OverviewPerceptual OrganizationForm PerceptionDepth PerceptionPerceptual Constancy
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How do we form meaningful perceptions from sensory information?
We organize it.
Perceptual Organization: Gestalt
Gestalt--an organized wholetendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholesa school of psychology founded in Germany in the 1900s that maintained our sensations are processed according to consistent perceptual rules that result in meaningful whole perceptions, or gestalts.
Feature Pop OutThe slanted line amongst vertical lines Pops Out, but the cross amongst horizontal and vertical lines does not pop out.
Organization of the visual field into objects (figures) that stand out from their surroundings (ground).Figure GroundTime Savings Suggestion, 2003 Roger Sheperd.
Laws of Perceptual OrganizationFigure-GroundAnimated necker cubehttp://dogfeathers.com/java/necker.html
From MIND SIGHTS by Shepard 1990 by Roger N. Shepard. Used with permission by W. H. Freeman and Company. ReturnFigure 5.7: Reversible Images
Faces or Vases?
GroupingAfter distinguishing the figure from the ground, our perception needs to organize the figure into a meaningful form using grouping rules.
Perceptual Organization: GestaltGrouping Principlesproximity--group nearby figures togethersimilarity--group figures that are similarcontinuity--perceive continuous patternsclosure--fill in gapsconnectedness--spots, lines, and areas are seen as unit when connected
Laws of Perceptual OrganizationLaw of ContinuityLaw of Proximity
Laws of Perceptual OrganizationLaw of ClosureLaw of Similarity
Law of Proximity
The Law of Similarity
The Law of Continuity
Perceptual Organization: Closure
Gestalt grouping principles are at work here.
Reversible Dancer?Note which direction the dancer is rotating. Clockwise or counter?
Grouping & RealityAlthough grouping principles usually help us construct reality, they may occasionally lead us astray.Both photos by Walter Wick. Reprinted from GAMES Magazine. . 1983 PCS Games Limited Partnership
Depth PerceptionVisual CliffDepth perception enables us to judge distances. Gibson and Walk (1960) suggested that human infants (crawling age) have depth perception. Even newborn animals show depth perception.Innervisions
Figure 13.7 Relative size Myers: Exploring Psychology, Seventh Edition In Modules Copyright 2008 by Worth Publishers
Binocular CuesRetinal disparity: Images from the two eyes differ.
Binocular CuesConvergence: Neuromuscular cues. When two eyes move inward (towards the nose) to see near objects and outward (away from the nose) to see faraway objects.
Monocular CuesRelative Size: If two objects are similar in size, we perceive the one that casts a smaller retinal image to be farther away.
Perceptual Organization: Depth Perception -- Relative Size
Monocular CuesInterposition: Objects that occlude (block) other objects tend to be perceived as closer.Rene Magritte, The Blank Signature, oil on canvas, National Gallery of Art, Washington. Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mellon. Photo by Richard Carafelli.
Monocular CuesRelative Height: We perceive objects that are higher in our field of vision to be farther away than those that are lower.Image courtesy of Shaun P. Vecera, Ph. D., adapted from stimuli that appered in Vecrera et al., 2002
Tall ArchRick Friedman/ Black Star
Monocular CuesRelative motion: Objects closer to a fixation point move faster and in opposing direction to those objects that are farther away from a fixation point, moving slower and in the same direction.
Motion PerceptionMotion Perception: Objects traveling towards us grow in size and those moving away shrink in size. The same is true when the observer moves to or from an object.
Apparent MotionPhi Phenomenon: When lights flash at a certain speed they tend to present illusions of motion. Neon signs use this principle to create motion perception.Two lights flashing one after the other.One light jumping from one point to another: Illusion of motion.
Monocular CuesLinear Perspective: Parallel lines, such as railroad tracks, appear to converge in the distance. The more the lines converge, the greater their perceived distance. The New Yorker Collection, 2002, Jack Ziegler from cartoonbank.com. All rights reserved.
Perceptual Organization: Linear Perspective
Monocular CuesLight and Shadow: Nearby objects reflect more light into our eyes than more distant objects. Given two identical objects, the dimmer one appears to be farther away.From Perceiving Shape From Shading by Vilayaur S. Ramachandran. 1988 by Scientific American, Inc. All rights reserved.
