Organizatii Harry

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  • 8/19/2019 Organizatii Harry




     There are many forms and types of organisations. Some are large, others small:some have a very complex structure, other a quite simple one. Some are directedtowards producing products, other towards producing services and otherstowards a combination of those.

     There are many ways to characterise organisations. But a single characteristicapproach is rather fruitless. More promising, is looing to organisations aspatterns or con!gurations of characteristics."n my approach toward organisations, " shall use the ideas developed byMint#berg and Miller." successively shall dwell upon the following sub$ect matters:

    - the elements and members of the organisation%- the essence of an organisation structure%

    - structure and context%- fundamental forms of organisation.



     There are six elements:&. 't the basis of each organisation, we !nd worers: the people who areperforming the fundamental wor of producing goods and, or services. They arethe operational nucleus

    (. 'll organisations have at least one full ) time manager in the strategic apex  from which the total system is overseen.*.'s the organisation grows, there is a need for more managers, not onlymanagers of worers but also managers of managers. There is created a middleline a hierarchy of authority  between the operational nucleus and the strategicapex.+.hen an organisation becomes even more complex, a new category of peopleusually is needed: the analysts. They perform an administrative tas: formallythey plan and administrate the wor of others, but their wor is a di-erentnature: it is often called sta- wor. These analysts are called technostructure andare placed outside the hierarchy. The sta- is only indirectly inuencing what is

    done in the hierarchy./. Most organisations add another ind of sta- units to this: the supporting sta :cantina, post department, $uridical unit or pr0sta-. This supporting sta- is alsoinuencing the wor to be done indirectly.1. Ideology: the traditions, beliefs of an organisation that mae a di-erencebetween the organisation and other organisations. "t gives life to the seleton ofthe structure.

    Figure 1


     Two inds of people are relevant: people inside the organisation and thoseoutside%


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    1.  The people who wor in the organisation to tae decisions and tae actioncan be considered as inuencers who form a ind of internal coalition. Bythis is meant a system in which the people compete with each other toestablish the division of power.

    2.  There are also people outside the organisation who try to exerciseinuence on it. Those external inuences form a !eld of forces around theorganisation: owners, unions, other organisations of employees, suppliers,partners, competitors, the government, the public, clients etc. Together,they are considered as external coalition. Sometimes the external coalitionis passive. 't other moments, one active inuencer or a $ointly operatinggroup of inuencers dominates it. "n other cases, the coalition is dividedwhen di-erent groups want to exercise contrary pressure on theorganisation. 2e.g. a prison in which one group acts in favour ofimprisonment and the other for resocialisation3.

    Fi gure 2.



     4very organised human activity raises two fundamentally di-erent and contraryrequirements:

    - the division of labour  in di-erent performing activities%- the co-ordination of the activities to reach the ob$ectives.- the structure of an organisation can be described as:

    •  the total of the ways in which labour is divided inseparate activities%


    • the degree of co0ordination between those activities.

    2. C!r"#nat#n me$%an#sms.

     There are 1 fundamental co0ordination mechanisms:

    Figure 3.

    &. Mutual Adaptation: the simple process of informal communicationestablishes co0ordination.

    2. Direct upervision: 5o0ordination is reached because one person orders orgives directions to many persons who wor in one or the other waytogether% 2a chief tells his subordinates what should happen step by step3

    &. tandardisation of Activities: co0ordination is established by specifying theactivities of people who wor in one or the other way together 2such normsare usually developed by the technostructure on behalf of the operationalnucleus, lie woring instructions stemming from time and movementanalyses on grass roots level3%

    '. tandardisation of !esults: specifying the results of the di-erent activities2again developed in the thechostructure , lie a !nancial plan in which theob$ectives to be reached by subordinates units are determined, or

    speci!cations of the dimensions of a product3%


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    (. tandardisation of "ills and# or $no%ledge: 6i-erent activities are co0ordinated by means of the related education and training of the performers2lie medical specialists, lie the surgeon and anaesthetist in an operationtheatre who automatically interact to each others7 standardisedprocedures3%

    ). tandardisation of &or's: the norms that regulate the wor, arecontrolled: in general these norms rule the whole organisation, soeverybody is functioning according to the same system of beliefs 2somereligious sects3

     There seems to be a ran order in these mechanisms. To the extend the wor inan organisation becomes more complex, the most favourite ways of co0ordinationseem to shift from mutual adaptation 2the simplest mechanism3 to directsupervision, next to standardisation ) preferably of wor processes and norms orresults 0 to return to mutual adaptation in the end. 8aradox ally, mutualadaptation is the best mechanism when faced with the most complex tass.

     There are organisations that used more than one co0ordination mechanism.9owever, many organisations prefer one mechanism above the others at least in

    some stages of their development. rganisations that don7t have that preferenceare prone to conicts that arise when people are competing to !ll up a vacuum of power .ne must eep in mind that little direct supervision can be an indicationof a wea system of authority, little standardisation indicates a wea ideologyetc.

     There are parameters that are connected to the co0ordinating mechanisms. Themost important are:

    -  (ob specialisation: the amount of tass and the amount of control theworer has over them;

     There exist a di-erence between:< )ori*ontal specialisation: a $ob contains a limited number of narrowly

    de!ned tass%

    + ,ertical specialisation: the worer has no control of the executed tas.- or'alisation of behaviour: standardisation of the wor process by

    imposing operation instructions, $ob descriptions, rules etc. Structures thatare based on one or the other form of standardisation are calledbureaucratic and other structures organic.

    - raining:=ormal programs of instruction to establish in people the requiresnowledge and sills to perform certain $obs in the organisation and tostandardise them.

    - Indoctrination: programs and techniques by which the norms of membersof the organisation are standardised so that they meet the ideologicalneeds of the organisation and by this trusted with respect to decision

    taing and acting.- /rouping of units: >rouping promotes the co0ordination by placing $obswith a di-erent character under common supervision, by forcing them touse common means, equipment and achievement standards andfacilitating mutual adaptation. There are two fundamental bases forgrouping:

    • the 0ob: one lin in the chain of processes by which

    goods and services are produced%

    • the 'ar"et : the whole chain with respect to speci!c

    end products.- i*e of the unit : the number of positions 2units3 within one single unit. The

    term span of control is not used here. Sometimes there are small units

    without supervision doing organic wor: sometime there are big unitsconsisting of many people, doing standardised wor under one supervisor.


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    - he structure reects the lifeti'e of a branch of industry.Technical systems:- he bigger the regulating by the technical syste' - the stronger it

    controls the activities of the %or"ers 4 the 'ore the executing activities ofthe %or"ers are for'alised and the 'ore bureaucratic the structure of theexecuting nucleus. Technical systems promote routine and this in turnpromotes specialisation and formalisation that creates the conditions ofbureaucratisation of the woring nucleus.

    - he 'ore co'plex the technical syste'# the 'ore extended and professional the supporting sta. 9igh tech requires experts and the higherthe need, the more inuence they will have and the more liaisonmechanisms they develop.

    -  Auto'ation the %or" of the executing nucleus transfor's a bureaucraticstructure into an organic one. hen the bureaucratic routine wor isautomated, the social relationships change. The regulation now refers tomachines, not to people. By that, the obsession for control use todisappear and by that a big deal of the managers and analysts who were

    needed to control Their $ob will be occupied by sta- experts and thisdeceases the tendency to use standardisation to coordinate.

    The environment:- he 'ore dyna'ic the environ'ent# the 'ore organic the structure of an

    organisation. hen the environment becomes dynamic ) changes inproducts are needed, the personnel turnover is high, political situation isinstable0 the organisation cannot permit standardisation. "t must stayexible b y coordination by direct supervision or mutual ad$ustment. Thatmeans a more organic structure. 2e.g. armies against a guerrilla war3

    - he 'ore co'plex the environ'ent# the 'ore decentralised the structureof an organisation: not all information that is needed for maing decisions,can be assembled in the mind of one person.

    - he bigger the diversity of 'ar"ets that face the organisation# the biggerthe tendency to split up into divisions that are tuned to certain 'ar"ets#%hen they expect bene5ts of scaling up.9owever if the executing nucleus cannot be divided, than splitting up canappear impossible.

    - 6xtre'e hostility in the environ'ent forces an organisation to centraliseits structure.

    Power:- he stronger the external control of an organisation# the 'ore centralised

    and for'alised its structure. The two most e-ective ways to control anorganisation from outside are:

    to mae the top manager responsible for its actions%• to establish clear norms to comply with.

      =urthermore, external control forces an organisation to special carefulnessin its actions.

    -  A divided external coalition causes a politicised internal coalition and viceversa. 5onicts in one coalition spread to the other because one group ofinuencers tries to get support from the other one.

    - ashion 'ove'ents and hypes favour the structure and culture of the'o'ent# even if those are on subordinate i'portance. "n the ideal case,the design parameters are chosen in accordance with the requirement ofthe lifetime, si#e, technical systems and environment. "n reality, fashionmovements play a role that stimulates organisations to use the design

    parameters that are popular at that moment.


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    7. Cn+gurat#ns. 


     Figure .

     5ombination of all the above0mentioned elements, leads to the following 1con!gurations:

    Ma#n $r"#nat#n Essent#al element T,-e  Cn+gurat#n me$%an#sm t%e rgan#sat#n


    Entre-reneur#al direct Strategic !erticaland horizontalOrgan#sat#n su"ervision a"e# centralisation

    Ma$%#ne Standardisation Techno structureLimited horizontalOrgan#sat#n of wor$ "rocesses


    /ress#nal Standardisation %#ecuting &orizontaldecentralisationOrgan#sat#n of s$ills nucleus

    D#0ers#+e" Standardisation Level Limited verticalOrgan#sat#n of results in 'etween decentralisation

    Inn0at#0e (utual Su""ort sta)  Selective decentralisation

    Organ#sat#n ad*ustment 

    M#ss#nar, Standardisation +deology ,ecentralisation

    Organ#sat#n of norms

    /l#t#$al N N ar#ableOrgan#sat#n


    Figure -.

