Protest MovementsAnd their effect(s)
The Early Civil Rights Movement
President Truman1946 Truman appoints the Committee on Civil Rights1948 Truman desegregates the armed services & banned racial discrimination in hiring federal employees
African American Civil Rights The roots of a movement
Emmett Till1955 14-year-old abducted and murdered by two white men while visiting his uncle in LeFlore County, Mississippi. His murder sparked outrage among African Americans that helped spur advances in civil rights.
Brown v. the Board of Education of Topeka
May 17, 1954- Supreme Court Case- Reverses Plessy v. Ferguson 1896 (separate but equal- Chief Justice Earl Warren We conclude that in the field of public education the doctrine of separate but equal has no place. Separate education facilities are inherently unequal.
George E.C. Hayes, Thurgood Marshall, and James Nabrit, congratulating each other, following Supreme Court decision declaring segregation unconstitutional
Separate but equal?
Separate is inherently unequal
Mothers escort their children past white protesters on their way to newly desegregated Elementary School No. 34 in Baltimore, Maryland. Efforts to desegregate schools still faced strong local opposition after the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court decision, which declared that racially-based school segregation was unconstitutional.
Rosa Parksarrested 1st of December 1955 Rosa not the first African-American to be arrested for this "crime.first to be arrested who was well knownonce the secretary to the president of the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People).
Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat to a white man.
On December 1, 1955, one voice in Montgomery, Alabama, quietly and resolutely said No. That single no kindled a fire that had burned from a decades-long tradition of activism and lit the way to the most influential boycott in this nations history.
Montgomery Bus BoycottDecember 2, 1955 Black Leaders call for a Bus BoycottBlacks stop taking the bus- organize carpools- bus line loses money- downtown stores lose money
Martin Luther King Jr.Rises to a leadership positionnonviolent protest based on- Gandhi- Thoreau- Christianityleads the SCLCSouthern Christian Leadership Conference
The best way to solve any problem is to remove its cause. Nonviolent direct action seeks to create such a crisis and foster such a tension that a community which has constantly refused to negotiate is forced to confront the issue. Martin Luther King Jr.
Boycott EndsSupreme Court Rules the laws unconstitutional and buses must desegregate!- December 1956- boycott lasted 13 monthsThe bus company resumes full service
Martin Luther King Jr. talks to Texas clergyman Glenn Smiley as they ride up front on a Montgomery bus after a United States Supreme Court ruling brought the Montgomery bus boycott to a successful close.
Boycott ViolenceSomeone fires into Kings home Five white men attack a 15-year-old black girl at a Montgomery bus stopRosa Jordan is shot in both legs while riding a Montgomery bus Four churches and two homes are bombed: Bell Street Baptist, Hutchinson Street Baptist, First Baptist and Mount Olive Baptist, plus the homes of the Revs. Robert Graetz and Ralph Abernathy. An unexploded bomb is found on the porch of Kings parsonage.
The Little Rock Nine Central High School Little Rock Arkansas
The order to Desegregate1957 Central HighLittle Rock Nine: nine students chosen To desegregate the schoolGov. Orval Faubus calls in the National Guard to stop themEisenhower sends in Federal troops to desegregate the school.
Students wait beside Arkansas National Guard troops blocking their admission to Little Rock Central High.
What do you think this soldier is thinking?
Mrs. Margaret Jackson, vice president of the Mothers' League of Central High School: "we hope to have a big demonstration [on Park Street in front of the school] to show that the people of Little Rock are still against integration. I hope they [Negroes] won't get in."
It is easy for a court to issue a proclamation, but who carries it out? Foley asked. The executive branch carries them out. But who carries out the executive branch orders? The military does.
On the 25th, we gathered at the home of the state president of the NAACP, Eckford said. We were picked up there by the 101st. They had gun-mounted jeeps and a military station wagon. They transported us [to school] for about a week. And they dispersed the mob. That was the most important thing they did -- allowed us the opportunity to get in school. Elizabeth Eckford
Governor Faubus closed schools during the 1958-1959 School year to avoid integration
The Anti-War MovementEssential Question: Who were the people that protested the Vietnam War? And Why?