In or Out?
Monocular CuesTexture Gradient: Indistinct (fine) texture signals an increasing distance.
Perceptual ConstancyPerceiving objects as unchanging even as illumination and retinal images change.
Figure 13.10 Shape constancy Myers: Exploring Psychology, Seventh Edition In Modules Copyright 2008 by Worth Publishers
Figure 13.9 Perceiving shape Myers: Exploring Psychology, Seventh Edition In Modules Copyright 2008 by Worth PublishersLink
Perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color even when changing illumination filters the light reflected by the object.Color ConstancyColor ConstancyLink
Moon Illusion The moon just above the horizon typically appears to be unusually large because we perceive it as unusually far away from ourselves.
This illustrates the importance of context effects.
Size-Distance RelationshipThe distant monster (below, left) and the top red bar (below, right) appear bigger because of distance cues.From Shepard, 1990Alan Choisnet/ The Image Bank
Ponzo IllusionConverging lines indicate that top line is farther away than bottom line
From Perplexing Puzzles and Tantalizing Teasers, (p.75), by Martin Gardner, 1988, New York Dover.Figure 5.2: Misperceiving Reality: Which Line Is Longer?
Size-Distance RelationshipBoth girls in the room are of similar height. However, we perceive them to be of different heights as they stand in the two corners of the room.Both photos from S. Schwartzenberg/ The Exploratorium
Ames RoomThe Ames room is designed to demonstrate the size-distance illusion. Ramachandran explains the Ames room http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ttd0YjXF0no
Lightness ConstancyThe color and brightness of square A and B are the same.Courtesy Edward Adelson
Visual Illusions The Ponzo IllusionThe Mller - Lyer Illusion
EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY(7th Edition in Modules) David MyersPowerPoint SlidesAneeq AhmadHenderson State University
Worth Publishers, 2008
Module 13 12 10 13*Online linkhttp://mcs.monet.k12.ca.us/schools/TeacherWebsite/7-12/Garber.B/AP%20Psychology/Mod%2013%20Perceptual%20Organization/MyersExpPsych7e_IM_Module%2013%20garber%20edits.pptModule 13 12 10 13*Module 13 12 10 13*Example of words as gestalts or wholesModule 13 12 10 13*Module 13 12 10 13*Module 13 12 10 13*Module 13 12 10 13*Module 13 12 10 13*Module 13 12 10 13*Preview Question 14: What did the Gestalt psychologists contribute to our understanding of how the brain organizes sensations into perceptions?Module 13 12 10 13**Gestalt psychologists showed that a figure formed a whole different from its surroundings.
Law of Pragnanz: we perceive things in the simplest way possible
13 46. In psychology, Gestalt principles are used to explain (AP99)(A) Statistical probabilities(B) Somatic behavioral disorders(C) Perceptual organization(D) stimulus-detection thresholds(E) Altered states of consciousness
13 83. Which of the following is NOT a Gestalt principle of perceptual organization? (AP04)(A) Proximity(B) Similarity(C) Closure(D) Intensity(E) Continuity
73. The claim that a whole is different from the sum of its parts is central to which of the following schools of thought? (AP13)(A) Connectionism(B) Functionalism(C) Gestalt psychology(D) Structuralism(E) BehaviorismModule 13 12 10 13*Module 13 12 10 13*Preview Question 15: How do the principles of figure-ground and grouping contribute to our perception of form?
43. (Graphic not included) (AP12)The reversible figure above illustrates the Gestalt organizing principle ofA. proximityB. figure-groundC. closureD. common fateE. simplicityModule 13 12 10 13*Necker cube
Prince Charles/queen ElizabethOld/young lady http://wtfoodge.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/03/optical-illusion-old-woman-young-lady.jpgModule 13 12 10 13*
Goblet or faces
Module 13 12 10 13*Module 13 12 10 13*Module 13 12 10 13**13 83. The tendency of most people to identify a three sided figure as a triangle, even when one of its sides is incomp