    •  The strategic apex exercises a pulling force directed to

    leading. "t controls decision taing and coordinated bydirect supervision. hen an organisation admits to thispulling force arises a centralised con!guration that iscalled entrepreneurial organisation.

      Figure  The strategic apex !nds him immediately above the

    executing nucleus with little or no elements betweenline managers and sta- specialists.


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    •  The techno structure exercises a pulling force that is

    directed to rationalising, in the ideal case bystandardisation of woring processes, and it promoteslimited hori#ontal decentralisation by which itself gets

    power3 organisations that admit to this pulling power,2generally by a all governing need to routine eciency3get a 'achine con5guration with a fully elaborated lineand sta- structure directed to controlling andprotecting the executing nucleus.

      Figure /

    •  Trying to get autonomy, managers exercise pulling

    force to 8bal"aniseC the structure. To concentratepower in their units by exclusively to themselvesdirected and limited 2and vertical3 decentralisation.

    hen an organisation admits to this pulling force2generally by splitting itself into units to serve thediverse marets3, and limits itself to control of theresults 2by standardisation of results3, arises thediversi5ed con5guration.

    Figure 0"n the headquarters there is a little sta- that supports a

    smallstrategic apex that supervises a number of divisionsthat show a machine con!guration.

    Members of the executing nucleus exercise a pullingforce that is directed to professionalisation to decreasethe inuence that other people 2colleagues as well asline managers3 exercise on their wor.

      Figure 'dmitting to that creates the professional con5guration.e see complete hori#ontal and verticaldecentralisation of power to the executing nucleus.5oordination is achieved by standardisation ofnowledge and sills. Techno structure and levelbetween apex and nucleus are small. But there are bigsupporting sta-s to assist the professional with much


    •  The supporting sta- exercises a pulling force directed

    to cooperation to get involved in the nuclear activitiesof the organisation. 'n organisation that has a big needto advanced innovation must admit to this force. Sta-,line and sometimes the grass roots level are $oined tomultidisciplinary teams of experts in which internal andexternal ad$ustment is achieved by mutual ad$ustment.

    Figure 1 The organisation gets an innovative con!guration inwhich the dividing lines that characterise theconventional organisation disappear. The diverse


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    elements melt into one single system of vertical andhori#ontal decentralisation on a selective basis.

    • "deology mainly exists in organisations of a di-erent

    type. Members are stimulated to act. Together, to thin

    and feel the same way. 9owever, sometimes whennorms become the main coordinating mechanism, theorganisation gets a missionary con!guration.

    • "t is decentralisation in its purest form. 4very member

    is trusted to decide and act on behalf of theorganisation as a whole.

    Figure 11

    • "n some organisations conicting forces pull members

    from each other. hen this situation dominates,especially when no part of the organisation en nocoordination mechanism dominates, the organisation

    gets a political con!guration without a stable form ofcentralisation or decentralisation.

    Figure 12

    T%e Entre-reneur#al Organ#sat#n.

    Structure:  ! simple, informal, exible, small sta- and hierarchy if any, minimal use

    planning procedures or training programs.- activities concentrated on the top manager who the organisation

    personally controls by means of direct supervision, direct responsibility tothe boss, power is centralised on the boss.

    onte#t:- a survey able and dynamic environment%- strong leadership, sometimes charismatic and authoritarian%- in the beginning phase, in a crisis or a change of the organisation%- small organisations, local enterprises.

    Strategy:- often a visionary process, in general purposive, but spontaneous and very

    exible as far as it concerns details, aggressively looing for chances, a

    very personal vision of the boss reecting his own personality%- the boss taes care for a exible attitude in less vulnerable niches of the

    maret. 5ertainly when clients, suppliers and other forces outside try toexercise inuence.

     4dvantages5 Pro'lems and dangers:- preparing for the circumstances, a feeling of a mission% identi!cation with

    the mission, motivating charismabut- vulnerable and limited% too dependent on one person2he can die% no other

    opinions are accepted3% people don7t feel committed because the bossdecides

    - danger of lac of balance between strategy and execution% danger of beingcommitted to only strategy or execution.


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    he boss as the leading 'an in the organisation.4ntrepreneurship is closely related to the development of a strategic vision inwhich often a new concept is designed. Strategies can be characterised asdeliberated because they are imbedded in the intentions of only one boss. Butbecause it mostly concerns personal strategies, details can get substance duringthe development of strategies. "n fact the strategy can change to. The leader canlearn by trial and error by which also new visions can arise, sometimes very fast."n the entrepreneurial organisation, the leader is the central point. Theorganisation is exible and reacts to initiatives of the leader. The environment ismainly favourable because the leader has chosen the right niche in the maret.Some times the environment will test the organisation. The leader must decideadaptations and, or loo for a new niche.

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    Structure:- centralised bureaucracy%- very specialised routine wor, very formalised communication in the whole

    organisation, uniting tass in a functional basis, a rather centralised

    decision power, little freedom of action to the worers and their chiefs, bythat chiefs have a big span of control% 5hiefs in the hierarchy have threemain tass:

    • solve disturbances in the executing nucleus%

    • cooperation with sta- analysts to introduce the norms

    of the latter in the subordinated executing units%

    • support vertical activities: elaboration of action plansthat were sent downwards in the hierarchy and passingfeed bac information upwards%

    - techno structure is central, in charge of standardising of tass but strictlydivided from the level in between, very developed% the sta- analyst have a

    big 2informal3 power- a sharp division of: functional specialisation in the executing nucleus, a

    sharp formal distinction between line and sta-% a sharp distinction betweenadministrative structure and executing nucleus: managers seldom worside by side with their worers%

    - an extended supporting sta- to reduce the amount of uncertainty% theorganisation produces as much as possible services within its ownstructure in order to control this structure and act independently from theenvironment%

    - the strategic tops are the only generalists.

    onte#t:- a clearly structured and stable environment%- a big and adult organisation%


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    - rationalised wor, a technical 2but not automated3 system oriented torationalisation%

    - external control tends to the instrumental form%- also closed system form possible%- in general, mass production or large scale service, government, enterprise- control and security have a high priority.

    Strategy:- planning is seemingly a process, but in reality strategic programming%- resistance towards change, that has become necessary to lay upon it an

    innovative con!guration to revitalise, or to regress to an entrepreneurialcon!guration to cause a revolution%

    - changes happen by Iquantum leapsC: long periods of stability, interruptedby sometimes occurring strategic revolutions.

     4dvantages5 "ro'lems and dangers:- ecient, reliable, accurately woring, consistent%

    but- obsession to control n order to ban all insecurity and to cut o- the

    executing nucleus from external inuences, which leads to:- human problems in the executing nucleus: by the high degree of

    specialisation 2eciency3 communication and coordination problems arise:conicts are not solved but encapsulated 0 that causes:

    - coordination problems in the administrative centre maintaining thestructure and solving grass roots level conicts, mostly by creating morerules, that in turn cause:

    - problems of adaptation in the strategic apex because the strategic apex isdirectly solving problems at grass roots level: in times of change problemsarise and there will be a congestion at the strategic apex solving all

    problems which prevents thining about the future, new strategies etc.- Split between policy Jstrategy and implementation: in most machine

    organisations there is a split between policy and its implementation. Thesplit is based on the following assumptions:

     The policy maer has all the information he needs%

     The world around is stable and does not change% therefore

    reformulation of the policy is not needed.9owever these assumptions are mostly not realistic. That means that thesplit must be ended and exactly at the moment in which the strategy mustbe changed. The strategic apex must not only formulate the policy andstrategy but also implement it directly. That means that the strategist

    wors very closely with grass roots level and with the environment tocreate a new policy and activities. That means a change of con!guration."n essence the machine organisation is not equipped for this change. =or ashort time it can change into an entrepreneurial organisation or into theinnovative form.

    Machine organisation as an instru'ent and as a closed syste'. There are two types of machine organisations: instruments and closed systems.

    - Instru'ents. By the fact that machine organisations create a hug amountof rules, they can an easily be controlled externally. "n that way, they serveas an instrument to external inuencers. 4xternal inuencers mae anorganisation their instrument by appointing a top manager. They give him

    clear and quanti!able ob$ectives and mae him responsible for achievingthem. "n this way, outsiders can control an organisation without managing


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    it. This leads to centralisation and bureaucratisation of the internalstructure: a typical machine organisation.

    - 9losed syste's. 9owever, the obsession to control can extend itself tomaster its environment by becoming closed systems immune forinuences from outside 2cartels, diversify marets to avoid dependence ofcertain clients, internal !nancing. 6iversi!cation and by that paci!cation of all categories of external inuencers are central issues.b$ectives of the closed system organisation: growth, enlargement of thesystem% growth gives bigger rewards, power etc.


    Structure:- maret oriented divisions loosely related under a common administration

    of a headquarter%- independent operating divisions 2with limited decentralisation to the level

    of division manager, sub$ected to a system of achievement control for

    standardisation of results%- tendency to force a machine con!guration to the division 2external

    controlK3 while the total diversi!ed organisation tends to a closed system.onte#t:

    - maret diversity especially with respect to products and services 2incontrast to client or region diversity3% diversi!cation of by products andrelated products promotes the development of intermediate forms%conglomerate as purest form of diversi!cation%

    - mostly appearing in the biggest and most adult organisations especially inprivate enterprises% however also more and more in the government sector and related areas.

