Module THCS 18

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  • PHNG PHP DY HC TCH CC | 57

    MODULE THcs

    18

    PHng php dy hc

    tch cc

    TRN NH CHU NG TH THU THU

    PHAN TH LUYN

  • 58 | MODULE THCS 18

    A. GII THIU TNG QUAN

    Sucthnang pht trin kinh t x hi trong bi cnh ton cu ho t ra nhucthngang

    yu cu m"i i v"i ngucth%i lao ng, do cuthngang t ra nhucthngang yu cu

    m"i cho sucthnang nghi,p gio duthnangc th h, tr. v o t/o ngu0n nhn lucthnangc. Gio

    duthnangc cn o t/o i nguthnga nhn lucthnangc c kh n4ng p ucthsacng ucth6c nhucthngang i

    h8i m"i cuthhoia x hi v th: tructh%ng lao ng, c bi,t l n4ng lucthnangc hnh

    ng, tnh n4ng ng, sng t/o, tnh tucthnang lucthnangc v trch nhi,m cuthngang nhucth

    n4ng lucthnangc cng tc lm vi,c, n4ng lucthnangc gii quyt cc v=n > phucthsacc h6p.

    [email protected] m"i PPDH l mt trong nhucthngang nhi,m vuthnang quan trDng cuthhoia @i m"i

    gio duthnangc, ucth6c nu v thucthnangc hi,n t nh=t l trong vi chuthnangc n4m nay E

    mDi tructh%ng [email protected] thng trn c nucth"c. V> nguyn tHc, c th xem vi,c @i

    m"i PPDH ucth6c bHt u thucthnangc hi,n tucthhuyen sau ?/i hi ln thucthsac VI cuthhoia ?ng

    Cng sn Vi,t Nam. Tuy nhin, @i m"i PPDH thucthnangc sucthnang trE thnh mt ho/t

    ng rng khHp trong ton ngnh tucthhuyen sau vi,c ban hnh Ngh: quyt 4 cuthhoia

    Ban Ch=p hnh Trung ucthQng ?ng cng sn kho VII v"i yu cu tip tuthnangc

    @i m"i muthnangc tiu, ni dung, chucthQng trnh, phucthQng php gio duthnangc.

    Ngh: quyt v> gio duthnangc v khoa hDc cng ngh, cuthhoia Hi ngh: ln thucthsac hai

    Ban ch=p hnh Trung ucthQng ?ng kho VIII tip tuthnangc nh=n m/nh v cuthnang th

    ho hQn yu cu @i m"i PPDH. Tucthhuyen n nay, phucthQng php gio duthnangc,

    PPDH lun lun ucth6c > cVp khi nh gi gio duthnangc trong cc v4n ki,n

    cuthhoia ?ng v Nh nucth"c. Trong th%i gian qua, mc du c nhucthngang nW lucthnangc

    @i m"i PPDH ng ghi nhVn trong ton ngnh, tructh"c ht l gio duthnangc [email protected]

    thng nhucthng Bo co Chnh tr: cuthhoia Ban Ch=p hnh Trung ucthQng ?ng

    Cng sn Vi,t Nam ln thucthsac XI vYn tip tuthnangc nhVn :nh: chucthQng trnh,

    ni dung, phucthng php dy v hc lc hu, i mi chm. Ngh: quyt

    ?/i hi ?ng ln ny t ra yu cu i mi cn bn v ton din n>n

    gio duthnangc nucth"c nh, mt nhi,m vuthnang ht sucthsacc l"n lao cho ton ngnh Gio

    duthnangc nucth"c ta, trong c vi,c tip tuthnangc [y m/nh @i m"i PPDH.

    ?:nh hucth"ng quan trDng trong @i m"i PPDH l pht huy tnh tch cucthnangc, tucthnang

    lucthnangc v sng t/o, pht trin n4ng lucthnangc hnh ng, n4ng lucthnangc cng tc lm

    vi,c cuthhoia ngucth%i hDc. ? cuthngang l nhucthngang xu hucth"ng quc t trong ci cch

    PPDH E nh tructh%ng [email protected] thng.

