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Phương Pháp Nghiên Cứu Khoa Học

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phuong phap nghien cuu khoa hoc

Text of Phương Pháp Nghiên Cứu Khoa Học

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    LIGIITHIUCngnghiphovhiniholhaitrngtmcbntrongqutrnhimitncVitNam.Thaitrngtmny,giodcotovnghincukhoahccngvNhnctaxcnhlqucschhngu.otoihcvsauihcmihnhthcdtptrunghaykhngtptrung,dthchaytheohccckhochnhquylunphiktgnvinghincukhoahcthmimbochtlng.Nghincukhoahcbaogmhaiphnlinquantnghlnnhaulnidungnghincuvtrnhbyktqunghincu.Mtnidungnghincuttmtrnhbydthslmgimigitrcaktqu nghin cu v ngc li, trnh by nghin cu d tht tt m ni dungnghincukhngcg thcngkhngaimunc.Trongthigiangny,khinhginhnglunvnttnghip,nhngbitrnhbytrongcchinghkhoahccngnhxemxtccbiboging,mtnhcimlnmchngtinhnthychungcctcgilphngphpvbcctrnhby.Chnhvvy,vicgipchoccnhkhoahctr tronglnhvcyhcvcchtrnhbynghincucamnhlmttrntrcachngti.TrongtsanggingdyvchPhngphpnghincukhoahctrongy hc theo khun kh hp tc o to Php Vit, Gio s Huguier (i hcParis6)cgiithiucunschLardactionmdicaledongbinsonvngchochng ti sdng gip chosinhvin,hcvinvccbc sVitNamthamkho.Vikinhnghimtrongcngtcgingdyvnghincukhoahc tiTrngi hcYHNi trongnhiunm, chng ti thamkhocunschcaHuguiervbinsoncunschnymtcchsaochophhpviccbncVitNamhyvnggipbncc thmti liuthamkhokhitrnhbyktqunghincucaminh.Chngtibitdcgngsongsaistliukhtrnhkhinhngcngxinmnhdngiithiuvibnc. CPGS.VS.NGND.TnThtBchNguynHiutrngtrngHYHN

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    LINIU Mcchcacunschnylnhmgipchonhngaimunvitmt lunn,mt bn thu hoch haymt bnbo co khoa hc. Sch trnh by nhngnguyn tc vitmt ti liukhoahc yhc (chng1 v2) v cch s dngchngtrongcngtrnhnghincu(chng3nchng13).Hiubitnhngnguyntcnygipchotcgibitcchvitmtcchchnhxc,rrngvsctch.Bncnhgitrkhoahccacngtrnh,ngpphnlmchocngtrnhnghin cucBanbin tp ca cc tp ch khoahc chpnhn.Rt nhiutrongsnhngnguyntcnycngcthpdngvitmtbiginghaymtcunsch.Hiubitccnguyntcvitbitrongyhccnggipchovicnhnbitnhngbibokmsngsa,khngchunxchaythiusctch.titkimthigianthkhngcncnhngbinhvy.vitmtbibocnphibitcthtmtiliuthamkhouvnhthno.Chyunhvocngnghtinhc,tasthchinviclachnnhanhlnuccti liuv lutr thngtincthsdngddng:chng14dnhchovnny.Cctcgithngkhngbitconngcamtbibotkhigibnthotimttpchchotikhincng.iunytcngngaytichnhvicvitbibo.Thngtinnynmtrongchng15.Chngcuicngcacunschchonhnglikhuynchunbtrnhbybocominghaydngbngtrngby(poster)trongmthinghkhoahc. TS.TrnBnhGiang

