Simultaneous Nitrification Denitrification

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    Simultaneous Nitrification

    and Den i t r i f i ca t ion in aSequencing Batch Reactor

    Will Lambert

    Robert NwaokoroStephen Russo

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    SND in SBR

    Nitrification/Denitrification Basics Introduction to SND

    Experimental Methods

    Results

    Conclusions

    Suggestions/Questions?

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    Nitrification/Denitrification Basics

    Why remove nitrogen? Limiting nutrient in oceans and estuaries.

    Nitrates in drinking water causeMethemoglobinemiablue-baby syndrome.

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    Nitrification/Denitrification Basics

    Denitrification (anaerobic)

    Nitrification (aerobic)Nitrosobacters Denitrification (anaerobic)

    Nitrification (aerobic)

    Nitrosomonas

    Ammonification

    Assimilation

    Ammonia

    Nitrite

    N2 (gas)

    OrganicNitrogen

    Nitrate

    Fixation

    Nitrogen Cycle in Waste Treatment

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    SND in SBR

    Nitrification/Denitrification Basics

    Introduction to SND Experimental Methods

    Results

    Conclusions

    Suggestions/Questions?

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    Introduction to SND

    What is SND?

    Simultaneous reactions occur of:

    Ammonification

    Nitrification

    Denitrification

    Normally occur in different steps Why use SND?

    Obstacles to SND

    Solutions

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    Introduction to SND

    What is SND?

    Why use SND?

    Reduction of: Cost

    Energy

    Sludge

    Obstacles to SND

    Solutions

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    Introduction to SND

    What is SND?

    Why use SND?

    Obstacles to SND Nitrification is aerobic

    Denitrification is anaerobic Solutions

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    Introduction to SND

    What is SND?

    Why use SND?

    Obstacles to SND

    Solutions

    Achieve aerobic/anaerobic environment:

    Low DO

    0.5 1 mg/L

    Large flocs

    Biofilms

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    SND in SBR

    Nitrification/Denitrification Basics

    Introduction to SND

    Experimental Methods States

    Testing Methods Results

    Conclusions

    Suggestions/Questions?

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    Experimental Methods: States

    Fill with Waste

    Run for 18.3 s

    140 mL delivered Based on 459 mL/min peristaltic pump flow rate

    Fill with Water

    Aerate

    Settle

    Drain

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    Experimental Methods: States

    Fill with Waste

    Fill with Water

    Run for 350 s AND Reactor volume is 4 L over 5 s average

    Fail safe if pump failed to deliver appropriateamount of fluid

    Aerate

    Settle

    Drain

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    Experimental Methods: States

    Fill with Waste

    Fill with Water

    Aerate Run time varied

    8, 18, 24 hours

    Aeration rate controlled by PID control

    Target DO = 0.5 mg/L

    Settle

    Drain

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    Experimental Methods: States:

    Aerate Proportional, Integral, and Derivative (PID) Control

    Equation:

    Trial and error determined P, I, and Dvalues Effective control was met when DO reached 0.5 mg/L

    D

    D

    I

    I

    P

    c

    tTt

    TKtu

    1)(

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    Experimental Methods: States

    Fill with Waste

    Fill with Water

    Aerate

    Settle

    Run for 1 hour

    More than enough time for settling

    Left unchanged Drain

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    Experimental Methods: States

    Fill with Waste

    Fill with Water

    Aerate

    Settle

    Drain

    Run until 1.2 L remained in reactor

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    SND in SBR

    Nitrification/Denitrification Basics

    Introduction to SND

    Experimental Methods States

    Testing Methods

    Results Conclusions

    Suggestions/Questions?

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    Experimental Methods: TestingMethods

    Micro-Phenate Method Determine ammonia concentration as

    ammonia/nitrogen Standards consist of:

    Phenol Solution Sodium nitroprussideAlkaline citrate Sodium hypochlorite

    Oxidizing Solution Standards: 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 mg N-NH4/L Spectrophotometer analysis at 640 nm

    Nitrate-nitrogen standards Sampling

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    Experimental Methods: TestingMethods

    Micro-Phenate Method

    Nitrate-nitrogen standards

    Cadmium gravimetric method

    Hach Corporation: Nitriver and Nitraver reagent packets

    Standards: 0, 2, 6, 10 mg N-NO3/L

    Spectrophotometer analysis at 542nm Sampling

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    Experimental Methods: Testing

    Methods Micro-Phenate Method

    Nitrate-nitrogen standards

    Sampling End of aeration state

    Filtered through Millipore filter

    Refrigerated

    Ammonia samples

    Diluted by 10x

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    Results: PID

    0

    0.1

    0.2

    0.3

    0.4

    0.5

    0.6

    0.7

    0.8

    0.9

    1

    4:42:54 PM 5:54:54 PM 7:06:54 PM 8:18:54 PM 9:30:54 PM

    Time

    DO(mg/L)

    DO (mg/L)

    Average DO = 0.505 mg/LStandard Deviation = 0.015

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    Results: Nitrate Standards

    -0.5

    0

    0.5

    1

    1.5

    2

    2.5

    0 200 400 600 800 1000

    Wavelength ()

    Absorba

    nce 0 mg/L

    2 mg/L

    6 mg/L

    10 mg/L

    y = 0.1611x - 0.0451R2 = 0.9954

    -0.2

    0

    0.2

    0.4

    0.6

    0.8

    1

    1.2

    1.4

    1.6

    1.8

    0 2 4 6 8 10 12

    Concentration (mg N-NO3/L)

    Absorbanceat542

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    Results: Samples

    Aeration Time(hr)

    Absorbance(542 nm)

    Concentration(mg N-NO3/L)

    24 0.63 4.21

    18 0.54 3.64

    8 1.84 11.72

    Nitrate Concentrations

    Aeration Time

    (hr)

    Absorbance

    (640 nm)

    Diluted

    Concentration(mg N-NH3/L)

    Actual

    Concentration(mg N-NH3/L)

    24 1.36 3.16 31.57

    18 1.22 2.83 28.34

    8 1.05 2.44 24.43

    Ammonia Concentrations

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    Results: Total Nitrogen Removal

    Aeration Cycle(hr)

    Total NRemaining

    (mg/L)

    N Removal(mg/L)

    % Removal

    24 32.33 8.57 20.96

    18 35.19 5.71 13.96

    8 36.15 4.75 11.61

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    SND in SBR

    Nitrification/Denitrification Basics

    Introduction to SND

    Experimental Methods Results

    Conclusions Suggestions/Questions?

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    Conclusions

    Total nitrogen removal efficiencies appeared tomake sense

    Broken down to nitrate and ammonia, unclear data One long aeration cycle should have been run

    Sampled periodically during that cycle

    SND is possible at laboratory scale,

    Easier at full scale

    Achieve a more heterogeneous environment

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    Suggestions

    Questions?

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