  • PHNG PHP DY HC TCH CC | 59

    ? thucthnangc hi,n c hi,u qu vi,c @i m"i PPDH E tructh%ng [email protected] thng vi,c

    o t/o v b0i ducth\ng i nguthnga GV c n4ng lucthnangc d/y hDc theo nhucthngang quan

    im @i m"i PPDH c vai tr then cht. Tucthhuyen nhi>u n4m nay, B Gio duthnangc

    v ?o t/o ch vi,c b0i ducth\ng GV v> @i m"i PPDH v c nhi>u

    ti li,u v> chuthhoi > ny ucth6c xu=t bn. Module ny trnh by mt s cQ sE

    thucthnangc ti`n v l luVn chung, cuthngang nhucth mt s quan im, phucthQng php v

    ka thuVt d/y hDc tch cucthnangc c th p duthnangng trong vi,c @i m"i PPDH, nhbm

    gip GV c ci nhn [email protected] quan v> @i m"i PPDH, trn cQ sE c th tm

    ucth6c nhucthngang tucthEng, g6i vVn duthnangng vo cc mn hDc cuthnang th. Module

    khng c tham vDng trnh by ton di,n v> chuthhoi > ny, m chc tVp trung

    vo mt s v=n > lucthnanga chDn. Trong mWi v=n > chc trnh by nhucthngang ni

    dung cQ bn, lm cQ sE cho vi,c vVn duthnangng cuthngang nhucth cho vi,c tm hiu,

    tho luVn tip theo.

    B. MC TIU

    Sau khi hDc xong module ny, hDc vin cn:

    Tm tHt ucth6c :nh hucth"ng @i m"i PPDH.

    Li,t k cc c tructhng cuthhoia PPDH tch cucthnangc.

    Nu ucth6c mt s PPDH tch cucthnangc.

    Tm tHt ucth6c bn ch=t, quy trnh, ucthu, nhucth6c im cuthhoia mWi PPDH ucth6c

    gi"i thi,u trong module ny.

    VVn duthnangng ucth6c cc PPDH tch cucthnangc vo chuyn mn cuthhoia mnh mt cch

    linh ho/t, sng t/o

    ?eI TuchoagNG Suchoahoi DuhoanangNG

    GV, cn b chc /o chuyn mn, cn b qun l c=p THCS.

  • 60 | MODULE THCS 18

    C. NI DUNG

    Ni dung 1

    TM HIU V PHNG PHP DY HC TCH CC

    V CC C TRNG CA PHNG PHP DY HC TCH CC

    NHIM V

    B/n hy Dc v nghin cucthsacu nhucthngang thng tin cQ bn phn tch, lm r:

    1. PhucthQng php d/y hDc tch cucthnangc l g? Bn ch=t cuthhoia phucthQng php d/y hDc

    tch cucthnangc nhucth th no?

    2. Nhucthngang c tructhng cQ bn cuthhoia phucthQng php d/y hDc tch cucthnangc.

    THNG TIN C BN

    1. Phng php dy hc tch cc

    ?:nh hucth"ng @i m"i phucthQng php d/y v hDc ucth6c xc :nh trong

    Ngh: quyt Trung ucthQng 4 kho VII (1/1993), Ngh: quyt Trung ucthQng 2

    kho VIII (12/1996), ucth6c th ch ho trong LuVt Gio duthnangc (02/12/1998),

    ucth6c cuthnang th ho trong cc chc th: cuthhoia B Gio duthnangc v ?o t/o, c bi,t l

    Chc th: s 15 (4/1999).

    ?i>u 28.2 cuthhoia LuVt Gio duthnangc (14/6/2005) ghi: Phucthng php gio duthnangc

    ph thng phi pht huy tnh tch cucthnangc, tucthnang gic, chuthhoi &ng, sng to cuthhoia HS;

    ph h-p vi .c i/m cuthhoia tucthhuyenng lp hc, mn hc; b1i ducth2ng phucthng php

    tucthnang hc, rn luyn k6 nng vn duthnangng ki7n thucthsacc vo thucthnangc ti9n; tc &ng 7n

    tnh cm, em li ni

  • PHNG PHP DY HC TCH CC | 61

    khng phi tVp trung vo pht huy tnh tch cucthnangc cuthhoia ngucth%i d/y; tuy nhin,

    d/y hDc theo phucthQng php tch cucthnangc th GV phi nW lucthnangc nhi>u so v"i

    d/y hDc thuthnang ng.

    2. c trng ca phng php dy hc tch cc

    a. Dy hc thng qua t chucthsacc cc hot &ng hc tp cuthhoia HS

    Trong PPDH tch cucthnangc, ngucth%i hDc i tucth6ng cuthhoia ho/t ng d/y, 0ng

    th%i l chuthhoi th cuthhoia ho/t ng hDc ucth6c cun ht vo cc ho/t ng

    hDc tVp do GV [email protected] chucthsacc v chc /o, thng qua tucthnang lucthnangc khm ph nhucthngang

    i>u mnh chuctha r chucthsac khng phi thuthnang ng tip thu nhucthngang tri thucthsacc

    ucth6c GV sHp t. ?ucth6c t vo nhucthngang tnh hung cuthhoia %i sng thucthnangc t,

    ngucth%i hDc tructhnangc tip quan st, tho luVn, lm th nghi,m, gii quyt v=n >

    t ra theo cch suy ngha cuthhoia mnh, tucthhuyen nHm ucth6c kin thucthsacc ka n4ng

    m"i, vucthhuyena nHm ucth6c phucthQng php lm ra kin thucthsacc, ka n4ng , khng

    rVp theo nhucthngang khun mYu syn c, ucth6c bc l v pht huy ti>m n4ng

    sng t/o.