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    CCTCGI BcsClaudeLaurentBenhamou,nhthpkhphcTrungtmbnhvinvngOrlans, l thnh vin caBan bin tp tp ch Thp khp v cc bnhXngKhp.ngtngchtrccbuitholungingdyvphngphpvitboyhctrngihcTours,nimngtnglthkcanvgipvitboyhc.BcsLoicdeCalan,GiosphuthuttiuhotiihcTours,tnglthnhvincaBanbin tp tpchGastroenterologieCliniqueetBiologique.ngchtrccbuitholungingdyvphngphpvitboyhctrngihcTours.BcsDominiqueFranco,GiosvphuthuttiuhoihcParisSud,tngltngbintptpchGastroenterologieCliniqueetBiologique.BcsJean Paul Galmiche, Gio s chuyn ngnh GanTiu ho ti trng i hcNantes, tng l tng bin tp tp ch Gastroenterologie Clinique etBiologique.nglngisnglpvlnhotpchchuynvotoyhclintc"HpatoGastro".nglthnhvinbanbintptpchGutvtpch"European Journal of GastroEnterology and Hepathology". Bc s BernardGrenier,GiosdanhdcaihcYkhoaTours,chtrccbuisinhhotkhoahcotochuynngnhvphntchccquytnhyhc,vphngphpcvphntchcngnhbintpboyhcnhiutrngihcPhpng.BcsMichelHuguier,Gios chuynngnhphuthut tiuhoihcParisVI,tnglthnhvinbanbintptpchGastroentrologicCliniqueetBiologique.nglngbintpcatpchHepatoGastroenterologyvphbintptpchChirurgie.nglchtchcaHivsphttringingdyvnghincutrongvitboyhc(ADERREM)vchtrccbuitholungingdyvvitboyhc.Bc sGrardLorette,Gio s chuynngnhDa liu trngi hcTours.ngltngbintptpchAnnalesdeDermatologie.nglGimcbphnnhnbicanhxutbnDoin.ngch trccbui tho lungingdyvitboyhcPhpvncngoi.BcsHervMaisonneuvelgimcbphnthmnhcacquanqucgiav tnnhimvnhgitrongyt(ANAES).ngtnglch tchHiphiuChucaccnhxutbnkhoahc.nglthnhvinccbanbintp(JAM, Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Pratice) v ch tr cc hi tho vgingdyvitboyhc. TS.TrnBnhGiang

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    PHNGPHPVITBOKHOAHC Cchvitmtbibokhoahcngthivalyutcbn,valyutphcanidungbibo.cthhiurvstngnhinghchny,tacthvcchvitnhmtknhcamtbnuiccnh,nidungkhoahccabibonhnhngconcnuitrongbny(1).Lichmcchvitmanglilrt quan trng: numt knh ca b cm c th khng th chim ngngnhngg chabn trongdn cpnu chngna.Tuynhin t bnthncchvitkhngmanglimcchvchngaingmmtcibcchvcimtknh.Hccchvitcnggiptabitcchctthn.Trnthct,mtcginmccchvitsnhnraddnglichkhoahccamtbibocvitchunxcnghalvitmtcchchnhxc,rrngvsctch.Mtbibokhngchnhxc,tingha,vinhngchlc,slmchongicphimtmt thigiandicgng,ikhimtcchvvng, tmhiunidungbibo.Hiubitnhngnguyntcvitbibokhoahcchophpngicloibngaykhimixemquanhngbibokhngtntrngnhngnguyntcny.Dongicstitkimcrtnhiuthigianmkhngsbstmtthngipkhoahcnchatrongmtbibotrnhbytivnguycnyrtthp.Kinhnghimchothythngcsnghnhgianidungvhnhthc:"nhnggngitabitrthsctrnhbyrrng"(2).Hqulnhnggkhngrrngthngchangmtlichkhoahcrthnch.MCCHCAVICVITBOKHOAHCMcchctrngcavicvitboyhcltruyntmtthngipkhoahcmththcthnggplbibongktqunghincuhayl"Bnboconghincu".Mcchnygii thchrcchvitbibokhoahcphi lmtkthutxutphttkhoahcchkhngxutphttvnchnghaythca.Trnthct,vicvitbokhoahcchngdnbinhngnguyntctbnthnnni lntnhchtchkhoahc.phi lnhngnguyntcxuthindn,pngtheomtlogicchkhngphi lnhnggioiupt.Vd, cc ti liuthamkhophic trnhbysaochongicc th thamchiuddngnht.iunykhngtuntheomtquytcduynht:Cnhiuhthng thamkhommih thngucimmnhvimyuring.Tuynhincc tpchyhc tmcch ttnht trnhby ti liu thamkhomtcchhiho(3).Mcchthhaicacchtrnhbymtbnbocokhoahckhngphilmtmcchcbit: lphivit saochobiboccgihngng.Trongvnchng,mcchnytcnhcttruynhpdn,sgiucvtvng,vnphongcatcgi.Trongkhoahc,gitrcanidungkhoahcltrnht.Tuynhinsxuthinngycngnhiucctpchvbiboy