    Strategy:- headquarter manages concern strategy lie the portfolio of the

    enterprises: the divisions manage separate enterprise strategies. 4dvantages5 "ro'lems and dangers:

    - solves some problems of integrated 2machine3 structures that are dividedto functions 2spread of riss, adding and dropping enterprise activities etc3%

    but- conglomerate diversi!cation is sometimes very costly and prevents

    innovation% a better functioning of the capital maret and the board ofcommissioners might mae independent enterprises more e-ective thandivision do%

    - the achievement control system increase the danger that the organisation

    is not interested in social and societal aspects or begins to behave itselfirresponsible%- although this form becomes more and more popular in the government,

    the dangers in that area are even bigger because many goals cannot bemeasured.


    Structure:- bureaucratic because by training sills are standardised for the diverse

    executing professionals and at the same time decentralised% training is

    determining for standardisation% there are however big di-erences with themachine bureaucracy: in the machine bureaucracy, the techno structure


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    formulates the norms and leave it to the managers to enforce conformity%in contrast, the norms of the professional organisation are developedoutside its structure in the independent associations of professionals% othernorms cannot serve the professional because their wor is too complex tobe analyses and translated into !xed procedures , and results by analysts%"n essence the training of professional concerns greatly the incorporationof categories toe diagnose the problems of the client and to adapt aspecial program to them% the machine organisation has a simple ob$ective%after having received a stimulus, it follows a standard series of programs%there is no diagnose% in the professional organisation , a diagnose is afundamental but closely de!ned tas% one tries to loo for a in advancedescribed case in a standardised program% for open ended diagnoses ) inwhich a solution is searched for an unique problem ) the innovativecon!guration is required%

    -  There is not much hierarchical management structure% professionals arenearly autonomous in their wor but have also a great inuence on theiradministration% the manager is seen as a facilitator% however the manager

    can have big power. 9is tass are:• solve disturbances and conicts of competence

    between specialists%

    • liaison between professionals inside and inuencers

    outside 2government, organisations of clients, !nancersetc3

    - essential for the functioning is a system of separate specialisations inwhich each professional wors independently but sub$ected to the controlsystem of their professions that extends itself far beyond the organisation%

    - a minimal techno structure and intermediate hierarchy that cause a largespan of control with regard to the professional wor% a very extendedsupporting sta- on behalf of the professionals with a machine liecharacter%

    onte#t:- complex but stable%- simple technical system%- frequently, but not exclusively in the service sector.

    Strategy:- many to a great extend fragmentary strategies but also cohesion

    promoting forces%- mostly determined on the basis of professional evaluation and collective

    decision 2collegially and politically3, sometimes after administrativeapproval%

    - total strategy very stable, but continuously changing in details% 4dvantages5 "ro'lems and dangers:

    - advantages of democracy and autonomy%but- problems of coordination between the separate $ob areas and specialities,

    possibilities for abuse of professional autonomy and resistance toinnovation%

    - response of the external world to these problems often dysfunctional2machine lie3%

    - strong union inuence increases the problems.

    INNOATIE ORGANISATION. The innovative organisation is directed to create new solutions, new ways offunctioning, new ways of approaching the environment, new ways to solve


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    existing and, or anticipated problems. "mportant is that many initiatives aretoen sometimes at the cost of many disturbances. Mostly it achievese-ectiveness by being very inecient. The innovative con!guration is sometimesnecessary but it certainly not conventional according to the norms of traditionalmanagement literature. "t fully deviates from other forms of organisations andour view about what organisations should be.Done of the con!gurations discussed thus far, is able to perform advancedinnovation that is required for technical advanced research organisations,avant?garde companies, or an enterprise that produces very complex prototypesetc. The entrepreneurial organisation can innovate but in a relatively simple way.

     The machine and professional organisations are achievement types, no systemsfor solving problems% they are designed to perfect standard programs and neednot to invent new ones. 'lso the diversi!ed organisation doesn7t promoteinnovation. 'dvanced innovation requires a totally di-erent con!guration that isable to $oin experts from di-erent disciplines into smooth functioning ad0hocpro$ect groups. They are IadhocraciesC.Structure:

    - volatile, organic, selective decentralised IadhocracyC% selectivedecentralisation means that the power over the decisions and activities isdivided over the di-erent places, positions and levels to meet the needs ofthe essential tass%

    - specialist experts brought into action in multidisciplinary teams of sta-ocers, worers and managers to realise innovation% each teamconcentrates on one speci!c pro$ect% there is a considerabledecentralisation to and within those teams%

    - coordination by mutual ad$ustment promoted by liaison ocers,integrating managers and a matrix structure% no unity of command%information and decision processes are smooth and informal and notnecessarily via the hierarchical channels% 5oordination must be achieved

    by people who have the necessary nowledge, the experts themselves andnot only by the managers or sta- ocers. That means that only onecoordination mechanism is left: mutual adaptation% to stimulate this theadhocracy uses a whole range of liaison means, liaison people andsintegrating managers, steering groups that combine the e-orts of separatepro$ect groups and so on% managers seldom give orders% instead, theyspend much time acting as liaison to coordinate the wor of the teamshori#ontally%

    - two basic forms:

    • executing adhocracy : for pro$ects based on contracts%

    in an adhocracy pro$ect design and planning cannot be

    separated from implementation% both types of activitiesrequire the same sills. Therefore administrative andexecuting activities melt together%

    • ad'inistrative adhocracy : for own pro$ects 2plants or

    new activities3% the executing nucleus is clearly distinctfrom the administrative component% the nucleus is cuto- by which the administration can be structured as anadhocracy% 5utting of can be done in two ways:

    when he activities have a machine liecharacter and by hat innovation in theadministrative part would impede, these can bechanged in an independent enterprise%

    A the executing nucleus can be abolished totally%this give the organisation the opportunity to


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    concentrated on development and designing 2e.g.D'S' in the 'pollo pro$ect3% therefore the need of direct supervision decreases and the inuence ofthe managers will rest more and more on theirexpertise and interpersonal sills in stead of theirformal position% also the distinction between sta- and line disappears

    - the administrative component of the adhocracy exists of an organic wholeof line managers and worers who cooperate in continuously changingrelationships in ad0hoc pro$ects. The roles of the strategic apex:

    • solve the problems that arise in these volatilestructures: when di-erent experts wor togetherconicts will arise: managers must try to use thisenergy in a positive direction% this require social sills,cogency and building of teams and coalitions%

    • control the progress of the pro$ects so that they are

    performed within the limits of the speci!cations,

    budget and time because innovative pro$ects aredicult to control%

    • maintaining contacts with the outside world% the

    adhocracy is completely dependent on the client for itspro$ects% therefore acquisition, maintenance of contactsand negotiating are essential tass%

    onte#t:- complex and dynamic environment, among others high tech, multiple

    changes of product 2by !erce competition3, temporary and very bigpro$ects%

    - mostly young organisations: bureaucracy increases as the age increases%-

    often a young branch of industry%

    Strategy:- mainly learning% process from the bottom up%- mainly self0developing by a diversity of process from grass roots level up%- more developing than ordered by the management%- characteristic cycles of convergence and divergence in the strategic

    orientation%- model for strategy formation from grassroots level upwards:

    • it is important not to manage strategy formation too

    much but it is more important to mae patterns todevelop themselves%

    • strategies can get roots on di-erent places, nearlyeverybody has the capability to learn and the means tosupport that capability% sometimes this happenspurposefully, sometimes spontaneously, sometimes itarise from a cooperation% organisations cannot alwaysplan where strategies will develop%

    • such strategies become part of the organisation when

    the become collective% that means when the patternsextend themselves and inuence the behaviour of theorganisation as a whole%

    • the processes of spread of strategies can be

    purposeful, but that is not necessary% liewise, the canbe managed but that is not necessary and need not to


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    be intended% it is obvious that after a strategy isrecognised as valuable, the spread can be managed 6

    • new strategies can arise continuously and their spread

    uses to tae place in periods of change as aninterruption between periods of more integration and

    continuity%• managing of this process doesn7t exist of inventing

    strategies in advance but of recognising their rise andintervene on the right moment% so managing meanscreating a climate in which a great diversity ofstrategies can grow and wait and loos what itproduces% promote valuable strategies in times ofchange.

     4dvantages5 "ro'lems and dangers:- combines very well with democracy and less with bureaucracy and

    therefore as a structure in fashion%- e-ective for tass that require innovation 2it mae a brea through of the

    ordinary practices possible3but

    - e-ectiveness is at the cost of eciency%- also human problems by lac of clarity and un$usti!ed change to an other

    con!guration%- when an adhocracy grows older and more complex it uses to change into a

    professional or machine organisation%


    4very organisation has its culture, its own speci!c way of woring and behaving."deology is a special ind of culture: a very well developed and deeply rootedsystem of values and beliefs that districts the organisation from other ones. Theconcept of ideology is used in organisational not in political sense.haracteristics:

    - a very elaborated system of values and beliefs that maes the di-erencebetween the organisation and other ones%

    - rooted in the feeling of having a mission, together with charismaticleadership, developed via traditions, legends and reinforced byidenti!cation%

    - can be laid over a conventional con!guration% in this case, it mostlyconcerns an entrepreneurial con!guration, followed by an innovative, next

    professional and last machine con!guration%- sometimes so strong that an speci!c con!guration arises: the missionary

    organisation%- a clear, speci!c and inspiring mission%- coordination by standardising of norms 2together we are strong3 reinforced

    by selection, socialisation an d indoctrination of members%- small units loosely related 2enclaves3 and strongly centralised but with

    strong normative control%- directed towards reformation and conversion and monastery forms%- at one hand danger of isolation, at the other one danger of assimilation

    The develo"ment of an organisation ideology.

