**OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH DURING LCS
**Introductiona.Workers in construction among others suffer a large share of occupational fatalities and lost time injuries;b.Interestingly, nearly all injuries and death on road works are preventable;c.The safety and health problems during sealing of road works are related to works organization and the way the work is executed/organized
**Site Induction ProcedureInduction will make sure the employees are safe in the site. Induction should cover the following:Overview of the project;The site dos and donts;Safety procedures;The anticipated risks;Accidents reporting procedures;Health and Safety Responsibilities;
**Site Induction ProcedureResponsibilities of the parties on the site/project;Minimum PPE in placeLocation and content of the First Aid Kit
**Introduction contdIn Uganda, the number of accidents continue rising every year e.g. in 2010, there were appx7395 accidents on roads.This figure does not include accidents on road construction sites which are in most cases never reported. Many road maintenance operations are potentially dangerous, both to the maintenance workers and to the road users.
**Introduction contdThe primary focus at hand in OSH during LCS is the inter-relationship between:Environment where work is executed;Workers interaction with the work environment;Consequences of the interaction between workers and the environment.In all, there must be preparedness to avoid the occurrence of accidents during sealing of low traffic volume roads
**Sources of Accidents in LBRWSFour basic sources of accidents in LBRWS are noted and these are:The workersPreparation and information, habit, neglect and fatigue of the workers can cause accidents during LCS;Availability of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE);Conduct of the workers e.g. consumption of liquors Knowledge on the use of the equipment can also be a cause of accidents during LCS.
**Sources of Accidents in LBRWSThe EquipmentType, size, state and mode of use of the equipment in itself possess a danger to the workers.On the road, the way in which the equipment is kept on the live road can also be source of accidents.
**Sources of Accidents in LBRWSWork EnvironmentWork environment can be a source of danger to both the Road workers and the road users.Poor visibility, construction materials and the way they are kept on the site and the state of the road surface can contribute to accidents at the road works.
**Sources of Accidents in LBRWSTraffic managementMost LCS are undertaken in live roads. Therefore adequate traffic control measures to a large extent reduce accidents during the works;Directing/guiding traffic i.e. thru one way routes;Planning of works in conjunction with the police;Preparing route diversions for traffic and the routes must be safe for traffic.
**Responsibilities Towards OSH in LBRWSContractors ResponsibilitiesThey include:i.Ensure that, all measures for the protection of his/her workers and general public from dangerous aspects of employers undertaking at his/her own cost;ii.Ensure that the working Environment is kept free from any hazard due to pollution thru organizational measures, designs etc.
**Responsibilities Towards OSH in LBRWSPut in place arrangements for ensuring as far as is reasonably practicable, safety and absence of risks to health, in connection with the use, handling, storage and transport of articles and substances;Provision of adequate information, instructions, training and supervision necessary to ensure as far as possible, safety and health of the employees;
**Responsibilities Towards OSH in LBRWSProvision where necessary of adequate PPE to prevent as far as is reasonably practicable, the risks of accidents or of adverse effects on the health and safety of the workersvi.Assess risks and plans to minimize them in works to the employees;Explain the work to the workers.
These will minimize accidents on the site
**Responsibilities Towards OSH in LBRWSEnsure his/her representative puts in place measures for minimizing all risks on the site/road;Put in place arrangements for all necessary welfare, including provision of adequate clean drinking water, HIV/AIDS mitigation;Ensure that arrangements for First Aid including ambulance services are within reach;Put in measures to control traffic during roadwork's.
**Responsibilities Towards OSH in LBRWSx.Where the workers are atleast 20 at a workplace the contractor has to: Prepare and routinely revise safety and health policy;Provide for the implementation of the safety and health policy;Make the policy known by all the employees.
**Responsibilities Towards OSH in LBRWSxi.Ensure that the PPE that is provided to the workers is used whenever is necessary;xii.Prepare, distribute and display safe precautions regarding the safe operations and emergency measures in case of accidents
**Responsibilities Towards OSH in LBRWSIt is the duty of an Employeer to conduct his/her works in such a way that ensures as far as is practicable that any person who is not in his/her works is not exposed to risks and safety concernsClearly brief the workforce on the activities they are to undertake i.e. ensure the workers know and understand what they are to do.
**Responsibilities Towards OSH in LBRWSResponsibilities of EmployeesEvery worker while at work to: i.Take reasonable care for the health and safety of him/herself and of any other person who may be affected by his/her acts while at work;ii.Cooperate with the employer in all measures to eliminate or minimize risks to health and safety at work;
**Responsibilities Towards OSH in LBRWSReport to the supervisors any dangerous situations that pose eminent danger to health and safety of workers;Move a way from dangerous work situations which he/she believes represents eminent danger to his/her life;To respect and to put to proper use any anything provided in the interest of his/her health, safety or welfare.
**SAFETY MEASURES DURING/IN LBRWSSafety Measures at LBRWSProviding workers with quality hand tools fitted with turned and polished handles not merely with tree handles;Workers be informed of the potential risks and procedures of working with given equipment;Adequate arrangements for the provision of clean drinking water for the workers;
**SAFETY MEASURES DURING/IN LBRWSProvision of facilities to control disease outbreaks at the site e.g. toilets separate for men/women;Ensure that the site is left tidy at the close of works and cleared off debris and other construction wastes;Provision of information in form of campaign against HIV/AIDS and STI;
**SAFETY MEASURES DURING/IN LBRWSEnsure that the site is left safe for the road users e.g. unfilled potholes are enclosed with flagging tapes;Site of works must be clearly marked to make sure it is visible for the road users and convince them of the dangers and take all the necessary precautions;
**SAFETY MEASURES DURING/IN LBRWSEnsure that all the necessary temporary traffic signals and protection are provided and correctly placed for the entire period of works.
**CONCLUSIONi.In all it must be emphasised that the work of the Contractor is to be practically oriented. Most of his/her time or that of his/her representative should be on the site attending to OSH issues among others; Safety consciousness is a responsibility of all and each should be mindful of his/her safety while at work.