DLW, varanasi

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SEMINAR REPORT ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVES

DIESEL

Diesel Locomotive Works, VaranasiDiesel Locomotive Works, Varanasi is one of the major production units governed by the Indian Railways. In the year 1961, this production unit came into existence as a green field project in technical alliance with ALCO, USA to produce all the Diesel Electric Locomotives. The first locomotive was manufactured in the year 1964 and it was dedicated to the nation. Diesel Locomotive Works, Varanasi manufactures only Diesel Electric locomotives and spare parts of locomotives. Though it is an Indian company but it has supplied locomotives to many other foreign countries like Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Angola, Malaysia, Myanmar, Vietnam and Tanzania. As a flagship locomotive production unit of Indian Railways, Diesel Locomotive Works produces a wide range of products related to locomotive and its annual turnover is more than 1151 Crore. According to survey reports, it is revealed that, annually this production unit manufactures total 200 locomotives and several other related products. With its cost-effective and eco-friendly solutions to the increasing demand for transportation, this production unit has gained great popularity across the nation and abroad. The locomotive manufacturing process in diesel Locomotive Works, Varanasi is divided into three major divisions, which include Engine division, Vehicle division and Block division. The component machining department of Engine division manufactures more than 2000 components that include lubricating oil pumps, cylinder heads, connecting rods, ALCO turbo superchargers, cam shafts, chrome plated cylinder liners and many other gears.

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SEMINAR REPORT ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVES

DIESEL

On the other hand, the Vehicle division of this production unit works on diverse fields like Component Fabrication, Under frame Fabrication, Locomotive Assembly, and Bogie Manufacturing. Presently, Diesel Locomotive Works, Varanasi manufactures locomotives and DG sets. In locomotives, it manufactures two kinds of products, one is EMD and another is ALCO.

EMD is broad gauge freight traffic Co-Co diesel electric locomotive. It is 16 cylinders 4000 HP engine along with microprocessor operated propulsion; AC-AC transmission.

ALCO offers a wide selection of locomotives that include 1350 Hp Cape Gauge Locomotive, 2300 Hp Meter Gauge Locomotive, 2300 Hp Cape Gauge Locomotive, 3000 Hp Cape Gauge Locomotive, 1350 Hp Meter Gauge Locomotive, Broad Gauge Main Line Freight Locomotive, Broad Gauge Main Line Mixed Service Locomotive, and Broad Gauge Shunting Locomotive.

There are several esteemed customers of DG Sets of Diesel Locomotive Works, Varanasi, which are Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited, Railway establishments and Heavy Industries

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SEMINAR REPORT ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVES

DIESEL

ENGINE DIVISIONFABRICATION OF ENGINE DIVISIONSteel plates of sizes upto 80 mm thick are ultrasonically tested before being precision cut by numerically controlled flame cutting machines. Fabrication of engine block is completed by submerged arc welding using semi- automatic welding machines. Downhand welding is ensured using specially designed positioners. Special fixtures are used for making down-hand welding possible in inaccessible areas .Critical welds are subjected to radiographic examination. All welders are periodically tested and requalified for the assigned job.

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SEMINAR REPORT ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVES

DIESEL

MACHINING OF ENGINE BLOCKThe fabricated engine block is then taken up for a variety of machining operations like planing, enveloping and end drilling. All these operations use heavy duty planers and CNC drilling machines.V-boring of cylinder liner bores is a process requiring a high degree of precision and is undertaken using a spe ially designed machine. Recent addition of a plano-milling center has provided further fillip to the quality and the speed of enveloping operation. 12 cylinder and 16 cylinder blocks have V angle of 45^0,whereas the 6 cylinder block is inline type.

COMPONENT MANUFACTURINGOver 2000 components are manufactured in house at DLW.These include ALCO turbosuper chargers, lubricating oil pumps, camshafts, cylinder Heads, chrome plated cylinder liners, connecting rods and various gears. Our well equipped machine shops have dedicated lines for

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SEMINAR REPORT ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVES

DIESEL

operations like turning, milling, gear hobbing, drilling, grinding and planning etc. In addition, DLW is equipped with a variety of special purpose machines and a large number of state-of-the CNC machines to ensure quality and precision. All rated processes like heat treatment and induction hardening are also carried out inhouse.A completely new chrome plating shop for cylinder liners has been set up with modern infrastructure like fume extraction system and programmable logic controlled material movement system.