    /%ase I4 t%e r#g#n t%e #"elg, rm a m#ss#nar, bel#e.


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     8eople come together because they have certain values in common that arerelated to the arising organisation. Somebody could have taen the initiative toassemble people around him. 't least, the members see in the organisation away of realising a personal goal. Sometimes a missionary belief is added to this: afeeling that one has come together to realise something unusual, somethingexiting. Those new organisations o-er much latitude% they are small, so personalrelationships can develop between the members. The members involved in itsfoundation, have strong fundamental convictions and a strong drive towardscooperation. The founders are often charismatic persons who stimulate theirfollowers to action and bind them together.f course ideologies can arise in existing organisations, but they are limited byexisting procedures and traditions, by their volume 2most are already big3 andtheir beliefs. Eery fundamental is the fact that the ey to the development of anorganisation ideology is the leadership that has a deep conviction that it has toaccomplish a mission and gets the sincere devotion of the people who have torealise it.

    /%ase II4 "e0el-ment an #"elg, b, means tra"#t#n an" m,t%s.hen a new organisation is founded or when a new system of beliefs developsitself in an existing organisation, the activities exhibited and the decisions taencreate a feeling of involvement and precedents. The behaviours reinforcethemselves and the acts are imbedded by values. hen these forces are strong,an ideology arises that governs the behaviours. The ideology will be reinforced bymyths that arise around important events in the past of the organisation.>radually an own and unique historical conscience is formed. These myths andhistorical conscience reinforce the ideology in turn.

    /%ase III4 re#nr$ement t%e #"elg, b, means #"ent#+$at#n.

     There are + sources of identi!cation:- identi!cation develops naturally: a new member feels himself attracted tot

    the belief system of the organisation%- "denti!cation is based on selection. Dew members are selected on basis of

    the fact that they !t into the existing beliefs, and the positions of powerare !lled by people who most strongly adhere these beliefs%

    - "denti!cation can be evoedJ By a specially strong need of loyalty, anorganisation can use informal processes of socialisation and ocialindoctrination in order to enforce the via natural way or selection acquireddevotion%

    - "denti!cation can be based on calculation, because identi!cation gives

    advantages. The !rst source is the strongest, the fourth the weaest. Strong ideologicalsystems contain many people who identify naturally. This natural identi!cationcan be reinforced by selection, socialisation and indoctrination.

    T,-es M#ss#nar, rgan#sat#ns4

    - The reformers. They want to reform the world immediately fromabolishing the government to decent dressing of dogs. These reformerscan be religious, political, social etc.

    - The converters. They see it as their mission to attract members and

    change them% by this they want to change the world. The di-erence


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    between reformers and converters is that reformers concentrate on theoutside worlds and the converters on their members.

    - The monastry. they don7t want to change the world but mae possible aunique way of life for the members.


    Dormally an organisation is determined by the following systems of inuence:- authority%- ideology%- expertise- politics.

     The political system reects power that is technically illegitimate 2or better: a0legitimate3 not only concerning the means but also concerning the goals. 8oliticalpower in organisations is di-erent from government power, not formallyestablished, generally accepted or ocially recognised. 5onsequence of it is thatpolitical power creates discord, evoes conicts in which groups or individuals are

    set against more legitimate systems of inuence and if these systems are weaagainst each other.

    Political games in organisations:- the rebellion game: the goal is resistance to authority, expertise or

    ideology and sometimes to force the organisation to change% mostlyplayed by the lowest worers whom the formal authority is pressing most%

    - the counter rebellion game played by those who posses the formal powerand !ght with political and perhaps legitimate means%

    - the sponsor game: to establish a power base by using superiors: theindividual relates himself with somebody of a higher status who behavehimself loyally in exchange for power%

    - the alliance game: played by peers who negotiate implicit contracts tosupport each other and so to establish a power base to get higher up inthe organisation%

    - the "ingdo' game: mostly played by line managers to establish a powerbase, not cooperating with peers but individually in cooperation withsubordinates%

    - the budget game: openly played with rather clear established rules toestablish a power base% it loos lie the latter game but it creates lessdiscord because the price for the victor consists of !nancial means and notof positions or organisation units%

    - the expertise game: improper use of expertise to establish a power base

    by pretending expertise or use it in and out of season% real experts playthis game by exploiting their technical nowledge and sills emphasisingits uniqueness, crucial meaning and irreplaceability% by this they try toprevent that their sills will be absorbed in a program% non0experts try tomae people belief that their wor is the wor of experts% so nobody elsehas the competence to decide on it%

    - the potentate game: played to establish a power base by dominatingothers who don7t have this power or have it to a lesser degree, usinglegitimate power 2in fact by using legitimate power in a illegitimate way3%

    - the line-against- sta  game: this game is played not only to increasepersonal power but also to beat the rival: line managers are opposing sta-advisers with their special expertise% both try too use legitimate power

    illegitimately% it loos lie rivalry between members of a family%


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    - the rival sing- party game: the ob$ective is to beat opponents% especiallywhen alliance or ingdom games result in two Lpower blocs% this gamecreates most discord and results in conicts between part of theorganisation 2e.g. mareting and production3, between rival sing personsetc.%

    -  the strategic candidate game: the ob$ective is to change the organisation%individuals or groups try with political means to promote the by themdesired strategic changes by bringing their candidates into attention ofothers before an ocial nomination% this game is often combined withbuilding ingdoms, rival sing parties, line against sta-, expertise andpotentate games%

    - the alert game: insider, usually of low level, uses con!dential informationto warn an inuential outsider about doubtful or illegal behaviour of theorganisation or its higher managers%

    - the ;oung ur"s game: the ob$ective is a far reaching change by puttingthe legitimate power into discussion or to overthrow it% small groups ofIoung TursC near the power centre but not being part of it, try to give the

    organisation a di-erent basic strategy, to put the expertise on an otherplace, to change the ideology or overthrow the leadership.

    "n machine and missionary organisations, the sponsor and potentate games can )although they are illegitimate0 go hand in hand with strong legitimate systems ofinuence. ther games, lie the rebellion and oung Turs one, arise in thepresence of a strong legitimate power but resist against it. They obstructcon!gurations lie the machine variant% rival sing party games occurs insituations in which the legitimate power is wea, and replace it lie inprofessional and innovative con!gurations.

     The politics and conicts exist in two levels of the organisation:- the can be present without dominating, on a meta0level above the

    conventional organisation, may be as a ind of I!fth columnC in service of

    some other power who lies to undermine the organisation.-  The politics are the dominating system of inuence and there are !erce

    conicts that weaened the legitimate systems of inuence or $ust areevoed by their weaness% this second level is called the politicalorganisation.

    T,-es -l#t#$al rgan#sat#ns.

     The political organisation is characterised by the absence of coordinationmechanism, dominating organisation element, no clear centralisation or

    decentralisation. There are four forms of political organisations:- 9onfrontation# characterised by intense, limited because the happen

    between two parties 2e.g. in a prison guards and people who have to taecare for re0socialisation3 and short lasting conicts: instable%


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    survive because of a privileged position% you can see this phenomenon ingreat government organisations where the competences are visible andcontroversial lie many legislative and executing organisations% theprotection by the government guarantees the survival of theseorganisations% but you can see it also in private enterprises.

    - otally political arena# characterised by intense to elsewhere extendingand short conicts: instable% in this type external inuencers don7t agree,they try to get alliances with some persons within the organisation at thesame time coming into conict with others% the internal activities are full of conicts% authority, ideology and expertise are subordinated to the politicalpower game% such am organisation is not able to achieve a goal% in fact isnot an organisation but a set of individual woring only for themselves.

    L#e C,$le /l#t#$al Organ#sat#ns.

    &. I'pulse. ' necessary and sometimes sucient condition for the arising ofa political organisation is considerable pressure stemming from inuentialpersons or groups to change the power system. Such a pressure can arisespontaneously or evoed by other changes 2e.g. change of owner, a newtechnology3 or the established power has weaened, so other inuencerstry to !ll the gap that exists.

    (. Develop'ent. Such pressures are an attac on the existing power order.hen it does not exist, these pressure lead to battles to get the powerbetween the groups that compete. Because the challenge of power evoesconicts, a fast settlement can avoid politicisation. hen a conict breasout, becomes intense and leads to the confrontation form of the politicalorganisation, it can 0 when not is interfered 0 extend itself and develops

    itself into a totally political arena. hen the conict develops itselfgradually, it can tae a more stable form and continue. 'ny moment themoderate conict can ame out by which the confrontation form arises.

    *. olution. Such political conicts usually have four consequences:- Somebody %ins and the organisation returns to its existence without

    conicts. But, when the winner does not represent the need of theorganisation to power, new confrontations can be expected if theorganisation wants to eep functioning e-ectively.

    -  The conict destroys the organisation. Mostly, this proceeds via the totallypolitical arena.

     This form can arise:

    of itself%• during the agony of an organisation that already is

    deemed to destruction by other causes 2e.g. by ahopeless out0fashioned technique or there is notanymore a maret for its products.

    -  The conict continues in a 'oderate for' by which the organisation eepsfunctioning.

