Negotiation – Persuasion & Influence 1Negotiating – Persuasion & Influence 1 Persuasion & Influence A Core Leadership Attribute Seminar on Negotiation

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  • Negotiation Persuasion & Influence 1Negotiating Persuasion & Influence 1 Persuasion & Influence A Core Leadership Attribute Seminar on Negotiation Created By: Vince Markovchick, MD, FACEP, FAAEM Past-President, American Board of Emergency Medicine Denver Health Medical Center, Denver, Colorado Tenet Editor: Barbara Blok, MD, FACEP Assistant Director, Denver Health Residency in Emergency Medicine University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado
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  • Negotiation Persuasion & Influence 2Negotiating Persuasion & Influence 2 Persuasion and Influence A diplomat is someone who can tell you to go to hell in such a way that you look forward to the trip. - Caskie Stinnett
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  • Negotiation Persuasion & Influence 3Negotiating Persuasion & Influence 3 Persuasion and Influence An EM physician cannot function effectively if he cannot persuade and influence those around him.
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  • Negotiation Persuasion & Influence 4Negotiating Persuasion & Influence 4 Outline Key terms Weapons of Influence Guiding Principles of Persuasion
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  • Negotiation Persuasion & Influence 5Negotiating Persuasion & Influence 5 Key Terms - Persuasion An act or the action of influencing the mind by arguments of reasons offered by anything that moves the mind or passions or inclines the will to a determination. The condition of having the mind influenced (as to a decision, acceptance or belief) from without. DEFINITION
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  • Negotiation Persuasion & Influence 6 Key Terms -Influence An ethereal fluid thought to flow from the stars and to affect the actions of men The act, process or power of producing an effect without apparent exertion of tangible force or direct exercise of command and often without deliberate effort or intent. DEFINITION
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  • Negotiation Persuasion & Influence 7 Key Terms - A functional definition How to get people to do the things you want them to do How to positively manipulate your environment
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  • Negotiation Persuasion & Influence 8 Weapons of Influence -Six Methods of Persuasion 1.Reciprocation 2.Commitment and Consistency 3.Social Proof 4.Authority 5.Liking 6.Scarcity * Influence, The Psychology of Persuasion by Robert Cialdini, HarperCollins Publishing, 1984.
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  • Negotiation Persuasion & Influence 9 Weapons of Influence - Reciprocation An innate obligation to RECEIVE results in a perceived obligation to REPAY in kind.
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  • Negotiation Persuasion & Influence 10 Weapons of Influence - Reciprocation E.g., Hare Krishna association fundraising
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  • Negotiation Persuasion & Influence 11 Weapons of Influence - Reciprocation Reciprocal Concessions One type of reciprocation Our sense of obligation to make a concession to others who have made concessions to us
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  • Negotiation Persuasion & Influence 12 Weapons of Influence - Reciprocation Reciprocal Concessions E.g., A 1976 study on blood donation made separate requests to 2 groups Group 1: started with request for long-term donation, then conceded to one-time donation Group 2: requested one-time donation up front Result: great donation in Group 1
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  • Negotiation Persuasion & Influence 13 Weapons of Influence - Reciprocation Practical implication for negotiating Start big Have a plan when negotiating Dont be afraid to make the first concession
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  • Negotiation Persuasion & Influence 14 Weapons of Influence - Commitment and Consistency Once a commitment is made, one is more likely to honor it later, even if terms are changed We feel the urge to be consistent with what we have already said or done
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  • Negotiation Persuasion & Influence 15 Weapons of Influence - Commitment and Consistency Commitment precedes consistency When possible, first get a commitment to the cause; once committed the party will likely respond in a manner that supports the commitment (and cause)
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  • Negotiation Persuasion & Influence 16 Weapons of Influence - Commitment and Consistency It is easier to resist at the beginning than at the end. Leonardo da Vinci
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  • Negotiation Persuasion & Influence 17 Weapons of Influence - Commitment and Consistency Strong commitments are: Voluntary In writing Publicly made (visible to others)
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  • Negotiation Persuasion & Influence 18 Weapons of Influence - Commitment and Consistency E.g., A faculty makes a written or verbal commitment to assist with residency recruitment activities. When additional interview dates need to be scheduled, that faculty feel an obligation to help out.