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    hc lm chongi c phi chn la nnc ci g (4). Khi li ch khoa hctngngnhau,chngtacxuhngcccbiborrng,chnhxc,vsctchhn.Dovy,chngtachtmuanhngtpchnocnhngbibopngnhngnguyntcnhiunht.Hnna,thngnhngtpchcuytnlnithuhtcnhngbicgitr.Nhngtpchcnhiukhnngchn labi:TpchBritishMedical Journalnhnckhong5000bibogi ngmt nmm ch c600bi cng.Mt na s bi bo gi nthmchkhngnhncsphntchtmvkhngphilnhngbibong kt qu nghin cu, hoc qu chuyn su, ti ngha hoc c gi tr tmthngvmtkhoahc(5).Batiuchunchtlngmtbibokhoahcgm:1)Gitrkhoahc;2)Chtlngcastrnhbykhoahc;3)Sdngthnhthothngnngdngvitbibo.Rtticmtthctrngxyralsxuthinbngnccbibovtpchdoscnthitphicdanhmccngtrnhnghincu,scnthitphingbicslngbibo(6).Scnthitphingbodvingcnoinalmxuthincnhngskhngtrungthc.Thng4nm1987vnnytrthnhchmtcucbnlunHinghkhoahcHoaK(7).Ngi ta ngh lpramtu bankimtrav c hnh thcpht trongtrnghpgian lnkhoahc!Phngthuc ttnhtc l ls tinb trongcchnhnnhncaccthnhvincchingthihayccubanquynhslngbibo.Vicchoimnhgicctpchkhoahccth lmtcchxcnhgitrcctpchnochnhnngccbibocchtlng.Trngi hc Y Havard ngh mt bin php phng nga c tnh hin thc:Trngnyyucuccngvindtuynchxuttrnhmtslnghnchcccngtrnhcah:7cngtrnhvingvinchovtrphgios,10cngtrnhchovtrgios(7).CngvitinhthnmngitayucuccngvinchogiithngNobelhayVinsVinhnlmkhoahcHoaKchtrnhtia12cngtrnh(8).Nhngivihingxtduytthmuccbibodhnlcbibo(9).VITBOKHOAHCVVICSDNGTTNGNNGCcnguyntcvitmtbibokhoahctrongbtctrnghpnocngkhngbquavictntrngccquytcngphpdvitngnngnochngna.Strnlngiavicvitbokhoahcvivicsdngkhngttngnngthhinslnlnhontongiahaikhinimkhcnhau:Nguyntcvitbivngphp.Vd:thtlklkhiBanbintpcamttpchlicthbovcvnphongyhccangnng trongkhichpnhnngmtbibocnhngcukhngthhiuciloinh:chcthnghtimtcarcinomeepidermoidetinphtvmtSarcomelchnonvbnhphmphuthutblmhngdoiutrcobantrc.

