Perception - Ms. Dunne's World of AP 4 Perception Perceptual Interpretation Sensory Deprivation and Restored Vision Perceptual Adaptation Perceptual Set Perception and Human Factor

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    1

    PSYCHOLOGY(8thEdition)DavidMyers

    PowerPointSlidesAneeqAhmad

    HendersonStateUniversity

    WorthPublishers,2006

    2

    Perception

    Chapter6

    3

    Perception

    SelectiveAttention

    PerceptualIllusions

    PerceptualOrganizationFormPerception

    MotionPerceptionPerceptualConstancy

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    4

    Perception

    PerceptualInterpretationSensoryDeprivationandRestoredVision

    PerceptualAdaptation

    PerceptualSet

    PerceptionandHumanFactor

    5

    Perception

    IsthereExtrasensoryPerception?ClaimsofESP

    PremonitionsorPretensions

    PuttingESPtoExperimentalTest

    6

    Perception

    Theprocessofselecting,organizing,andinterpretingsensoryinformation,whichenablesus

    torecognizemeaningfulobjectsandevents.

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    7

    SelectiveAttention

    Perceptionsaboutobjectschangefrommomenttomoment.WecanperceivedifferentformsoftheNecker cube;however,wecanonlypayattention

    tooneaspectoftheobjectatatime.

    Necker Cube

    8

    InattentionalBlindness

    Inattentionalblindnessreferstotheinabilitytoseeanobjectorapersoninourmidst.

    Simmons&Chabris (1999)showedthathalfoftheobserversfailedtoseethegorillasuitedassistantinaballpassinggame.

    Dan

    iel S

    imon

    s, U

    nive

    rsity

    of I

    llino

    is

    9

    ChangeBlindness

    Changeblindnessisaformofinattentionalblindnessinwhichtwothirdsofindividuals

    givingdirectionsfailedtonoticeachangeintheindividualaskingfordirections.

    1998 Psychonomic Society Inc. Image provided courtesy of Daniel J. Simmons.

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    10

    PerceptualIllusions

    Illusionsprovidegoodexamplesinunderstandinghowperceptionisorganized.Studyingfaultyperceptionisasimportantas

    studyingotherperceptualphenomena.

    LineABislongerthanlineBC.

    11

    TallArch

    Inthispicture,theverticaldimensionofthearchlookslongerthanthe

    horizontaldimension.

    However,bothareequal.

    Rick Friedm

    an/ Black Star

    12

    IllusionofaWorm

    Thefigureontherightgivestheillusionofabluehazywormwhenitisnothingelsebutbluelinesidentical

    tothefigureontheleft.

    1981, by perm

    ission of Christoph

    Rediesand

    LotharSpillmann

    and PionLim

    ited, London

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    13

    3DIllusion

    Ittakesagreatdealofefforttoperceivethisfigureintwodimensions.

    Reprinted w

    ith kind permission of Elsevier Science-N

    L. Adapted from

    H

    offman, D

    . & R

    ichards, W. Parts of recognition. C

    ognition, 63, 29-78

    14

    PerceptualOrganization

    Whenvisioncompeteswithourothersenses,visionusuallywins aphenomenacalledvisual

    capture.

    Howdoweformmeaningfulperceptionsfromsensoryinformation?

    Weorganizeit.Gestaltpsychologistsshowedthatafigureformedawholedifferentthanits

    surroundings.

    15

    Organizationofthevisualfieldintoobjects(figures)thatstandoutfromtheirsurroundings

    (ground).

    FormPerception

    Time Savings Suggestion,

    2003 Roger Sheperd.

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    16

    Grouping

    Afterdistinguishingthefigurefromtheground,ourperceptionneedstoorganizethefigureinto

    ameaningfulformusinggroupingrules.

    17

    Grouping&Reality

    Althoughgroupingprinciplesusuallyhelpusconstructreality,theymayoccasionallyleadusastray.

    Both photos by W

    alter Wick. R

    eprinted from G

    AM

    ES M

    agazine. . 1983 PC

    S Gam

    es Limited Partnership

    18

    DepthPerception

    VisualCliff

    Depthperceptionenablesustojudgedistances.GibsonandWalk(1960)suggestedthathuman

    infants(crawlingage)havedepthperception.Evennewbornanimalsshowdepthperception.

    Inne

    rvis

    ions

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    19

    BinocularCues

    Retinaldisparity: Imagesfromthetwoeyesdiffer.Trylookingatyourtwoindexfingerswhenpointingthemtowardseachotherhalfaninchapartandabout5inches

    directlyinfrontofyoureyes.Youwillseeafingersausageasshownintheinset.

    20

    BinocularCues

    Convergence: Neuromuscularcues.Whentwoeyesmoveinward(towardsthenose)toseenearobjectsandoutward(awayfromthenose)tosee

    farawayobjects.

    21

    MonocularCues

    RelativeSize: Iftwoobjectsaresimilarinsize,weperceivetheonethatcastsasmallerretinalimage

    tobefartheraway.

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    MonocularCues

    Interposition: Objectsthatocclude(block)otherobjectstendtobeperceivedascloser.

    Rene M

    agritte, The Blank Signature, oil on canvas, N

    ational Gallery of A

    rt, Washington. C

    ollection of M

    r. and Mrs. Paul M

    ellon. Photo by Richard C

    arafelli.

    23

    MonocularCues

    RelativeClarity: Becauselightfromdistantobjectspassesthroughmorelightthancloserobjects,weperceivehazyobjectstobefartherawaythanthoseobjectsthatappearsharpandclear.

