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Menganalisis Komponen IKN-PKN Wijianto Raharjo

Menganalisis Komponen IKN-PKN

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Betelgeuse4. Membandingkan konsep civic knowledge, civic skills, dan civic disposition dalam IKN-PKN
5. menganalisis civic knowledge, civic skills, dan civic disposition dalam PKn persekolahan
(Bryan s. Turner)
4 Dimensi Pokok
Studi Kewarganegaraan Turner
Isi Kewarganegaraan berupa Hak dan Kewajiban yg muncul sebagai keanggotaannya dlm komunitas politik
Merupakan aneka relasi dan kekuatan sosial yg memproduksi & mere prooduksi partisipasi warga dlm berbagai tindakan politik
Modus Penataan Kewargannegaraan, yaitu bagaimana atau melalui mekanisme dan prosedur institusionalisasinya di masyarakat
Content of Citizenship Type of Citizenship
Conditions of Citizenship Arrangements of
Citizenship
IKN-PKN
Menurut Nu’man Sumantri (2001): Pendidikan kewarganegaraan sebagai hasil: seleksi dan adaptasi dari lintas disiplin ilmu-ilmu sosial, ilmu kewarganegaraan, humaniora, dan kegiatan-kegiatan dasar manusia yang diorganisasikan dan disajikan secara psikologis dan ilmiah untuk ikut mencapai salah satu tujuan Pendidikan IPS.
Barr, Barth dan Shermis (1977: 59-67) menjelaskan IKn-PKn sbg salah satu dari tiga tradisi pengajaran social studies yaitu: (1) social studies taught as citizenship transmission; (2) social studies taught as social science; dan, (3) social studies taught as reflective inquiry.
Komponen Kewarganegaraan menurut John Patrick (1999)
1) knowledge of citizenship and government in democracy (civic knowledge);
2) cognitive skills of democratic citizenship (cognitive civic skills);
3) participatory skills of democratic citizenship (participatory civic skills); dan
4) virtues and dispositions of democratic citizenship (civic dispositions).
KOMPONEN KOMPETENSI
3)CIVIC DISPOSITIONS
a. Konsep ttg substansi demokrasi
b. Kelangsungan ketegangan yang memunculkan masalahmasalah publik
c. Konstitusi dan lembaga-lembaga pemerintahan demokratis
d. Fungsi-fungsi lembaga demokratis
(Sumber: IEA, 1999)
KOMPONEN CIVIC SKILLS
b. Menganalisa dan memaparkan fenomena atau peristiwa- peristiwa kehidupan politik dan warga
c. Menilai, mengambil posisi, dan membela posisi atas kejadian dan masalah publik
d. Pembuatan keputusan tentang masalah publik
e. Berpikir secara kritis tentang kondisi politik dan kehidupan warga
f. Berpikir secara konstruktif tentang bagaimana memperbaiki kehidupan politik dan warga
KOMPONEN CIVIC SKILLS (2)
b. Memonitor peristiwa dan masalah-masalah publik
c. Mempengaruhi pembuatan keputusan-keputusan kebijakan tentang masalah-masalah publik
d. Mengimplementasikan keputusan-keputusan kebijakan tentang masalah-masalah publik
(Patrick, 1999: 34)
KOMPONEN CIVIC DISPOSITIONS
b. Mengakui kesetaraan moral dan martabat setiap orang
c. Menghormati dan melindungi hak-hak yang dimiliki tiap orang secara setara
d. Berpartisipasi secara bertanggungjawab dan efektif dalam kehidupan politik dan kewargaan
e. Mengambil tanggungjawab pemerintahan
(Patrick, 1999: 34)
1) Mendukung kebaikan bersama atau kesejahteraan umum dari masyarakat; 2) Mengakui kesetaraan nilai moral dan martabat kemanusiaan setiap orang; 3) Menghormati dan melindungi hak-hak yang dimiliki oleh setiap orang secara
sama; 4) Berperan serta secara bertanggung jawab dan efektif dalam kehidupan
politik dan kewargaan; 5) Mengambil tanggung jawab terhadap urusan-urusan pemerintahan dengan
persetujuan orang-orang yang diperintah; 6) Menjadi seseorang yang mampu mengatur diri sendiri dengan menerapkan
keutamaan kewargaan (civic virtues). 7) Mendukung dan memelihara prinsip-prinsip dan praktik demokratis
(Hoge,2002).