     The unstable alliance and the politicised organisation are two moderateforms of the political con!guration

    -  The conict ends up undecidedly. "n that case an unstable alliance is lielyto arise. Both parties cannot win or give up but recognise that they mustmoderate their conict because of the survival of the organisation. They

    reach an implicit agreement to tolerate each other. There are, of course,organisations in which the unstable alliance in inherent lie a symphony


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    orchestra or professional who must wor together with governmentbureaucrats. "n these cases the alliance can suddenly change in aconfrontation model.

    /l#$, #n t%e $n0ent#nal rgan#sat#ns.- 6ntrepreneurial con5guration: Because there is only one person who is

    powerful and controls everything, this con!guration should have a minimalpolitics. 9owever between and important outside inuencersconfrontations and unstable alliances may arise. "t is also possible thatIyoung TursC challenge a chief who is gradually becoming weaer. Butthese games are so incompatible with the entrepreneurial con!gurationthat a political con!guration will arise that might change into anotherstable form.

    - Machine and diversi5ed con5guration. The strong formal authority systemsshould counteract political activities. But the rigidity of these systemscauses mild types of conicts because some things slip through themeshes of the net. 8olitical games are played that can go hand in hand

    with legitimate authority: building ingdoms, the sponsor game, thestrategic0candidate game, line0sta- game and potentate gameJ. By thestrict division in separate units promote parochialism and trials to increasethe small power base. ou will also see the Iyoung Turs I game and thealert game. These games can cause the rise of a politicised organisationform.

    - 1rofessional and innovative con5gurations.  These con!gurations havewea authority but strong expertise systems. This gives room to allpolitical games. The professional organisation has a relatively stableexecuting nucleus in which the activities are standardised, but theadministrative structure in which professionals and managers mustcooperate to decide, is hardly stable and promotes games lie strategic0

    candidate, ingdom and rivali#ing0parties games. The transition to apolitical organisation is very liely:

    • confrontation model 2e.g. experts disagree completely3%

    • politicised organisation%

    • unstable alliance 2e.g. experts are confronted with

    government bureaucrats3%

    • total political arena 2experts are in war with each

    other3.- Missionary organisation. This type does not tolerate any political activity

    because of its strong belief system and emphasis on cooperation.henever games are plaid, the end of the organisation is approaching. f

    cause strategic candidates can put forward and is playing potentate ageneral phenomenon when members press their ideology on outsiders. "tis possible that !erce conicts arise about the interpretation of theCmessageC. 'n ideology that is laid over another con!guration cancontribute to a decrease of the political activity.

     T%e un$t#nal rle -l#t#$s #n rgan#sat#ns.

    "n general, a political system in an organisation is necessary to correct someimperfections of its legitimate systems of inuence en especially to maepossible some exibility that is obstructed by the other systems. The othersystems are called legitimate because their resources are to a certain extendlegitimate. But sometimes these resources are used to achieve unacceptablegoals 2e.g. potentate game3. The political system that wors with illegitimate


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    means can be used to achieve legitimate goals 2e.g. alert game and Iyoung TursC3.=unctions of political systems:

    - 8olitics as system of inuence can tae care that ) in a dawinistic way 0 thestrongest members tae the leadership positions and exclude or evenremove wea ones.

    - 8olitics causes that all sides of a problem are taen into consideration:managers, experts and ideologists are challenged as to the validity of theirarguments.

    - 8olitical systems often promote changes that are hold up by the legitimatesystems of inuence. "nternal changes are generally threatening to thevested interest of an organisation.

    - 8olitical systems are maing the preparatory wor for the execution ofdecisions. Managers use political methods to get their decisions acceptedby plying the strategic0candidate game in the !rst phase of their proposalsto prevent to be forced to play the more risy pay of battling the rebellionwhen their proposals meet resistance,

    "f the political system can be functional, then it is also liely for the organisationin which the political system is dominating. The political con!guration isfunctional when it:

    - stimulates a rearrangement of power in the organisation, that has becomenecessary by changes in one of its fundamental conditions of existence orby the disruption of its vested power centre%

    - corrects a preceding and dysfunctional change of the power%- taes the form of an unstable alliance that reects balanced and

    irreconcilable forces in the organisation%- accelerates the end of an already worn out up organisation.


    Most types of organisations have big problems with fundamental and far0reachingchange. But there is a need for change because the world outside is continuouslychanging. So the organisation is forced to change in order to survive. But it is notpossible to change continuously. Most people get mad and, or exhausted. So theidea is that there are periods of continuity and those of change followed again bycontinuity. To bring about a fundamental change an organisation must at leastpartly tae the form of an innovative con!guration. That means that grass rootsworers, sta- ocers, experts and manager cooperate in woring groups to solve

    the problems faced, invent solutions, experiment and try them out and nextimplement the newly designed solution. 'fter a period of accustoming the newsolution is operational for some time 2continuation3. "t is of utmost importancethat all relevant persons from grass roots level up to the highest leadership aredirectly involved. ' solution developed and designed at the dess of sta- andmanagement mostly does not wor because it might neglect the practice,expertise, problems and details at grass roots level.

     The change starts with maing all the members of the organisation aware of theproblems or the challenge faced with. This is an important tas of themanagement but also of pressure groups or persons in and outside theorganisation 2political systems3J hen the problems and challenge are fullyrecognised, then the innovative con!guration can be used for development and

    implementation. 'fter implementation and accustoming the new structure andculture can be Ifro#enC till after some time new problems and challenges arise.


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    4xista multe forme si tipuri de organi#atii. Nnele sunt mici altele sunt mari% uneleau o structura foarte complexa, altele una foarte simpla. Nnele au ca scopproducerea de bunuri, altele produc servicii, iar altele sunt o combinatie dinacestea doua.rgani#atiile pot ! descrise in multe feluri. 6ar un singur mod de abordare nueste de a$uns. 4ste mai bine sa privim organi#atiile ca modele sau con!guratii decaracteristici.'bordarea mea privind organi#atiile are la ba#a ideile de#voltate de Min#berg siMiller.Ma voi referi succesiv la urmatoarele probleme:

    - elementele si membrii unei organi#atii%

    - esenta unei structuri organi#ationale%- structura si context%- formele fundamentale ale unei organi#atii.



    4xista sase elemente:&. Ha ba#a oricarei organi#atii se aa muncitoriiJlucratorii: oamenii care

    lucrea#a efectiv la producerea bunurilor. 4i sunt nucleul(. Toate organi#atiile au cel putin un varf strategic ) un manager cu normaintreaga, de unde se supraveghea#a intregul sitem

    *. 8e masura ce organi#atia creste, este nevoie de mai multi manageri pentrulucratori, dar si de manageri pentru manageri. 'stfel se crea#a o linie demi$loc a ierarhiei de autoritate, intre nucleul operativ si varful strategic.

    +. 'tunci cand organi#atia devine mai complexa, este nevoie de obicei, de onoua categorie de oameni: analistii. 4i indeplinesc sarcini administrative. "nmod o!cial, ei plani!ca munca pt ceilalti, dar de fapt munca lor este dealta natura ) adesea numita: de personal. 'cesti analisti sunt denumititehnostructura si sunt plasati in afara ierarhiei. 8ersonalul inuentea#adoar in mod indirect ceea ce se face la nivelul ierarhiei.

    /. Ma$oritatea organi#atiilor adauga la acest fel de structura : personalul despri0in ) cantina, registratura, biroul $uridic sau cel de relatii cu publicul.


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    'cest personal de spri$in, de asemenea, nu inuentea#a in mod directmunca efectuata .

    1. Ideologia: este creata de obiceiurile, traditiile, credintele unei organi#atii,care marchea#a diferenta dintre o organi#atie si alta. "deologia estescheletul structurii.

    Figura 1


    Sunt relevante doua categorii de oameni: cei din interiorul organi#atiei, si cei dinafara ei.

    &. 5ei care lucrea#a in organi#atie, iau deci#iile si sunt activi pot ! consideratifactorii de inuenta, care formea#a un fel de coalitie interna. Se crea#a unsistem in care oamenii se intrec si se stabileste o divi#iuneJimpartire aputerii.

    (. Si cei din afara organi#atiei incearca sa o inuente#e. 'ceste inuente

    externe formea#a un camp de forte in $urul organi#atiei: proprietarii,sindicatele, alte organi#atii ale anga$atilor, cei care aprovi#ionea#aorgani#atia, partenerii, competitorii, guvernul, publicul, clientii etc."mpreuna, acestia constituie coalitia externa. Nneori, coalitia externa estepasiva. 'lte ori domina un factor de inuenta sau un grup de factori deinuenta. "n alte ca#uri, colalitia este divi#ata atunci cand doreste saexercite o contra0presiune asupra organi#atiei 2 de exemplu intr0oinchisoare, in care un grup este in favoarea inchiderii infractorilor, iar altulin favoarea re0sociali#arii lor3.

    Fi gura 2.



    rice activitate umana organi#ata ridica doua cerinte fundamental diferite sicontrarii:

    - Divi*iunea 'uncii pe diferite activitati%- 9o-ordonarea activitatilor in scopul atingerii obiectivelor.

    Structura unei organi#atii poate ! descrisa ca:

    •  totalitatea modalitatilor in care munca este divi#ata pe

    activitati separate%

    si• gradul de co0ordonare dintre aceste activitati.

    2. Me$an#smele "e $r"nare.

    4xista 1 mecanisme de coordonare:

    Figura 3.

    =. Adaptare reciproca: simplul proces de comunicare informala stabilestecoordonarea.


