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Seminář z fyziky

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Stredn prumyslov kola sdlovac techniky Pansk 3 Praha 1 Jaroslav Reichl, 2001 urcen studentum 4. rocnku obru OZT a DGT jako pomucka pro prpravu k prijmacm zkoukm na vysok koly technickho typu Jaroslav Reichl Fyzikln semin 2 OBSAH 1. KINEMATIKA HMOTNHO BODU................................................................................................... 7 1.1 MECHANICK POHYB.......................................................................................................................... 7 1.2 TRAJEKTORIE A DRHA HMOTNHO BODU............................................................................................ 7 1.3 RYCHLOST HMOTNHO BODU .............................................................................................................. 7 1.4 ROVNOMRN POHYB......................................................................................................................... 7 1.5 ZRYCHLEN HMOTNHO BODU............................................................................................................. 7 1.6 ROVNOMRN ZRYCHLEN PRMOCAR POHYB.................................................................................... 7 1.7 VOLN PD........................................................................................................................................ 8 1.8 SKLDN POHYBU A RYCHLOST......................................................................................................... 8 1.9 POHYB HMOTNHO BODU PO KRUNICI................................................................................................. 8 2. DYNAMIKA HMOTNHO BODU..................................................................................................... 10 2.1 SLA A JEJ CINKY NA TLESO........................................................................................................... 10 2.2 PRVN NEWTONUV POHYBOV ZKON - ZKON SETRVACNOSTI ........................................................... 10 2.3 DRUH NEWTONUV POHYBOV ZKON - ZKON SLY ......................................................................... 10 2.4 TRET NEWTONUV ZKON - ZKON AKCE A REAKCE............................................................................ 10 2.5 HYBNOST HMOTNHO BODU.............................................................................................................. 10 2.6 ZKON ZACHOVN HYBNOSTI........................................................................................................... 10 2.7 SLY BRZDC POHYB......................................................................................................................... 11 2.7.1 Smykov ten........................................................................................................................... 11 2.7.2 Valiv odpor ............................................................................................................................ 11 2.8 DOSTREDIV SLA............................................................................................................................. 11 2.9 INERCILN VZTAN SOUSTAVY ....................................................................................................... 12 2.10 NEINERCILN VZTAN SOUSTAVY ................................................................................................... 12 3. MECHANICK PRCE A MECHANICK ENERGIE.................................................................... 13 3.1 MECHANICK PRCE......................................................................................................................... 13 3.2 KINETICK ENERGIE ......................................................................................................................... 13 3.3 POTENCILN ENERGIE...................................................................................................................... 14 3.4 MECHANICK ENERGIE ..................................................................................................................... 14 3.5 ZKON ZACHOVN ENERGIE............................................................................................................. 14 3.6 VKON, PRKON, CINNOST............................................................................................................... 14 4. GRAVITACN POLE........................................................................................................................... 15 4.1 NEWTONUV GRAVITACN ZKON........................................................................................................ 15 4.2 INTENZITA GRAVITACNHO POLE........................................................................................................ 15 4.2.1 Centrln gravitan pole ......................................................................................................... 15 4.2.2 Homogenn gravitan pole...................................................................................................... 15 4.3 GRAVITACN A THOV ZRYCHLEN .................................................................................................... 15 4.4 THA A THOV SLA.......................................................................................................................... 16 4.5 POHYBY TLES V HOMOGENNM THOVM POLI ZEM......................................................................... 16 4.5.1 Voln pd................................................................................................................................. 16 4.5.2 Vrhy tles................................................................................................................................. 16 4.5.2.1 Svisl vrh vzhuru................................................................................................................................ 16 4.5.2.2 Vodorovn vrh.................................................................................................................................... 17 4.5.2.3 Vrh ikm .......................................................................................................................................... 17 4.6 POHYB TLES V CENTRLNM GRAVITACNM POLI............................................................................... 17 4.6.1 Prvn a druh kosmick rychlost .............................................................................................. 17 4.7 POHYBY TLES V GRAVITACNM POLI SLUNCE .................................................................................... 18 4.7.1 Elipsa ...................................................................................................................................... 18 4.7.2 Prvn Keplerv zkon............................................................................................................... 18 4.7.3 Druh Keplerv zkon.............................................................................................................. 19 4.7.4 Tet Keplerv zkon................................................................................................................ 19 5. MECHANIKA TUHHO TLESA..................................................................................................... 20 5.1 ZKLADN POJMY.............................................................................................................................. 20 5.2 MOMENT SLY VZHLEDEM K OSE OTCEN .......................................................................................... 20 5.3 SKLDN SIL................................................................................................................................... 20 5.3.1 Rznobn sly........................................................................................................................ 20 5.3.2 Rovnobn sly lec na spolen vektorov pmce ............................................................... 20 Fyzikln semin 3 5.3.3 Rovnobn sly lec na rznch vektorovch pmkch ......................................................... 20 5.4 DVOJICE SIL...................................................................................................................................... 21 5.5 JEDNODUCH STROJE ........................................................................................................................ 21 5.5.1 Pka jednozvratn ................................................................................................................... 21 5.5.2 Pka dvojzvratn ..................................................................................................................... 22 5.5.3 Pevn kladka ........................................................................................................................... 22 5.5.4 Voln kladka............................................................................................................................ 22 5.5.5 Kolo na hdeli......................................................................................................................... 22 5.5.6 Naklonn rovina..................................................................................................................... 22 5.6 TIT TLESA................................................................................................................................ 22 5.7 ROVNOVN POLOHY TUHHO TLESA............................................................................................. 22 5.8 KINETICK ENERGIE TUHHO TLESA................................................................................................. 23 5.9 ***PREHLED MOMENTU SETRVACNOSTI NKTERCH TLES ................................................................ 23 6. MECHANIKA KAPALIN A PLYNU................................................................................................... 24 6.1 VLASTNOSTI KAPALIN A PLYNU.................................

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