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    Chtch,sngsa,sctch:Khimttcgibnkhonvcchvitmtcu,mtonhaymtchngno,ngiphitrlic3cuhisauy:1)Dngthcno thchhpnhtvi tngvhintngmtamuntrnhby?2)Kiudintnolnginvrrngnhtchongic?3)Kiudintnosctchnht?Bacuhinyc tmquantrnggimdn:nghysinhs chtch cho lihnhvnsngsacngnhkhnghysinhsngsachossctch.HC CC NGUYN TC PH BIN TON CU TRONG VIT BO KHOAHCCcnguyntcvitbokhoahckhngphi ltnhinmc:bitcth ch bit cc ch ci thi cha; cngnh vy, vit ngmt bi bokhoahc thvicbitvitbngmt thngnngnovncha.Vvyvichcnhngnguyntcvitbokhoahcdrtnginlcnthit.Viccnthitphidynhngnguyntcnyctra t lunhiunc (10).VdHoaK,nhngkhoagingdyphngphpvitbokhoahccthnhlpcctrngihc:L.Debakeylnhokhoathngtinkhoahc(11)titrngihcYBaylorHouston,.F.PWoodfordsnglpchngtrnhgingdy18thngchoccbintpvinkhoahcchuynnghip(12)titrngihcRockerfellerNewYork.TiMayoClinicRochestertchcchngtrnhgingdyvvitbokhoahcchosinhvinvccthythuc(13).Khoaxutbnyhcgipccthythucvitcccngtrnhngaytkhictng.Cchlmnylsbsungttnhtchovicgingdylthuyt(14).

    AnhcchvitcngtrnhkhoahccdyVinkhoahcvkthutCardiff.NhngchngtrnhgingdytchccctchcdislnhocaS.Lock,"bintpvin"catpchBritishMedicalJournal(15).Php,G.P.Revillardnulnscnthitphigingdyvkthutvitccbnthuhochnghincutrongchngtrnhhcsauihc"3mecycle"(16).Nm1975,J.A.Farfornghthnhlpmttchcgingdycchvitcngtrnhyhcbamc(1,17):1)Mttgingcthilngvigichosinhvinykhoanmthnhthaythhaigiphvitmtbnhnvtrlicccuhithi;2)Mtkhohctbnnsubuirichoccsinhvinihcnmthbagiphvit lunnvnht lccbntmttnghincu;3)Mtkhogingsuhnnhiudnhchoccbcskhihhptcvibanbintpcctpchyhc.Mcdkhmunmngsoviccnckhc,vicgingdyvphngphpvitcngtrnhyhccbtunhnhngtngcatngcnhn,nhtlParis,Tours,Nantes,Angers,Lille.Cctngnytphplinm1987bngvicthnhlpHiphttringingdyvnghincuvvitcngtrnhkhoahcyhc(Associationpour ledeveloppementde

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    l'enseignementetdelarechercherenrdactionmdicalADERREM).TILIUTHAMKHO1. Farfor JA. Enseigner la rdaction mdicale. Chapitre II. La structure ducompterenduderecherche.CahMed1976;2:7835.2.BoileauDesprauxN.L'artpotique.Chant I. In: (Euvres,nouvelledition.Paris:Billiot,1726:733.3. InternationalCommitteeofMedical JournalEditors.Uniformrequirementsformanuscripssubmittedtobiomedicaljournals.NEnglJMed1997;336:30915(traductionfranaisevoirepage149)4.DepartmentofClinicalEpidemiologyandBiostatistics,McMasterUniversityHealthofScience.Howtoreadclinicaljournals:I.Whytoreadthemandhowtostartreadingthemcritically.CanMedAssocJ1981;124:5558.5. Smith R. Steaming up windows and refereeing medical papers. Br Med J1982;285:125961.6.GarfieldE.Inthuth,thefloodofscientificliteratureisonlyamyth.Scientist1991;2:1125.7.AngellM,RelmanAS.Fraudinbiomedicalresearch.Atimeforcongressionalrestraint.NEnglJMed1988;318:14623.8. Stossel TP. Volume: papers and academic promotion. Ann Intern Med1987;106:1468.9.StettenD.Publication:numbersandquality.Science1986;232:4746.10.FarforJA.Pourunerhabilitationdelapressemdicalefranaise:quandlafindel'amateurisme?CahMed1977;3:6837.11.DeBakeyL.Thescientificjournal:editorialpoliciesandpratices:guidelinesforeditors, reviewers,andsubauthors. IncollaborationwithPFCranefieldetal.StLouis:Mosby,1976,129p.12.Wo

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