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    2. upraveghere directa: coordonarea este reali#ata datorita unei persoanecare da ordine sau dispo#itii mai multor persoane care lucrea#a separatsau impreuna 2seful le spune subordonatilor ce sa faca pas0cu0pas3

    >. tandardi*area activitatilor : coordonarea este stabilita de diferiteleactivitati ale oamenilor care muncesc separat sau impreuna 2astfel denorme sunt de obicei de#voltate de tehnostructura nucleului operativ, cumar ! instructiunile de lucru, sau anali#ele privind forta de munca la nivelullucratorilor de la ba#a3%

    +. tandardi*area re*ultatelor: speci!carea re#ultatelor diferitelor activitati2din nou, create de tehnostructura, cum ar ! planul !nanciar in care suntspeci!cate obiectivele la care trebuie sa a$unga subordonatii, sauspeci!catii cu privire la cantitatea produsului etc3%

    /. tandardi*area deprinderilor# si?sau cunostintelor: diferite activitati suntcoordonate prin educatie si instruire a lucratorilor 2ca in ca#ul specialistilorin medicina ) chirurgul si aneste#istul care interactionea#a in mod automatunul cu celalalt intr0o operatie, de o maniera standard3%

    1. tandardi*area nor'elor: normele care reglementea#a munca suntcontrolate. "n general, aceste norme guvernea#a intreaga organi#atie,astfel incat toata lumea functionea#a conform aceluiasi sistem de credinte2ca in sectele religioase3.

    Se pare ca exista o ordine ierarhica a acestor mecanisme. 5u cat munca intr0oorgani#atie devine mai complexa, cu atat modalitatile favorite de coordonare parsa se mute dinspre adaptarea reciproca 2cele mai simple mecanisme3, lasupravegherea directa, impreuna cu standardi#area ) de preferat a procesului demunca si a normelor sau re#ultatelor ) pentru a se intoarce, in cele din urma, laadaptarea reciproca. "n mod paradoxal, adaptarea reciproca este cel mai bunmecanism, atunci cand sarcinile sunt cele mai complexe.Sunt organi#atii in care s0au folosit mai multe feluri de mecanisme de coordonare.

    5u toate acestea, multe organi#atii prefera folosirea unui singur mecanism caresa prevale#e asupra celorlalte, cel putin in anumite stadii de de#voltare.rgani#atiile care nu au preferinte tind sa genere#e conicte intre cei care seintrec pentru a prelua vidul de putere. Sa nu uitam ca supravegherea directaslaba poate ! un indiciu al unui sistem de autoritate slab, standardi#area redusaindica o ideologie slaba, si asa mai departe.4xista parapetri legati de mecanismele de coordonare. 5ei mai importanti sunt:

    - peciali*area : cantitatea de sarcini si cantitatea controlului asupralucratorilor;4xista o diferenta intre:< peciali*area pe ori*ontala: o functie are un numar limitat de sarcini bine

    de!nite%+ peciali*area pe verticala: lucratorul nu este supus controlului cu privirela sarcina executata.

    - @5ciali*area co'porta'entului: standardi#area procesului de lucru prinimpunerea unor instructiuni de operare, pro!lul functiei, reguli etc.Structurile care se ba#ea#a pe una sau mai multe forme de standardi#aresunt numite birocratice, iar celelalte ) organice.

    - Instruirea: 8rogramele o!ciale de instruire pentru formarea oamenilor peanumite cunostinte si deprinderi pentru executarea anumitor activitati inorgani#atie si standardi#area lor.

    - Indoctrinarea: programele si tehnicile prin care sunt standardi#ate normelept membrii unei organi#atii, astfel incat ele sa indeplineasca nevoile

    organi#atiei si astfel sa !e tratate cu respect fata de deci#iile luate si deactiunile desfasurate.


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    - /ruparea unitatilor : >ruparea implica coordonare prin plasarea functiilorde pro!l diferit, sub aceeasi conducere, prin fortarea lor de a folosimi$loace comune, echipament comun si sa reali#e#e standardele impuse sisa facilite#e adaptarea reciproca. 4xista doua ba#e fundamentale pentrugrupari:

    • lu0ba?functia: o legatura a lantului procesului prin caresunt produse bunuri sau servicii%

    • 1iata: intregul lant speci!c scopului !nal ) produsul.

    - Mari'ea unitatii: numarul functiilor dintr0o unitate. 5antitatea de controlnu este folosita aici. Nneori exista unitati mici fara se!, alteori exista unitati mari,constituite din multe persoane, care desfasoara o munca standardi#ata, subsupravegherea unui singur sef.

    - iste'ele de plani5care si control sunt folosite pentru a standardi*are*ultatele:

    • iste'ele de plani5care a actiunii de!nesc re#ultatele

    unor activitati speci!ce inainte ca acestea sa !ereali#ate%

    • iste'ele de controlare a reali*arilor: speci!care#ultatele dorite ale unui set de activitati 2de exvan#area sa creasca cu &?@3.

    - Instru'ente de legatura: mecanisme folosite pentru reali#area a$ustarilorreciproce din interior si cu alte unitati. 'cestea varia#a de la functii delegatura, prin grupuri de legatura, manageri interim, pana lastructuriJmatrice de legatura.

    - Descentrali*area este legata de puterea de deci#ie. 5and toata puterea seconcentrea#a pe o functie, numim aceasta structura centrali#ata. 'tuncicand puterea este impartita asupra unui numar mare de indivi#i, vorbimdespre o structura relativ descentrali#ata.

    •Descentrali*area pe verticala: delegarea puterii formaleasupra managerilor de linie la nivele mai coborate aleierarhiei%

    • Descentrali*are pe ori*ontala: masura in care puterea

    formala si informala este transferata de la ierarhia delinie la non0manageri, cum ar ! lucratori, analisti si ceicare sunt personal de spri$in.

      8e langa aceasta, mai putem face distinctia intre:

    • Descentrali*are selectiva: impartirea puterii functie de

    diferitele hotarari, la diferitele functii ierarhice%

    • Descentrali*area paralela: puterea de deci#ie este

    plasata intr0un singur loc din organi#atie.Se pot distinge sase forme:A descentrali#are verticala ) puterea este investita varfuluistrategic%A descentrali#are ori#ontala limitata 2selectiva3 ) varfulstrategic imparte puterea cu tehnocratia care standardi#ea#amunca tuturor colaboratorilor%Adescentrali#are verticala limitata 2paralela3 ) putereama$oritatii deci#iilor re unitatile lor de linie este delegatamanagerilor unitatilor respective care se orientea#a pentrupiata speci!ca%A descentrali#are ori#ontala ) ma$oritatea puterii se aa la

    nivelul nucleului de executie la O!rul ierbii7%


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    A descentrali#are selectiva verticala si ori#ontala ) putereadiverselor deci#ii este impartita diferitelor functii dinorgani#atie, pe manageri, functionari de personal, lucratori,care muncesc impreuna in echipe la diverse nivelei deierarhie%A descentrali#are pura ) puterea este mai mult sau mai putinimpartita intre toti membrii organi#atiei.

    -. Stru$tura s# $nte*t. ,urata si marimea:- 9u cat o organi*atie este 'ai veche# cu atat 'ai for'al este

    co'porta'entul sau3 organizatiile mai vechi isi re"etacom"ortamentul5 devin mai "revizi'ile si5 "rin aceasta maisusce"ti'ile de formalism.

    - 9u cat o organi*atie este 'ai 'are# cu atat este 'ai for'ali*atco'porta'entul sa: aceasta inseamna ca daca functiile si unitatile suntfoarte speciali#ate, elementele administrative sunt foarte de#voltate.

    - tructura reecta durata de viata a unei ra'uri a industriei.Sisteme tehnice:- 9u cat sunt 'ai regle'entate de catre un siste' tehnic 4 cu cat se

    controlea*a 'ai 'ult activitatea lucratorilor 4 cu atat se for'ali*ea*a 'ai'ult activitatile iar activitatea nucleului executiv devine 'ai birocratica. Sistemele tehnice promovea#a rutina, care la randul ei generea#aspeciali#are si formalism, care duce la birocrati#area nucleului executiv.

    - 9u cat este 'ai co'plex siste'ul tehnic# cu atat este 'ai extins personalul profesional si de spri0in. Tehnologia de varf cere experti si cu cateste nevoia mai mare, cu atat mai multa inuenta vor avea si se vorde#voltaJcrea mai multe mecanisme de legatura.

    -  Auto'ati*area 'uncii nucleului executiv transfor'a o structura birocratica

    intr-una organica. 5and rutina birocratica este automati#ata, relatiilesociale se schimba. Fegulamentele se refera acum la masini, si nu laoameni. 8rin aceasta, obsesia controlului dispare si prin aceasta o mareparte a managerilor si analistilor de care era nevoie pentru control dispar.=unctiile lor sunt preluate de experti de personal, iar acest lucru face catendinta de standardi#are in scopul controlului sa dispara si ea.

    (ediu:- 9u cat 'ediul este 'ai dina'ic# cu atat este 'ai organica structura

    organi*atiei. 'tunci cand mediul se dinami#ea#a ) schimbarile necesareprodusului ) miscarea de personal mare, situatia politica instabila )

    organi#atia nu permite standardi#are. Trebuie sa ramana exibila princoordonare de catre conducerea directa sau prin a$ustare reciproca.'ceasta inseamna o structura mai organica 2de ex armata contra ra#boiuluide gherila3

    - 9u cat este 'ai co'plex 'ediul# cu atat structura unei organi*atii este'ai descentrali*ata: nu toate informatiile necesare pentru a lua deci#ii pot! adunateJstocate in mintea unei singure persoane.