    24

    MonocularCues

    TextureGradient: Indistinct(fine)texturesignalsanincreasingdistance.

    Eric Lessing/ A

    rt Resource, N

    Y

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    25

    MonocularCues

    RelativeHeight: Weperceiveobjectsthatarehigherinourfieldofvisiontobefartherawaythanthosethatarelower.

    Image courtesy of Shaun P. V

    ecera, Ph. D.,

    adapted from stim

    uli that appered in Vecrera et al., 2002

    26

    MonocularCues

    Relativemotion: Objectsclosertoafixationpointmovefasterandinopposingdirectiontothose

    objectsthatarefartherawayfromafixationpoint,movingslowerandinthesamedirection.

    27

    MonocularCues

    LinearPerspective: Parallellines,suchasrailroadtracks,appeartoconvergeinthedistance.The

    morethelinesconverge,thegreatertheirperceiveddistance.

    The N

    ew Y

    orker Collection, 2002, Jack Ziegler

    from cartoonbank.com

    . All rights reserved.

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    28

    MonocularCues

    LightandShadow: Nearbyobjectsreflectmorelightintooureyesthanmoredistantobjects.Giventwoidenticalobjects,thedimmeroneappearstobefartheraway.

    From Perceiving Shape From

    Shading by Vilayaur

    S. Ramachandran.

    1988 by Scientific Am

    erican, Inc. A

    ll rights reserved.

    29

    MotionPerception

    MotionPerception: Objectstravelingtowardsusgrowinsizeandthosemovingawayshrinkinsize.Thesameistruewhentheobservermovestoorfromanobject.

    30

    ApparentMotion

    PhiPhenomenon: Whenlightsflashatacertainspeedtheytendtopresentillusionsofmotion.Neonsignsusethisprincipletocreatemotion

    perception.

    Two lights flashing one after the other.One light jumping from one point to another: Illusion of motion.

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    31

    PerceptualConstancy

    Perceivingobjectsasunchangingevenasilluminationandretinalimageschange.Perceptualconstanciesincludeconstanciesofshapeandsize.

    ShapeConstancy

    32

    SizeConstancy

    Stablesizeperceptionamidchangingsizeofthestimuli.

    SizeConstancy

    33

    SizeDistanceRelationship

    Thedistantmonster(below,left)andthetopredbar(below,right)appearbiggerbecauseof

    distancecues.

    From Shepard, 1990

    Alan C

    hoisnet/ The Image B

    ank

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    34

    SizeDistanceRelationship

    Bothgirlsintheroomareofsimilarheight.However,weperceivethemtobeofdifferentheightsastheystandinthetwocornersofthe

    room.

    Both photos from S. Schwartzenberg/ The Exploratorium

    35

    AmesRoom

    TheAmesroomisdesignedtodemonstratethesizedistanceillusion.

    36

    LightnessConstancy

    ThecolorandbrightnessofsquareAandBarethesame.

    Court

    esy E

    dward

    Ade

    lson

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    37

    Perceivingfamiliarobjectsashavingconsistentcolorevenwhenchangingilluminationfilters

    thelightreflectedbytheobject.

    ColorConstancy

    ColorConstancy

    38

    PerceptualInterpretation

    ImmanuelKant(17241804)maintainedthatknowledgecomesfromourinbornwaysof

    organizingsensoryexperiences.

    JohnLocke(16321704)arguedthatwelearntoperceivetheworldthroughourexperiences.

    Howimportantisexperienceinshapingourperceptualinterpretation?

    39

    RestoredVision

    Aftercataractsurgery,blindadultswereabletoregainsight.Theseindividualscould

    differentiatefigureandgroundrelationships,yettheyhaddifficultydistinguishingacircle

    andatriangle(VonSenden,1932).

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    FacialRecognition

    Afterblindadultsregainedsight,theywereabletorecognizedistinctfeatures,butwereunable

    torecognizefaces.Normalobserversalsoshowdifficultyinfacialrecognitionwhenthe

    lowerhalfofthepicturesarechanged.

    Courtesy of R

    ichard LeGrand

    41

    Kittensraisedwithoutexposuretohorizontallineslater

    haddifficultyperceivinghorizontal

    bars.

    Blakemore&Cooper(1970)

    SensoryDeprivation

    42

    PerceptualAdaptation

    Visualabilitytoadjusttoanartificially

    displacedvisualfield,e.g.,prismglasses.

    Courtesy of H

    ubert Dolezal

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    43

    PerceptualSet

    Amentalpredispositiontoperceiveonethingandnotanother.Whatyouseeinthecenterpictureisinfluencedbyflankingpictures.

    From Shepard, 1990.

    44

    (a)Lochnessmonsteroratreetrunk;(b)Flyingsaucersorclouds?

    PerceptualSet

    Otherexamplesofperceptualset.

    Frank Searle, photo Adam

    s/ Corbis-Sygm

    a

    Dick R

    uhl

    45

    Childrensschemasrepresentrealityaswellastheirabilitiestorepresentwhattheysee.

    Schemas

    Schemasareconceptsthatorganizeandinterpretunfamiliarinformation.

    Courtesy of A

    nna Elizabeth Voskuil

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    StudentsrecognizedacaricatureofArnoldSchwarzeneggerfasterthanhisactualphoto.

    FeaturesonaFace

    Faceschemasareaccentuatedbyspecificfeaturesontheface.

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