• PENDEKATAN AKTIF-PARTISIPATORI → PELIBATAN WARGA NEGARA DALAM RANAH PUBLIK
• PENDEKATAN NILAI → PEMBENTUKAN WARGA NEGARA BEORIENTASI KEADILAN
(Westheimer & Kahne, 2004; Print, 2010)
Scope of knowledge for active democratic citizenship education curriculum (Ahmet Doanay, 2012:32)
Scope of values, attitudes and dispositions for active democratic citizenship education curriculum (Ahmet Doganay, 2012:33)
Scope of skills for active democratic citizenship education curriculum (Ahmet Doanay, 2012:34)
CIVIC COMPETENCES Some Critical Reflections (Jan Germeen Janmaat)
Civic competences are generally seen as critical for democracy and social cohesion. Equally widespread is the assumption that schools have an important role to play in fostering these competences.
Many scholars agree that citizens should have certain competences in order to function well in a liberal democratic society (Verba, Scholzman, & Brady, 1995; Galston, 2001). There is also broad consensus on the idea that a substantial part of the citizenry needs to have these qualities for democracy itself to operate effectively and survive (Putnam, 1993; Inglehart & Welzel, 2005). In other words, democracy is not sustainable if it has to rely on a disengaged and politically alienated population.
CIVIC COMPETENCES: RELEVANCE FOR DEMOCRACY AND SOCIAL COHESION
Advocates of citizenship education often ignore the question whether the promotion of civic competences is at all relevant as they deem it to be patently obvious that democracy and social cohesion crucially depend on civic competences.
CIVIC COMPETENCES: THE IMPACT OF CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION
Another problematic issue is the widespread assumption, particularly in policy circles, that particular education programs help to enhance civic competences. Proceeding from this assumption both international agencies and national governments have advocated, adopted and expanded citizenship education programs since the mid 1990s. However, the research literature is far from conclusive about the effectiveness of citizenship education. Not only is there disagreement about what kind of citizenship education would be most beneficial, some scholars would argue that citizenship education hardly makes a difference at all (e.g. Hagendoorn 1999). Complicating this diversity of opinions is the fact that scholars are usually talking about different competences when assessing the impact of citizenship education.
Journal : Students' Conceptual Knowledge and Process Skills in Civic Education: Identifying Cognitive Profiles and Classroom Correlates
In 2 related studies framed by social constructivism theory, the authors explored a fine-grained analysis of adolescents’ civic conceptual knowledge and skills and investigated them in relation to factors such as teachers’ qualifications and students’ classroom experiences. In Study 1 (with about 2,800 U.S. students), the authors identified 4 cognitive attributes (dimensions) underlying the test items of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement Civic Education Study: basic conceptual knowledge, advanced conceptual knowledge and reasoning, and 2 civic-related process skills. Using cognitive diagnostic modeling they identified 4 achievement profiles suggesting that basic conceptual knowledge is essential for the attainment of advanced conceptual knowledge, but not necessarily for skills. In Study 2, 1,332 U.S. students were examined from 68 schools in which 1 of their teachers of a civic-related subject had been surveyed. Students’ mastery of concepts and process skills was associated with the extent of traditional classroom activities, open discussion climate, exposure to social studies concepts, and teachers’ in-service training.
Dalam 2 studi terkait yang dibingkai oleh teori konstruktivisme sosial, penulis mengeksplorasi analisis mendetail tentang pengetahuan dan keterampilan konseptual kewarganegaraan remaja dan menyelidikinya dalam kaitannya dengan faktor-faktor seperti kualifikasi guru dan siswa pengalaman kelas. Dalam Studi 1 (dengan sekitar 2.800 siswa AS), penulis mengidentifikasi 4 atribut kognitif (dimensi) yang mendasari butir-butir tes Internasional Asosiasi Evaluasi Prestasi Pendidikan Studi Pendidikan Kewarganegaraan: pengetahuan konseptual dasar, pengetahuan dan penalaran konseptual tingkat lanjut, dan 2 keterampilan proses yang berhubungan dengan kewarganegaraan. Dengan menggunakan pemodelan diagnostik kognitif, mereka mengidentifikasi 4 profil pencapaian yang menunjukkan bahwa pengetahuan konseptual dasar sangat penting untuk pencapaian pengetahuan konseptual tingkat lanjut, tetapi tidak harus untuk keterampilan. Sedang Belajar 2, 1.332 siswa AS diteliti dari 68 sekolah di mana 1 dari guru mereka subjek terkait sipil telah disurvei. Penguasaan konsep dan proses siswa keterampilan dikaitkan dengan sejauh mana kegiatan kelas tradisional, iklim diskusi terbuka, paparan konsep studi sosial, dan pelatihan dalam-layanan guru.
