Protest and Social Movements in the Developing World
Shinichi ShigetomiInstitute of Developing Economies (IDE), Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO), Japan
Kumiko MakinoInstitute of Developing Economies (IDE), Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO), Japan
INSTITUTE OF DEVELOPING ECONOMIES (IDE), JETRO
Edward ElgarCheltenham, UK Northampton, MA, USA
Institute of Developing Economies (IDE), JETRO 2009
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List of fi gures viiList of tables viiiList of contributors ixPreface xi
1 Rethinking theories on social movements and development 1 Shinichi Shigetomi
PART I RESOURCE AND INSTITUTIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR MOBILIZATION
2 Community-based local development and the peace initiative of the PDPMM in Colombia: resource mobilization under extreme conditions 19
3 Institutional readiness and resource dependence of social movements: the case of provincial development forums in Thailand 51
PART II STRUCTURE BEHIND POLITICAL OPPORTUNITIES
4 Strategies for fragmentary opportunities and limited resources:the environmental protest movement under communist Chinain transition 79
5 Institutional conditions for social movements to engage in formal politics: the case of AIDS activism in post-apartheid South Africa 110
6 Rethinking political opportunity structure in the Argentine unemployed and poor peoples movement 134
PART III HISTORY AND REALITY FOR FRAME- AND IDENTITY-MAKING
7 Dynamics of ideal values and social movement in a corporatist state: Mexican indigenous peoples movements and a villages challenge 159
8 Competition and framing in the womens movement in India 183 Mayumi Murayama
9 Opposition movements and the youth in Nigerias oil-producing area: an inquiry into framing 206
PART IV CONCLUSION
10 Resources, organizations and institutions: intermediaries for social movements in the development context 227
Kumiko Makino and Shinichi Shigetomi
1.1 Analytical framework and organization of this volume 102.1 Armed guerilla groups and wars in Colombia 232.2 Middle Magdalena as the focus region of the PDPMM 332.3 Flow of Peace Laboratory resources for the implementation
of projects by social organizations at diff erent levels 383.1 Local administrative hierarchy in Thailand (rural areas) 563.2 Frequency of appearance of the word chumchon
(community) in each of the National Economic and Social Development Plans 59
3.3 Frequency of appearance of the word kan mi suan ruam (participation) in each of the National Economic and Social Development Plans 61
4.1 Complaints regarding environmental pollution problems 884.2 Fund-raising of environmental NGOs in China (2005) 904.3 Networking in environmental movements in China 1046.1 Unemployment and informal employment rate, 19902003 1386.2 Poor and indigent population ratios, 19892003 1396.3 Number of articles on piqueteros in the Clarn newspaper 1406.4 Number of roads blocked 144
2.1 Budget for the Peace Laboratory in Middle Magdalena 392.2 Budget of Phase II according to destination categories 392.3 Project fi nance funds by type of project (Phase II) 413.1 Number of main leaders of provincial development forums
by personal background 543.2 Number of forums from which leaders participated in public
events in the 1990s 663.3 Agencies contacting the Surin Forum around 2001 and their
projects 683.4 Expenses of the Surin Forum for 20002001 and 2003 716.1 Members of the National Piquetero Bloc 1486.2 Soft piqueteros which support the Kirchner government 151
Noriko Hataya is a Professor at the Faculty of Foreign Studies, Sophia University in Tokyo. Her research interests are in the fi elds of urbaniza-tion, ruralurban migration, and community organization and participa-tion in Latin American countries, with special focus on Colombian civic resistance.
Kumiko Makino is a Research Fellow at the Institute of Developing Economies (IDE), JETRO. Her research interests are in the fi elds of politics of social policy, HIV/AIDS and civil society in South Africa.
Katsuya Mochizuki is a Senior Research Fellow at the Institute of Developing Economies (IDE), JETRO. He majored in international studies at Tokyo University of Foreign Studies and has been engaged in many research projects on Africa since he joined the IDE. He has published articles on the issues of preventive diplomacy, human security, and peace building in recent years.
Mayumi Murayama is a Senior Research Fellow at the Institute of Developing Economies (IDE), JETRO in Japan. Her major research inter-est covers gender and employment-related issues in South Asia and Japan. She is the editor of Gender and Development: The Japanese Experiences in Comparative Perspective (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005).
Kenji Otsuka is an Associate Senior Research Fellow in the Environment and Natural Resource Studies Group at the Interdisciplinary Studies Center, Institute of Developing Economies (IDE), JETRO. His research interests are in the fi elds of environmental issues and social change in China.
Shinichi Shigetomi is a Senior Research Fellow at the Institute of Developing Economies (IDE), JETRO. His research interests are in the fi elds of rural development, agricultural economics and civil society in Asia, with special focus on Thailand. He is the editor of The State and NGOs: Perspectives from Asia (Singapore: ISEAS, 2002).
Koichi Usami is a Senior Research Fellow at the Institute of Developing Economies (IDE), JETRO. He is studying social policies and the welfare state in Latin America, especially Argentina, and is interested in compara-tive studies of social policies among newly industrializing countries.
Akio Yonemura is a Senior Research Fellow at the Institute of Developing Economies (IDE), JETRO. His research interest is in the fi eld of education development in Mexico.
The contributors to this volume, who are all area study specialists and deeply interested in development issues, occasionally in their fi eld of study fi nd local people who are motivated to change their environments which are plagued with desperate problems such as poverty, environmental destruc-tion or threats to human rights. How does this happen? Why is it possible? These are the questions with which we launched this study project.
One frequently heard answer is that the situation itself impels the people to stand up for themselves. However, the structure which causes grievances among the people may at the same time function as a restriction which fetters the people to remain as they are. The mainstream social movement theories, in contrast, tell us that the actor, especially the movement organ-izer, is important. These theories persuasively explain how capable leaders and excellent strategies cause social movements to emerge. However, the constraints on economic resources and political freedom in developing countries may not allow the wishes of actors to be expressed in the manner commonly assumed in the theories originating in developed Western societies.
We feel that the phenomena of social movements in the developing world cannot be simply explained either by the structure or by applying an actor-centered approach while neglecting the structure. Therefore, we started to examine carefully the contextual conditions such as institu-tions, resources and organizations surrounding the social movement actors, to fi nd what conditions determine the course of action. Such work, we hoped, may help to defi ne the space of actors for collective action. Under the project named Social Movements and Popular Participation in Developing Countries we shared cases from various developing countries and exchanged ideas over the course of two years starting in April 2006. This volume is the fi nal report of our academic dialogue.
We are grateful to have enjoyed the presentations of distinguished guest speakers, Dr Takeshi Wada (University of Missouri, Columbia, USA), Dr Zhang Yulin (Nanjing University, China) and Dr Hideo Nakazawa (Chiba University, Japan), at our study meetings. During the fi eld survey, we learned extensively from the local people and the social movement leaders who generously helped us to obtain fi rst-hand information. Dr James Midgley provided Shinichi Shigetomi, one of the editors, with a chance
to study social movement literature during his stay at the University of California at Berkeley as a Zellerbach Visiting Professor. We would like to express our deep gratitude to these individuals and institutions.
Last but not least, we want to express our appreciation to the Institute of Developing Economies and its administrative staff for supporting t