    - 9u cat diversitatea pietei este 'ai 'are# cu atat este 'ai 'are tendintade a divide pe unitati?sectoare care sa se adrese*e pietelor respective

     pentru a obtine bene5cii cat 'ai 'ari. Totusi, daca nucleul executiv nu se poate divide, atunci divi#area pesectoareJunitati este imposibila.


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    Puterea :- 9u cat controlul extern este 'ai puternic intr-o organi*atie# cu atat

    structura este 'ai centrali*ata si 'ai for'ala. 5ele mai e!ciente moduride control ale unei organi#atii din afara sunt:

    • Fesponsabili#area conduceriiJsefului superior pentru

    actiunile sale%• Stabilirea unor norme clare carora sa te supui.

      Mai mult, controlul din exterior face ca organi#atia sa !e extrem de atentain ceea ce priveste actiunile sale.

    - @ coalitie externa divi*ata duce la o coalitie politica interna# si vice-versa. 5onictele dintr0o coalitie se raspandesc catre cealalta pentru ca un grupde factori de inuenta incearca sa se spri$ine unul pe celalalt.

    - Miscarile datorate 'odei si tendintelor favori*ea*a structura si cultura'o'entului# chiar daca acestea sunt i'portante pentru subordonati. "nca#ul ideal, parametrii de plan sunt alesi in concordanta cu cerinteleduratei, marimii, sistemelor tehnice si mediului. 6e fapt, miscarile la moda

     $oaca rolul de a stimula organi#atiile pentru a0si folosi parametrii de plan

    populari la momentul respectiv.

    ). Cn+gurat##. 


     Figura .

     5ombinarea tuturor elementelor mentionate mai sus duce la urmatoarele 1con!guratii:

    Cn+gurat#e Me$an#sm-r#n$#-al "e$r"nare

    Element esent#alal rgan#6at#e#

    T#-ul "e"es$entral#6are



    ar strateg#$ Central#6are0ert#$ala s#r#6ntala

    Organ#6at#e "eme$an#6ate

    Stan"ar"#6area-r$esulu# "emun$a

    Te%nstru$tura Des$entral#6arer#6ntalal#m#tata



    Nu$leu e*e$ut#0 Des$entral#6arer#6ntala



    N#0elul "e m#7l$ Des$entral#6are0ert#$alal#m#tata



    /ersnal "es-r#7#n


    Organ#6at#e "em#s#nar#


    I"elg#e Des$entral#6are


    Nu Nu ar#ab#la



  • 8/19/2019 Organizatii Harry


    Figura -.

    • Earful strategic exercita o forta de atragere la

    conducere. 4l controlea#a luarea deci#iilor si estecoordonat de conducerea directa. 'tunci cand o

    organi#atie recunoaste aceasta forta de atractie apareo con!guratie centrali#ata numita organi*atieantreprenoriala.


    • Earful strategic se aa imediat deasupra nucleului

    strategic cu elemente putine sau deloc, intre linia demanageri si specialistii de personal.

    •  Tehnostructura exercita o forta de atractie care este

    directionata spre rationali*are, in ca#ul ideal, prinstandardi#area proceselor de lucru si ea promovea#a odescentrali#are ori#ontala limitata, prin care da putere

    organi#atiilor care se supun acestei forte de atragere,2in general printr0o nevoie de a guverna totul pentru arutina e!cient3 sa obtina o con5guratie 'ecanica cu olinie so!sticata si o structura de personal directionatacatre control si prote$area nucleului executiv.

      Figura /

    • "ncercand sa obtina autonomia, managerii exercita oforta de atractie, pentru a Obalcani#a7 structura princoncentrarea puterii in unitatile lor prin descentrali#are

    directionata si limitata 2si verticala3 catre ei. 'tuncicand o organi#atie admite forta de atractie 2in generalprintr0o divi#are in unitati care sa deserveasca diversepiete3 si se limitea#a la controlarea re#ultatelor 2prinstandardi#area re#ultatelor3, apare con5guratiadiversi5cata. 

    Figura 0

    • "n cartierele generale exista un personal de

    spri$inire a varfului strategic, care supervi#ea#aun numar de segmente care arata o con5guratie'ecanica.

    • Membrii nucleului executiv exercita o putere deatragere care se indreapta spre profesionali*are, pentrua scadea inuenta altor persoane 2colegii si manageriide linie3 o exercita asupra muncii lor.

      Figura 'dmiterea acestui fapt crea#a con!guratia profesionala.bservam o descentrali#are completa pe verticala siori#ontala a puterii nucleului executiv. 5oordonarea sereali#ea#a prin cunostinte si deprinderi. Tehnostructurasi diferenta dintre varf si nucleu sunt mici. 6arpersonalul de spri$in este numeros, pentru a spri$ini



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    • 8ersonalul auxiliar exercita o forta de atractie

    directionata inspre cooperare pentru a implica nucleulin activitatile organi#atiei. organi#atie care are nevoiede inovatii avansate trebuie sa admita aceasta forta.8ersonalul, colegii si, cateodata, cei de la O!rul ierbii7

    sunt organi#ati in echipe multi0disciplinare de experti incare a$ustarile interne si externe sunt reali#ate prinintelegere reciproca.

    Figura 1rgani#atia capata o con5guratie inovativa, in caredispar diferentele de nivel caracteristice unei organi#atiiconventionale. 6iverse elemente se topesc intr0unsingur sistem de descentrali#are pe verticala siori#ontala, pe o ba#a selectiva.

    • "deologia exista, in general, in organi#atii de alt tip.

    Membrii sunt stimulati sa !e activi. Sa gandeasca si sa

    simta in acelasi fel, impreuna. 5ateodata, totusi, atuncicand normele devin principalul mecanism decoordonare, organi#atia ia o con!guratie misionara.

    • 'vem de a face cu descentrali#are in forma pura.

    =iecarui membru i se incredintea#a sarcina de a decidesi de a actiona ca din partea intregii organi#atii.

    Figura 11

    • "n unele organi#atii, forte conictuale atrag membriidintr0o parte in alta. 5and aceasta situatie domina, maiales atunci cand nici0o parte a organi#atiei si nici0un

    mecanism de coordonare nu e dominant, organi#atia iao con!guratie politica, fara a avea o forma stabila decentrali#are sau descentrali#are.

    Figura 12



    - simpla, informala, exibila, personal putin si ierarhi#are sca#uta sau deloc,folosire minima a procedurilor de plani!care si a programelor de instruire

    - activitati concentrate la nivelul conducerii superioare, care controlea#a prinsuvraveghere directa, raspunderea directa a sefului.

    - puterea este centrali#ata la nivelul sefului.

    onte#tul:- supraveghere cali!cata si dinamica a mediului%- conducere puternica, cateodata carismatica si autoritara%- in fa#a de inceput, in cri#a sau schimbare a organi#atiei%- organi#atii mici, intreprinderi locale.

    Strategia:- adesea un proces vi#ionar, in general avand un scop, dar spontan si exibil

    in ceea ce priveste detaliile, in cautare febrila de posibilitati, o vi#iunefoarte personala a sefului, reectandu0i propria personalitate%


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    - seful are gri$a sa !e foarte exibil in partile mai putin vulnerabile ale pietei,cu siguranta atunci cand clientii, cei care aprovi#ionea#a si alte forte dinafara, incearca sa0l inuente#e.

     4dvanta*e5 "ro'leme si "ericole:- gata pentru orice impre$urare, cu sentimentul misiunii- se identi!ca cu misiunea, carisma motivantadar- vulnerabil si limitat, prea dependent de o persoana 2poate muri ) nici0o

    alta opinie nu este acceptata3, oamenii nu simt anga$area, pentru ca Osefulhotaraste7

    - pericolul de#echilibrului intre strategie si executie, pericolul de a ! anga$atnumai in strategie, sau numai in executie.

    eful ca o' care conduce organi*atia."ntreprinderea este strans legata de de#voltarea unei vi#iuni strategice in care

    adesea se proiectea#a un nou concept. Strategiile pot ! caracteri#ate cadeliberate, pentru ca ele sunt incluse in intentiile unui singur sef. 6ar deoarece serefera mai ales la strategii personale, detaliile pot deveni etapele unor strategii.6e fapt si strategiile se pot schimba. Seful poate invata din incercari si esecuri,pot apare noi previ#iuni, cateodata foarte rapide."n organi#atia antreprenoriala, seful este punctul central. rgani#atia esteexibila si reactionea#a la initiativele sefului. Mediul este in principal favorabil,deoarece seful alege segmentul cel mai potrivit al pietei. 5ateodata mediul vapune la incercare organi#atia. Seful trebuie sa decida ce adaptari trebuieadoptate, sau sa caute alte segmente ale pietei.