ENGINE ASSEMBLY AND TESTINGThe engine block, crankshaft, camshafts, Cylinder liners, pistons, connecting rods, Cylinder heads, exhaust manifold, turbo Supercharger and all related piping is assembled to make a complete engine. This is followed by mounting of electrical Machines like traction alternator, auxiliary generator and exciter. This power pack is tested for horsepower output and other parameters of engine health on computerized engine test beds. Only after the engine parameters are found perfect the power pack is allowed to be moved to the locomotive assembly area.

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SEMINAR REPORT ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVES

DIESEL

VECHILE DIVISIONUNDERFAMES AND SUPERSTRUCTURESPrecision cutting and forming of sheet metals utilized for manufacture of suoerstructures including drivers cab,engine hoods and compartments for housing electrical equipment . All activities connected with pipes like pickling bedding, cutting, forming and threading of pipes of various sizes are undertaken in another wellequipped work area. In yet another work area, all electrical equipment is assebbled in the fabricated control compartments and drivers control stands. Underframes are fabricated taking all due care to ensure designed weld strength. Care is taken to impart the requisite chamber to the under frame during fabrication itself. Wherever required welds are tested radio graphically. Welder training and their technical competence is periodically reviewed.

BOGIE MANUFACTURINGLarge special purpose machines are utilized for machining cast and fabricated bogie frames. In the same work area,axle and wheel disc machining is undertaken on sophisticated CNC machines.Inner diameter of wheel discs are carefully matched with the outer diameter of axles before the wheel discs are pressed onto axles, at designed wheel press. The complete truck (bogie), including bogie Frames, wheels and axles, brake rigging and Traction motors is assembled before being sent onwards for locomotive assembly.

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SEMINAR REPORT ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVES

DIESEL

LOCOMOTIVE ASSEMBLY AND TESTINGAssembled and tested engines are receive in this shop from engine division. Also, underframes, assemble trucks, superstructures and contractor compartments are received from respective manufacturing and assembly shops of vechile division. Important alignments like crank shafts deflection, compressor alignment and eddy current clutch/radiator fan alignment are done during assembly stage itself. Electrical control equipments are fitted and control cable harnessing is undertaken. The complete locomotive is thus assembled before being sent onwards for final testing and spray painting. rigorous testing of all locomotive systems is conducted as per laid down test procedures before the locomotive is taken up for final painting and dispatch .

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SEMINAR REPORT ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVES

DIESEL

HISTORY OF DIESEL ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVEIn the 1860's, Alphonse Beau du Rochas suggested several changes in the internal combustion engine to improve its thermal efficiency. One change was to ignite fuel by the heat of compression rather than by a spark. In 1892, Dr. Rudolph Diesel adopted the idea and patented an engine that burned powdered coal ignited by compression. The coal-burning engine didn't develop as Dr. Diesel had hoped; but in 1897 he built another compression-ignition engine--one that burned oil. Although various methods were used to transmit the engine's power to driving wheels, electric drive proved most efficient. Combination of the diesel engine with electric drive is known as the diesel-electric assembly. Applied to a locomotive, the diesel-electric assembly may vary from model to model; but general construction principles are the same in all models. The first application of the diesel engine to railroad stock is believed to have occurred in Sweden just before World War I. Then, in 1924, the Ingersoll-Rand, General Electric, and American Locomotive Companies built a diesel-electric switching locomotive for the Central Railroad Company of New Jersey. Use of the diesel-electric locomotive spread rapidly as it proved its economy and ease of operation and maintenance. The first completely dieselized railroad was the Birmingham Southern, in 1937. By 1955, diesel-electric locomotives were operating 88 percent of the passenger train miles, 85 percent of the total freight ton miles, and 91 percent of the total switching hours of United States railroads. In 1968, of all the locomotives in this country, 98.5 percent were diesel-electrics. Military railroad operations are different from civilian operations. In the United States, military locomotives are used only for training and for hauling supplies from a commercial line into an installation. In a theater of operations, however, when the transportation railway service operates a rail system, it uses