PERMANENT COUNCIL OF THE OEA/Ser.G ORGANIZATION .ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES CP/CAJP-3063/12

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  • PERMANENT COUNCIL OF THE OEA/Ser.G ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES CP/CAJP-3063/12 3 April 2012 COMMITTEE ON POLITICAL AND JURIDICAL AFFAIRS Original: English/Spanish

    COMPARATIVE STUDY: DATA PROTECTION IN THE AMERICAS

    Different existing legal regimes, polices and enforcement mechanisms for the protection of personal data, including domestic legislation, regulation, and self-regulation

    [Document presented by the Department of International Law, of the Secretariat for Legal Affairs, pursuant to operative paragraph 10 of General Assembly Resolution AG/RES. 2661

    (XLI-O/11)]

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    COMPARATIVE STUDY: DATA PROTECTION IN THE AMERICAS

    Different existing legal regimes, polices and enforcement mechanisms for the protection of personal data, including domestic legislation, regulation, and self-regulation

    -- Table of Contents --

    I. Introduction..............................................................................................................................- 6 - II. General Legal Frameworks.....................................................................................................- 7 - III. International Instruments on Privacy/Data Protection...........................................................- 8 - IV. National Legal Frameworks ................................................................................................- 11 - 1. Argentina:..............................................................................................................................- 12 -

    A. Legal Context ...................................................................................................................- 12 - i. Constitutional Framework: ............................................................................................- 12 - ii. Legislative Framework:................................................................................................- 14 - ii. Habeas Data:.................................................................................................................- 14 - iv. Self Regulation: ...........................................................................................................- 14 -

    B. Enforcement .....................................................................................................................- 15 - i. Enforcement Mechanism:..............................................................................................- 15 - ii. Data Protection/Enforcement Authorities: ...................................................................- 15 - iii. Administrative and Criminal Sanctions: .....................................................................- 16 -

    C. Cross-Border Cooperation................................................................................................- 16 - i. Data Transfer: ................................................................................................................- 16 - ii. International Instruments/Arrangements: .....................................................................- 17 - ii. Cross-Border investigatory and enforcement cooperation: ..........................................- 17 -

    D. Case Law and Special Challenges....................................................................................- 17 - 2. Canada:..................................................................................................................................- 18 -

    A. Legal Context ...................................................................................................................- 18 - i. Constitutional Framework: ............................................................................................- 18 - ii. Legislative Framework:................................................................................................- 20 - iii. Habeas Data:................................................................................................................- 21 - iv. Self Regulation: ...........................................................................................................- 22 -

    B. Enforcement .....................................................................................................................- 22 - i. Enforcement Mechanisms: ............................................................................................- 22 - ii. Data Protection/Enforcement Authorities: ...................................................................- 23 - iii. Remedies/Recourse: ....................................................................................................- 25 - iv. Investigatory Capabilities/Criminal Prosecution:........................................................- 26 -

    C. Cross-Border Cooperation................................................................................................- 26 - i. Data Transfer: ................................................................................................................- 26 - ii. International Instruments/Arrangements: .....................................................................- 27 - ii. Cross-Border investigatory and enforcement cooperation: ..........................................- 28 -

    D. Case Law and Special Challenges....................................................................................- 28 - 3. Colombia: ..............................................................................................................................- 29 -

    A. Legal Context ...................................................................................................................- 29 - i. Constitutional Framework: ............................................................................................- 29 -

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    ii. Legislative Framework:................................................................................................- 29 - iii. Habeas Data:................................................................................................................- 31 - iv. Self Regulation: ...........................................................................................................- 31 -

    B. Enforcement .....................................................................................................................- 31 - i. Enforcement Mechanisms: ............................................................................................- 31 - ii. Data Protection/Enforcement Authorities: ...................................................................- 32 - iii. Remedies/Recourse: ....................................................................................................- 32 - iv. Investigatory Capabilities/Criminal Prosecution:........................................................- 33 -

    C. Cross-Border Cooperation................................................................................................- 33 - i. Data Transfer: ................................................................................................................- 33 - ii. Cross-Border investigatory and enforcement cooperation: ..........................................- 34 -

    D. Case Law and Special Challenges....................................................................................- 34 - 4. Costa Rica: ............................................................................................................................- 34 -

    A. Legal Context ...................................................................................................................- 35 - i. Constitutional Framework: ............................................................................................- 35 - ii. Legislative Framework:................................................................................................- 36 - iii. Habeas Data:................................................................................................................- 38 - iv. Self Regulation: ...........................................................................................................- 38 -

    B. Enforcement .....................................................................................................................- 39 - i. Enforcement Mechanism:..............................................................................................- 39 - ii. Data Protection/Enforcement Authority:......................................................................- 39 - iii. Remedies/Recourse: ....................................................................................................- 40 - iv. Investigatory Capabilities/Criminal Prosecution:........................................................- 41 -

    C. Cross-Border Cooperation................................................................................................- 42 - i. Data Transfer: ................................................................................................................- 42 - ii. International Instruments/Arrangements: .....................................................................- 42 - ii. Cross-Border investigatory and enforcement cooperation: ..........................................- 42 - D. Case Law and Special Challenges ...............................................................................- 43 -

    5. Dominican Republic..............................................................................................................- 43 -

    A. Legal Context ...................................................................................................................- 43 - i. Constitutional Framework: ..............................................................................