Doves questioned the war. They included liberal politicians and students who saw the conflict as a localized civil war.Hawks supported Johnsons war policies. They were mostly conservatives who believed the war was crucial to a U.S. Cold War victory. Doves vs. Hawks
Medias Impact Reporters and television crews went on patrol with the soldiers.Television brought scenes of firefights and burning villages into Americas living rooms.Criticized the governments reports about the warHawks and DovesDovespeople opposed to the warHawkspeople who supported the wars goalsBoth criticized the war effort.Hawks wanted more troops and bombing.Doves opposed the war for many reasons.Public Opinion Regarding the Vietnam WarAntiwar Movement Movement attracted a broad range of participantsMuch antiwar activity took place on college campuses.Most vocal groupStudents for a Democratic Society.Antiwar protesters made up a small percentage of the U.S. population.
Reasons that Doves Opposed the War
Argued that Vietnam was not crucial to American national securityArgued that the United States was fighting against the wishes of a majority of VietnameseArgued that the war was draining needed resources from Great Society programs Argued that it was unfair for African Americans to fight for democracy in a foreign land when discrimination continued at homeArgued that Johnsons policies were too extreme
As more troops died and no clear victory emerged, increasing numbers of Americans opposed the Vietnam War.Many people opposed the policies of the draft.More than 1.5 million young men were drafted during the Vietnam War.Many argued the draft unfairly gave deferments to students.Most of the draftees came from a poor or working-class background.Public Opinion and Opposition
African Americans were less likely than whites to become commissioned officers. They were more likely to serve, and die, in combat positions.The number of African Americans fighting in Vietnam was disproportionately high.Public Opinion and Opposition
Inequalities in the draft led to widespread resistance against the war.In 1969, the draft was restructured to introduce a lottery system.Public Opinion and Opposition
Students opposition to the war grew.Colleges and universities became centers of antiwar activism. Most upper middle-class students opposed the war; working-class students generally supported the war.Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) campaigned to end the war in Vietnam.Public Opinion and Opposition
Campus ViolenceKent State University in Ohio4 students were killed and 9 injuredJackson State College in Mississippi2 students were killed and 9 woundedAntiwar MovementPolls showed that fifty percent of Americans opposed the war.Coalition of clergy, trade unionists, and veterans established a nationwide day of protest called Moratorium Day.250,000 protesters made up the largest antiwar demonstration in U.S. history.Increasing ProtestsRadical Protests Some antiwar groups turned to violent measures.The Weathermen set off more than 5,000 bombs and carried out the Days of Rage.Most antiwar protesters did not support extremist groups or terrorist measures.
At Kent State University in Ohio, four students were shot by National Guardsmen.A similar confrontation at Jackson State University in Mississippi left two students dead.Counterprotests were held by those supporting Nixon and the war efforts.At home, protests escalated. Public Opinion and Opposition
Protest Movements involving Native Americans
Loss of Native culture & languages, yet kept touch with rural reservationIncreased contact among different tribes; growth of pan-Indian identityCommon experience of urban poverty & struggleExposure to civil rights activism, successesEffects of Urban Relocation, 1960s
POLITICAL SELF-DETERMINATION ERA, 1970s-1980s
American Indian Movement, 1968Founded at Stillwater Prison; inspired by Black Panthers
Urban Indians monitored Minneapolis police brutalityon Franklin Avenue
Made contact with traditionalchiefs on reservations; fusedurban and rural activism
Indians of All Tribes occupies abandoned San Francisco Bay prisonCites law that unused federal property reverts to tribesFirst major national pan-Indian action Alcatraz 1969
Trail of Broken Treaties 1972Caravan to Washington, DC for self-determinationUnplanned occupation of BIA headquarters before 1972 electionNixon White House embarrassed by clashes
The Feminist Movement