Report on DLW summer training

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Summer training report on Diesel Locomotive Work varanasi

Text of Report on DLW summer training


Indian Railways(Hindi: Bhratya Rail), abbreviated asIR(Hindi:..), is adepartmental undertakingofGovernment of India, which owns and operates most ofIndia'srail transport. It is overseen by theMinistry of Railwaysof theGovernment of India.Indian Railways has 113,617 kilometres (70,598 mi). of total track over a route of 63,974 kilometres (39,752 mi)and 7,083 stations. It has the world's fourth largest railway network after those of theUSA , RussiaandChina. The railways traverse the length and breadth of the country and carry over 30 million passengers and 2.8 million tons offreightdaily . It is the world'ssecond largest commercial or utility employer, with more than 1.36million employeesAs forrolling stock, IR owns over 219,931 (freight) wagons, 51,030 coaches and 8,889 locomotives.

Railway zones

Indian Railways is divided into zones, which are further sub-divided intodivisions. The number of zones in Indian Railways increased from six to eight in 1951, nine in 1952, sixteen in 2003and finally 17 in 2010. Each zonal railway is made up of a certain number of divisions, each having a divisional headquarters. There are a total of sixty-eight divisions. Each of the seventeen zones, includingKolkata Metro, is headed by a General Manager (GM) who reports directly to the Railway Board. The zones are further divided into divisions under the control of Divisional Railway Managers (DRM). The divisional officers of engineering, mechanical, electrical, signal and telecommunication, accounts, personnel, operating, commercial and safety branches report to the respective Divisional Manager and are in charge of operation and maintenance of assets. Further down the hierarchy tree are the Station Masters who control individual stations and the train movement through the track territory under their stations' administration.

Types of Trains

Accommodation Class

Production units

Indian Railways manufactures much of itsrolling stockand heavy engineering components at its six manufacturing plants, called Production Units, which are managed directly by the Ministry. Popular rolling stock builders such asCLWandDLWfor electric and diesel locomotives;ICFandRCFfor passenger coaches are Production Units of Indian Railways. Over the years, Indian Railways has not only achieved self-sufficiency in production of rolling stock in the country but also exported rolling stock to other countries. Each of these six production units is headed by a General Manager, who also reports directly to the Railway Board. The six Production Units are:-Sl. NoNameAbbr.Year EstablishedLocationMain products

1.Chittaranjan Locomotive Works CLW1947Chittaranjan Electric Locomotives

2.Diesel Locomotive Works DLW1961Varanasi Diesel-electric Locomotives

3.Diesel-Loco Modernisation Works DLW1981Patiala Diesel-electric Locomotives

4.Integral Coach Factory ICF1952Chennai Passenger coaches

5.Integral Coach Factory RCF1986Kapurthala Passenger coaches

6.Rail Wheel Factory RWF1984Bangalore Railway wheels and axles

Diesel locomotive works, Varanasi

Organizational strength A flagship production unit of Indian Railways offering complete range of products in its area of operation with annual turnover of over 2124 Crore. State of the art Design and Manufacturing facility to manufacture 200 locomotives per annum with wide range of related products viz. DG Sets, Loco components and sub-assemblies. Supply of spares required to maintain Diesel Locomotives and DG sets. Unbeatable trail-blazing track record in providing cost-effective, eco-friendly and reliable solutions to ever increasing transportation needs for over four decades. Fully geared to meet specific transportation needs by putting Price - Value - Technology equation perfectly right. A large base of dedicated customers among many countries viz. Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Vietnam, Bangladesh, Tanzania, Angola, to name a few, bearing testimony to product leadership in its category.

Diesel traction assembly at dlw Following types of diesel loco are being produced in the DLW:1. WDM - Wide Diesel Mixed2. WDP - Wide Diesel Passenger3. WDG - Wide Diesel Goods4. WDS - Wide Diesel Shunter Types of locomotives produced at dlw: The first letter (gauge) 1. W-Indian broad gauge(The "W" Stands for Wide Gauge - 5 Feet)2. Y-metre gauge(The "Y" stands for Yard Gauge - 3 Feet)3. Z-narrow gauge(2ft6in)4. N-narrow gauge (2ft) The second letter (motive power) 1. D-Diesel2. C-DC electric (can run under DC traction only)3. A-AC electric (can run under AC traction only)4. CA-Both DC and AC (can run under both AC and DC tractions), 'CA' is considered a single letter5. B-Battery electric locomotive (rare)