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  • Negotiation Persuasion & Influence 19 Weapons of Influence - Commitment and Consistency Negotiating for consistency E.g., the late Egyptian President Anwar Sadat would often begin negotiations with a lengthy discussion of how the citizens of the opposing country were widely known for their fairness and cooperativeness Opposing country felt the need to act in a manner consistent with their perceived prior behavior
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  • Negotiation Persuasion & Influence 20 Weapons of Influence - Commitment and Consistency Application of Commitment and Consistency E.g., You are the leader of your residencys education track. Based on the theory of commitment and consistency, how can you increase the productivity of the members for the upcoming year?
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  • Negotiation Persuasion & Influence 21 Weapons of Influence - Commitment and Consistency Working to change anothers commitment The more publically a commitment is made, the harder it is to back away from it Reframe the discussion to focus on the issue, not the commitment Turn the divisive issue into one that is shared Allow the other to retreat from a stated position
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  • Negotiation Persuasion & Influence 22 Weapons of Influence - Commitment and Consistency E.g., A legislator has taken a stance against your proposed tort reform bill due to specialty lobbyists. By reframing the issue and focusing on the improved access and availability of patient care that the bill will provide, the legislator might be willing to restate their position contrary to their prior commitment.
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  • Negotiation Persuasion & Influence 23 Weapons of Influence - Social Proof Making a decision based on the action of those around you Humans often rely on cues from those around them to determine how they should behave and feel
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  • Negotiation Persuasion & Influence 24 Weapons of Influence - Social Proof When we all think alike, no one thinks very much. - Walter Lippmann
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  • Negotiation Persuasion & Influence 25 Weapons of Influence - Social Proof E.g., Asch Conformity Experiments Seven individuals had to verbally answer which line (A, B, C) was most like the target line (on left) with the research subject answering last. Research subjects conformed to the others incorrect answer 32% of the time.
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  • Negotiation Persuasion & Influence 26 Weapons of Influence - Social Proof
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  • Negotiation Persuasion & Influence 27 Weapons of Influence - Social Proof Reliance on social proof Unclear or ambiguous situations Pressured decisions When others are experts
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  • Negotiation Persuasion & Influence 28 Weapons of Influence - Social Proof Pitfalls Social proof, like an autopilot, should never be trusted completely If everyone else jumped off a bridge, would you do it to?
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  • Negotiation Persuasion & Influence 29 Weapons of Influence - Authority Perceived innate obligations Defer to experts Obey authority figures Even when asked (or ordered) to perform objectionable acts
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  • Negotiation Persuasion & Influence 30 Weapons of Influence - Authority Nine out of 10 doctors prefer
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  • Negotiation Persuasion & Influence 31 Weapons of Influence - Authority E.g., The case of the rectal earache Order written for patient with R otitis media to have drops placed in R ear. Nurse dutifully administered the drops rectally without questioning the order.
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  • Negotiation Persuasion & Influence 32 Weapons of Influence - Authority When possible, be authoritative Come prepared Look professional State your qualifications dont assume others know Prior training Practical experience
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  • Negotiation Persuasion & Influence 33 Weapons of Influence - Authority Questioning Authority To avoid being unduly influenced by an authority figure Ask yourself Is this authority truly an expert? How truthful can we expect this person to be in this situation?
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  • Negotiation Persuasion & Influence 34 Weapons of Influence - Liking People are naturally persuaded by people they like This emphasizes the importance of good interpersonal relations More difficult to say no to someone you like
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  • Negotiation Persu