    M46"N G0000000000000000 S4= 0000000000000000000000  F>'D"P'T"'


    Structura:- birocratie centrali#ata%

    - munca de rutina foarte speciali#ata, comunicare foarte formali#ata inintreaga organi#atie, sarcini unite printr0o ba#a functionala, puterea dedeci#ie destul de centrali#ata, putina libertate de actiune pentru muncitorisi se!, prin aceasta se!i au o gama larga de mi$loace de control. Se!iierarhici au trei mari sarcini:

    • sa re#olve deran$amentele din nucleul de executie%

    • sa coopere#e cu analistii de personal pentruintroducerea normelor de catre acestia in unitatilesubordonate%

    • sa spri$ine activitatile pe verticala: elaborea#a planuri

    de actiune care sunt trimise mai $os, si pasaea#a feed0bacul in sus%


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    - tehnostructura este centrali#ata, avand ca sarcina standardi#areasarcinilor, dar strict divi#ata pe nivele, si foarte de#voltata% analistii depersonal au o putere 2formala3 mare

    - o stricta divi#iune a: speciali#arii functionale a nucleului executiv, odistinctie clara intre personal si se!i de linie% o distinctie clara intrestructura administrativa si linia de executie si personal: managerii lucrea#arar umar la umar cu muncitorii%

    - un personal auxiliarJde spri$in numeros pt a reduce cantitatea deincertitudine% organi#atia produce cat mai multe servicii posibile in cadrulstructurii sale, pt a controla aceasta structura si a actiona independent demediu%

    - varful strategic este format numai din generalisti.

    onte#tul:- un mediu clar structurat si stabil%- o organi#atie mare si matura%- munca rationala, un sistem tehnic 2dar nu automati#at3 orientat spre

    ratiune%- controlul extern tinde catre o forma instrumentala%- posibil forma de sistem inchis%- in general, productia de masa sau servicii la scara larga, guvern,

    intreprindere%- controlul si siguranta au mare prioritate.

    Strategia:- plani!carea pare a ! un proces, dar in realitate este vorba de programare

    strategica%- re#istenta la schimbare, care a devenit necesara, pentru a introduce o

    con!gurare inovativa in scopul revitali#arii, sau spre a regresa catre o

    con!guratie antreprenoriala, pt a crea revolutia%- schimbarile au loc prin Osalturi de calitate7: lungi perioade de stabilitate,

    intrerupte cateodata de revolutii strategice.

     4vanta*e5 "ro'leme si "ericole:- e!cienta, pe care te poti ba#a, lucru corect, consistent%dar- obsesie pentru control in scopul eliminarii insecuritatii, si reducerea

    nucleului executiv de inuentele externe, care duc la:; probleme cu oameni, la nivelul nucleului executiv: printr0un inalt grad despeciali#are 2e!cienta3% apar probleme de comunicare si coordonare )

    conictele nu sunt re#olvate ci incapsulate, ceea ce cau#ea#a:; probleme de adaptare la varful strategic, deoarece varful strategic re#olvaproblemele direct la !rul ierbii: atunci cand apar probleme de schimbare siexista o congestionare la varful strategic ) re#olvarea tuturor problemelor careimpiedica prospectarea viitorului, strategii noi etc.- prapastie intre politicaJstrategie si implementare: in ma$oritatea

    organi#atiilor mecanice, exista o prapastie intre politici si implementare.8rapastia are la ba#a urmatoarele presupuneri:

    creatorul de politica are toate informatiile de care are nevoie%

    lumea din $ur este stabila si nu se schimba% de aceea

    reformularea politicii nu este necesara. Totusi aceste presupuneri sunt in ma$oritatea lor ne0realiste. 'cest lucru

    inseamna ca aceasta prapastie trebuie eliminata si in acelasi timp trebuieschimbata strategia. Earful strategic nu numai ca trebuie sa formule#e


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    politici si strategii, ci si, indirect, sa le implemente#e. 'ceasta inseamna castrategul trebuie sa lucre#e impreuna cu nivelul de la !rul ierbii, pt a creanoi politici si activitati. 'ceasta inseamna o noua con!guratie. "n esenta,organi#atia mecanicista nu este echipata pentru aceasta schimbare. 8etermen scurt se poate transforma intr0o organi#atie antreprenoriala sauintr0una inovativa.

    @rgani*atia 'ecanicista ca instru'ent si siste'ul inchis.4xista doua tipuri de organi#atii mecaniciste: instrumente si siteme inchise.

    - Instru'ente. 6eoarece organi#atiile mecaniciste generea#a un marenumar de reguli, ele pot ! cu usurinta controlate din afara. "n felul acesta,ele servesc drept instrumente pt factorii externi de inuenta. =actorii deinuenta externi transforma un astfel de organi#atie in instrument, prinnumirea unui manager de varf. 4i ii trasea#a obiective clare sicuanti!cabile si il fac raspun#ator de reali#area acestora. "n acest fel, out0siderii pot controla organi#atia, fara a o conduce efectiv. 'cest lucru ducela centrali#area si birocrati#area structurii interne: o organi#atie tipic

    mecanicista.- iste'e inchise. 5u toate acestea, obsesia pentru control se poate extinde

    de la a stapani mediul pana la a0l face imun la factorii din afara 2cartel,diversi!carea pietelor pentru a evita dependenta de alti clienti, !nantareinterna3. 6iversi!carea, si prin aceasta paci!carea tuturor factorilor externide inuenta, sunt probleme centrale.biectivele unui sistem inchis: cresterea ) marirea sistemului. 5restereaaduce recompense mai mari, putere etc.



    - Nnitati orientate catre piata, cu o slaba legatura, sub o administratie sicartier general comune%

    - Nnitati care actionea#a independent 2cu descentrali#are limitata la nivelulmanagerului, subiect al unui sistem de reali#are a controlului pentrustandardi#area re#ultatelor3%

    -  Tendinta de a impune o con!guratie mecanicista 2control externK3, in timpce intreaga organi#atie diversi!cata tinde catre un sistem inchis.

    onte#tul:- 6iversitate de piata, in special produse si servicii 2spre deosebire de

    diversitatea clientilor sau regionala3% diversi!care prin produse si produsederivate ) ceea ce promovea#a crearea unor forme intermediare:

    conglomerate ca forme foarte pure de diversitate%- 'pare mai ales in organi#atiile cele mai mari si mai adulte, in special inintreprinderile private% de asemenea din ce in ce in mai multe sectoareguvernamentale si #one legate de acestea.

    Strategia:- 5artierul general se refera la strategie ca portofoliu al intreprinderii:

    sectoarele isi crea#a strategii separate. 4vanta*e5 "ro'leme si "ericole:

    - Fe#olva unele probleme ale structurilor integrate 2mecaniciste3 care suntimpartite pe functii 2extinderea riscului, activitati adaugate sau eliminatedin intreprindere etc3%



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    - 6iversi!carea este cateodata prea scumpa si impiedica inovatia% ofunctionare mai buna a pietei de capital si comitetul de comisari ar puteacrea intreprinderi independente mai e!ciente decat cele de sector%

    - Feali#area sistemului de control !e mareste pericolul ca organi#atia sa nuse interese#e de aspectele sociale si de societate, !e incepe sa secomporte responsabil%

    - 6esi aceasta forma devine din ce in ce mai populara la nivelguvernamental, pericolele din #ona respectiva sunt inca mai mari deoarecemulte dintre scopuri nu pot ! masurate.


    Structura:- Birocratica, deoarece se standardi#ea#a instruirea deprinderilor pentru

    diversi profesionisti executori% in acelasi timp descentrali#ata% cu toateaceste, exista multe diferente intre aceasta si organi#atia mecanicista: in

    cea mecanicista, tehnostructura formulea#a normele si lasa la alegereamanagerului sa le aplice% in organi#atia profesionala, insa, ele se formea#ain afara organi#atiei in asociatii profesionale independente. 'lte norme nupot ! de folos organi#atiei profesionale, deoarece munca lor este preacomplexa pt a ! anali#ata si tradusa in procedee !xe, care sa !e anali#atede analisti. "n esenta, instruirea profesionistilor priveste in mareincorporarea categoriilor in care trebuie diagnosticate problemele clientuluisi adaptarea unui program special. rgani#atia mecanicista are un obiectivsimplu% dupa primirea unui stimul, urmea#a o serie standard de programe%nu exista niciun diagnostic% in organi#atia profesionala, diagnosticul estefundamental, dar ca sarcina bine stabilita% se incearca prognosticarea unuica# intr0un program standardi#at% pentru diagnosticele nede!nite ) in care

    se cauta solutia doar pt o singura problema ) este nevoie de con!guratiainovativa.

    - Du are o structura manageriala ierarhica% profesionistii sunt aproapeanonimi in munca, dar au o mare inuenta asupra administratiei%managerul este va#ut ca un intermediar% totusi managerul poate avea omare problema. Sarcinile lui sunt:

    • Nnele deran$amente si conicte de competenta intrespecialisti%

    • Hegatura dintre profesionisti in interior, si factori de

    inuenta in exterior 2guvern, organi#atii clientelare,!nantatori etc3

    - 4sential in functionare este un sistem de specialitati separate in care!ecare profesionist lucrea#a independent, dar este supus unui sistem decontrol al profesionistilor care se extind dincolo de organi#atie%

    - tehnostructura minima si ierarhie intermediara care duce la un controlextins cu privire la munca profesionistilor% un personal administrativnumeros, din partea profesionistilor cu un caracter mecanicist%

    onte#tul:- 5omplexa dar stabila%- Sistem tehnic simplu%- =recvent, dar nu exclusiv in sectorul servicii.

    Strategia:- Multe strategii fragmentate, dar si forte care promovea#a coe#iunea%


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    - 6eterminata mai ales pe ba#a evaluarii profesionale si a deci#iei colective2colegi si factori de determinare a politicilor3, cateodata dupa aprobareaadministrativa%

    - Strategia in intregul sau foarte stabila, dar detalii in continua schimbare. 4vanta*e5 "ro'leme si "ericole:

    - 'vanta$ele democratiei si autonomiei%dar- 8robleme de coordonare intre diferitele sectoare de meserii si speciali#ari,

    posibilitati de aparitie a abu#ului de autonomie profesionala si re#istenta lainovatie%

    - Faspuns la factorii externi pentru probleme de disfunctionalitate 2ca la ceamecanicista3%

    - "nuenta unui sindicat puternic face ca problemele sa se inmulteasca.