Conceptual Knowledge and Process Skills
It is generally agreed that there are at least two broad types of knowledge: declarative and procedural. Declarative knowledge consists of facts, concepts, and the relationships among concepts in a domain of knowledge. Procedural knowledge relates to how to do things, and to carrying out actions. Both are essential elements in the development of cognitive expertise (Schraw, 2006). Declarative and procedural knowledge are not single entities; rather, there are specific segments of knowledge that can be classified into these general categories. In Schraw’s review, he suggests that segments of declarative knowledge such as facts, concepts, schemas, and scripts are related to each other (see also Ashcraft, 1994), and explains the relations from a developmental perspective.
How Conceptual Knowledge and Skills Develop in Context
Torney-Purta (1991) proposed looking at meaningful knowledge in social studies using a theory related to social constructivism. Specifically, meaningful knowledge can be defined as that which can be integrated into an individual’s existing cognitive structure or schema (Torney-Purta & Richardson, 2003). Social constructivism theory views the acquisition of knowledge as a higherorder psychological process mediated by social interaction and embedded in contexts (see Murphy, Alexander, & Muis, 2011; Vygotsky, 1934/1986). It can come from text or from oral discourse (both experienced in a social context), but it should relate to existing mental structures for learning to take place. No distinction is made between declarative knowledge and procedural knowledge; however, one could speculate that learning both categories of knowledge can be classified as meaningful if the individual possesses relevant structures upon which new types of knowledge can develop. Basic conceptual knowledge may be essential to these structures.
Referensi
David Marsh and Gerry Stoker. 2010. Theory and Methods in Political Science. Political Analysis. 3rd Edition
Ball Rosch, 1978, Civics: Fifth Edition, USA: Follet Publishing Company.
Engin F. Isin and Bryan S. Turner, 2002, Handbook of Citizenship Studies, London: Sage Publications.
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T.H. Marshal, 2008, Citizenship and Social Class, London: SAGE Library of Educational Thught and Practice. Vol 1, hlm. 173-215.
Bryan S. Turner, 2008, Outline of a Theory of Citizhensip. London: SAGE Library of Educational Thught and Practice. Vol 1, hlm. 268-295.
Patrica White, 2008, Gratitude, Citizenship and Education, London: SAGE Library of Educational Thught and Practice. Vol 1, hlm. 296-305
Patrick, John. 2000. Education for Civic Engagement in Democracy: Service Learning and Other Promising Practices. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED447065
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Freddy K. Kalidjernih, 2011, Puspa Ragam Konsep dan Isu Kewarganegaraan, Bandung: Widya Aksara Press.
Wijianto & Winarno, 2018, Ilmu Kewarganegaraan, Surakarta: Penerbit Laboratorium PPKn FKIP UNS.
Robertus Robet dan Hendrik Boli Tobi, 2014, Pengantar Sosiologi Kewarganegaraan: Dari Marx sampai Agamben, CV. Margin Kiri.
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Jan Germeen Janmaat, 2013, in Civic Education and Competences for Engaging Citizens in Democracies, Murray Print and Dirk Lange. SENSE PUBLISHERS ROTTERDAM / BOSTON / TAIPEI.
Ting Zhang , Judith Torney-Purta & Carolyn Barber (2012) Students' Conceptual Knowledge and Process Skills in Civic Education: Identifying Cognitive Profiles and Classroom Correlates, Theory & Research in Social Education, 40:1, 1- 34, DOI: 10.1080/00933104.2012.649467
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