The third letter (job type) 1. G-goods2. P-passenger3. M-mixed; both goods and passenger4. S-Used for shunting (Also known as switching engines or switchers inUnited statesand some other countries)5. U-Electric multiple units(used as commuters in city suburbs)6. R-Railcars For example, in "WDM 3A":1. "W" meansbroad gauge2. "D" meansdieselmotive power3. "M" means suitable for mixed(for both goods andpassenger)service4. "3A" means the locomotive's power is 3,100hp('3' stands for 3000hp, 'A' denotes 100hp more) Or, in "WAP 5":1. "W" means broad gauge2. "A" mean AC electric traction motive power3. "P" means suitable for Passenger service4. "5" denotes that this locomotive ischronologicallythe fifth electric locomotive model used for passenger service.

WDM Class

Specification of wdm class

Performance of WDM class The classWDM-2isIndian Railways' workhorsediesel locomotive. The first units were imported fully built from theAmerican Locomotive Company(Alco) in1962. Since1964, it has been manufactured in India by theDiesel Locomotive Works(DLW), Varanasi. The model name stands forbroad gauge(W), diesel (D), mixed traffic (M) engine. The WDM-2 is the most common diesel locomotive of Indian Railways. TheWDM-2Ais a variant of the original WDM-2. These units have been retro-fitted withair brakes, in addition to the originalvacuum brakes. TheWDM-2Bis a more recent locomotive, built with air brakes as original equipment. The WDM-2 locos have a maximum speed of 120km/h (75mph), restricted to 100km/h (62mph) when run long hood forward - the gear ratio is 65:18.


Specification of wdg classPerformance of WDG Class The WDP-4 is capable of hauling 24 coach trains at 110-120 km/hour. It has also been used for speed trials where it has hauled 8 coach trains at 160 km/hour. The locomotives can be used in either direction, and frequently haul trainslong hoodforward, as in the picture. Newer editions with 4500hp have been produced which have been named with the sub class WDP-4B /WDP-4D which have different traction control with six traction motors and are Co-Co bogie equipped, unlike the original which has a Bo-1-1-Bo arrangement with four traction motors. The loco is very fuel efficient and has minimal exhaust emissions due to its 2 stroke diesel engine. It is characterized by its loud horn, which can be heard for large distances around, and aircraft-like sound of its running engine.

Training period Following four workshop were assigned to me during my training period of four weeks:1. Heavy Welding Shop2. Heavy Machine Shop3. Truck Machine Shop4. Heat Treatment Shop

Heavy welding shop In heavy welding shop steel sheets of about 75mm are welded together. To form engine block for both ALCO and GM engines. The conventional form of manufacturing engine blocks of such enormous size would have been very uneconomical. The three main type of welding are:1. Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)2. Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)3. Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) After welding the engine blocks are thoroughly inspected for under welding and over welding. Internal cracks are detected using NDT. The blocks are then passed to HMS for further machining and boring of holes for cylinders or Power Pack Assembly. Generally 12 to 16 holes are bored.

Heavy machine shop

As the name suggests in the heavy machine shop the finished engine blocks are then machined upon to produce holes for power pack assembly. The main machines in HMS are:1. Angular boring machine (TAL / HMT)2. CNC Portal milling ( Waldrich coburg)3. Radial Drill (max. 25 ton)4. Hydraulic press

Heat treatment shop All the components used in an engine are heat treated before they are assembled. The main objective behind heat treatment is to improve the machinability and wear resistance of the components. Some of the heat treatment used are :1. Normalizing2. Quenching3. Carburizing4. Induction hardeningNormalizingIn this heat treatment process the material is kept 40 to 50 C above critical temperature. This is done due to following reasons:1. To remove coarse grain structure2. To remove internal stresses3. To improve mechanical propertiesQuenchingIn quenching the material is heated to a temperature of about 815 to 900C and then it is rapidly cooled by a mixture of water and polystyrene glycol. The main advantage of quenching is to improve machinability, hardness and development of martensite structure. Generally all the components used in the locomotive are quenched before any other heat treatment process. Carburizing or case hardeningIn this process a hard surface is produced on a low carbon steel of 0.15 percent carbon. In course of process the outer layer is converted into a high carbon steel with a carbon content ranging from 0.9 to 1.2 per cent of a carbon.The components in the carburizing process are kept in contact with carbonaceous compounds and energizer (BaCO3). Then they are kept together in a furnace for a given period of time.The hardness depends upon the penetration of carbon, temperature and time up to which its is kept in furnace. An hour of heating produces 4000 to 5000 hardness