
Suggests figure ground relationships & color are innate.Module 14 09 24 12We perceive the same tops differently with different bottoms
People deprived of visual experience from birth are more able to recognize the halves as the samebecause they have difficulty with whole faces.
Example of 43 yo who gained sight at 40lacked perceptual constancypeople walking away appeared to be shrinking. (Bower 2003)Module 14 09 24 12Who are these guys
GW, mona lisa, George bushModule 14 09 24 12*Module 14 09 24 12*Portrait artists understood the importance of this recognition and therefore centered