    D/y theo cch ny, GV khng chc gin Qn truy>n /t tri thucthsacc m cn hucth"ng

    dYn hnh ng. ChucthQng trnh d/y hDc phi gip cho tucthhuyenng HS bit hnh

    ng v tch cucthnangc tham gia cc chucthQng trnh hnh ng cuthhoia cng 0ng.

    b. Dy hc ch trng rn luyn phucthng php tucthnang hc

    PhucthQng php tch cucthnangc xem vi,c rn luy,n phucthQng php hDc tVp cho HS

    khng chc l mt bi,n php nng cao hi,u qu d/y hDc m cn l mt

    muthnangc tiu d/y hDc.

    Trong x hi hi,n /i ang bin @i nhanh v"i sucthnang bng [email protected] thng tin,

    khoa hDc, ka thuVt, cng ngh, pht trin nhucth vuthnga bo th khng th nh0i

    nht vo u c HS khi lucth6ng kin thucthsacc ngy cng nhi>u. Phi quan tm

    d/y cho HS phucthQng php hDc ngay tucthhuyen bVc Tiu hDc v cng ln bVc hDc

    cao hQn cng phi ucth6c ch trDng.

    Trong cc phucthQng php hDc th ct li l phucthQng php tucthnang hDc. Nu rn

    luy,n cho ngucth%i hDc c ucth6c phucthQng php, ka n4ng, thi quen, ch tucthnang

    hDc th s| t/o cho hD lng ham hDc, khQi dVy ni lucthnangc vn c trong mWi

    con ngucth%i, kt qu hDc tVp s| ucth6c nhn ln g=p bi. V vVy, ngy nay

  • 62 | MODULE THCS 18

    ngucth%i ta nh=n m/nh mt ho/t ng hDc trong qu trnh d/y hDc, nW lucthnangc

    t/o ra sucthnang chuyn bin tucthhuyen hDc tVp thuthnang ng sang tucthnang hDc chuthhoi ng, t v=n

    > pht trin tucthnang hDc ngay trong tructh%ng [email protected] thng, khng chc tucthnang hDc E nh

    sau bi ln l"p m tucthnang hDc c trong tit hDc c sucthnang hucth"ng dYn cuthhoia GV.

    c. Tng [email protected] hc tp c th/, phDi h-p vi hc tp h-p tc

    Trong mt l"p hDc, trnh kin thucthsacc, tucth duy cuthhoia HS khng th 0ng

    >u tuy,t i nn khi p duthnangng phucthQng php tch cucthnangc buc GV v HS phi

    ch=p nhVn sucthnang phn ho v> cucth%ng , tin hon thnh nhi,m vuthnang hDc

    tVp, nh=t l khi bi hDc ucth6c thit k thnh mt chuWi cng tc c lVp.

    p duthnangng phucthQng php tch cucthnangc E trnh cng cao th sucthnang phn ho ny

    cng l"n. Vi,c sucthhoi duthnangng cc phucthQng ti,n CNTT trong nh tructh%ng s| p

    ucthsacng yu cu c th ho ho/t ng hDc tVp theo nhu cu v kh n4ng cuthhoia

    mWi HS.

    Tuy nhin, trong hDc tVp, khng phi mDi tri thucthsacc, ka n4ng, thi >u

    ucth6c hnh thnh bbng nhucthngang ho/t ng c lVp c nhn. L"p hDc l mi

    tructh%ng giao tip thy tr, tr tr, t/o nn mi quan h, h6p tc giucthngaa

    cc c nhn trn con ucth%ng chim lanh ni dung hDc tVp. Thng qua

    tho luVn, tranh luVn trong tVp th, kin mWi c nhn ucth6c bc l,

    khng :nh hay bc b8, qua ngucth%i hDc nng mnh ln mt trnh

    m"i. Bi hDc vVn duthnangng ucth6c vn hiu bit v kinh nghi,m sng cuthhoia

    ngucth%i thy gio.

    Trong nh tructh%ng, phucthQng php hDc tVp h6p tc ucth6c [email protected] chucthsacc E c=p

    nhm, [email protected], l"p hoc tructh%ng. ?ucth6c sucthhoi duthnangng [email protected] bin trong d/y hDc l ho/t

    ng h6p tc trong nhm nh8 4 n 6 ngucth%i. HDc tVp h6p tc lm t4ng

    hi,u qu hDc tVp, nh=t l lc phi gii quyt nhucthngang v=n > gay c=n, lc

    xu=t hi,n thucthnangc sucthnang nhu cu phi h6p giucthngaa cc c nhn hon

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