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LPI introduction

Text of LPI Presentation

  • Welcome to . . .Lightning ProtectionAn Essential Risk Management Element

  • Statistical Data on Insurance ClaimsSource: NLSI, USA

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    Burglary29%

    Flood5%

    Fire6%

    Lightning21%

    Storm1%

    Others14%

    Misoperation24%

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  • World Thunderstorm DaysIndonesia ~ 160 Thunderstorm Days

  • Two instruments were used to gather data for the aerial map. The Optical Transient detector was launched aboard NASA's Microlab satellite in 1995 and the Lightning Imaging Sensor is fitted to a joint NASA-Japan satellite launched in 1997 to measure tropical rainfall levels.

    The sensors gathered lightning data over periods of five and three years respectively.US National Space & Science Technology Centre

  • Lightning Strikes

  • Lightning Strikes

  • Lightning Strikes

  • Typical formation of Lightning - Step 1Negative electrical charges build up within cloudsElectric field intensificationPositive charges gather on groundAir breakdown leads to stepped leader

  • Typical formation of Lightning - Step 2Continuation of downward step leaderFurther electric field intensificationStrong upward positive streamer generationStreamer racing towards downward step leader

  • Typical formation of Lightning - Step 3Positive upward streamer meets the downward step leaderConducting path formsPotential is equalised by the "return stroke"Visible lightning flash

  • Lightning StrikeNational Geographic July 1993StreamersStep LeadersMain Discharge

  • Typical50 kALONG TAIL=> flowHIGH ENERGYHIGH VOLTAGEdi & dvdt dt VERY FASTRISE TIME=> fhighTypical characteristics of Lightning Pulse

  • Typical Lightning Strike

    Instantaneous Power

    Over one Megawatt

    Total Energy

    Over 250 Kilojoules

    Sound Pressure

    90 Atmospheres at 500m away

    Temperature

    30,000K+ (5 times Sun Surface)

    Rise Time

    0.1 to 5 Microseconds

    Average Current

    35 kA

    Duration

    300 Microseconds + Repeats

    Channel Length

    5 km

    C:\DOCUME~1\radha\LOCALS~1\Temp\~WRO0000.doc, 27/03/06

  • How Transients enter your EquipmentCapacitive coupling is where the transient voltage is coupled due to the inherent capacitance between two circuitsMagnetic coupling occurs when magnetic field of a current carrying conductor induces lightning current on to an adjacent conductorGalvanic coupling is a direct electrical connection

  • Direct Lightning Damage

  • Direct Lightning Damage

  • Transient Damage

  • Transient Damage

  • LPIs 4 Step Approach

  • Risk AssessmentMany standards have essential risk assessment methodsAS1768IEC61024NF C 17-102

  • LPI Step 1

    Definition and Provision of Area Protection

  • CONE OF PROTECTIONROLLING SPHEREConventional Methods

  • Electrical Field ModellingOriginally developed by AJ ErickssonLPI CAD software forms three dimensional representation of the structure to be protected and the air terminals to be used. Based on this representation the software determines if protection is achieved to the required level of risk.

  • Striking distance is influenced by geometry and dimensions such as height, width, radius and altitude all have effect.Corners and edges cause an up-leader to be launched when the down-leader is at a greater distance than flat surfaces. This striking distance is calculated for all directions from the terminal and from the structure resulting in two surfaces. Electric Field Modelling

  • Electric Field ModellingThe software determines if coverage is successfully achieved based on the relative distances between the surfaces and typical leader velocities based on the site & location conditions

  • LPI GuardianTerminals

  • LPI Guardian Terminals

  • LPI Guardian Terminals

  • LPI Guardian TerminalsFinial with blunt tip

    A triggering procedure

    Electrically floating medium consisting of 4 electrically isolated panels

    High voltage connection at the base

  • CAT Air TerminalRe-acts to Atmospheric ChangesCorona Reducing TerminalControlled Streamer Emission

    Due to the geometric shape and Controlled Advanced Triggering procedure, the LPI Guardian reliably ensures a timely launch of an upward leader, into an electric field conducive to continual propagation

  • Lab Tests of CAT TerminalsAll critical components of LPI Guardian System 5 has under gone independent Tests carried out in accordance with IEC 60-1 standards.

  • IEC Test CertificateTest Certificate issued by The University of Tasmania, Australia

  • Central Plaza - Hong KongHeight of building: 370m - 78 storeysLightning Protection Terminal: LPI Guardian CAT IIIYear of Installation: 2006

  • LPI HVSC Downconductor

  • LPI HVSC

  • Characteristics of HVSC Concentric conductor Nominal cross-section No. / diameter of wire Cable diameter Electrical Characteristics - DC. Resistance of conductor - DC. Resistance of screen - Insulation resistanceDescription

    50 mm34 / 1.38 mm37 mm

    0.387 /km0.448 /km1,890 M-kmTechnical Data

  • Benefits of HVSCReduced risk of side flashingSelection of route to groundSingle Earth SystemBonding of building not requiredMost of energy contained in coreRelatively easy to retrofitReduced induction to nearby electronic equipment

  • LPI Step 2

    Creation of a Bonded Earthing System

  • By CODE RequiredPersonnel Safety ( Touch and step potential)Equipment Protection (Operate over current device during a ground fault 50/60Hz event)Lightning Dissipation (5kHz - 50kHz)Electro-Static Discharge (ESD)Noise Control (Computer Grounding)Why Grounding?

  • Objective of Lightning Protection Earth

    To dissipate the lightning energy with minimum voltage rise that may affect people or equipment

  • Earth Potential RiseConsider only REarth potential rise: V = I x R = 50 000 x 10= 500 kV

  • EarthingWe want: Z low = R low, L low, C highLightning Frequency: 5 50KHz

  • Lightning Strike to Ground

  • Types of Lightning Earth

  • Earthing SystemOptimum spacingL > 2 x DCombination ofhorizontal strip andvertical rods - Linea - Radial

  • LPI GRIP with Radius Conductors

  • LPI GRIP with Earth Rods

  • Exothermic Welding

  • Why LPI Exoweld Welding?Permanent bonding and eliminates jointsBonding at over 2,000 CAny type of connection is possibleNo corrosion and bonding of different metals are possibleEasy, fast and safe to useCost effective solution

  • LPI Step 3

    Protection of Power Lines

  • Consequences of Unprotected SystemElectrical HazardsOperational IssuesUnsafe for staffEquipment damageFireSystem downtimeLoss of dataData corruptionResult = Loss of Revenue

  • Types of Power ProblemsSurges and transients over voltagesTemporary over and under voltagesBrown-outs / black-outsFrequency variationsLPI offers solutions to ALL above problems

  • Types of Power Line Protection

    SHUNTPROTECTION

    Also known as PARALLEL PROTECTION

    SERIESPROTECTION

    Also known as SURGE FILTER

  • LPI Shunt ProtectionHigh let-through voltageWavefront unaltered (very sharp and large)Energy diversion onlyPoint of entry protectionIdeal for robust equipment (Air-con, pumps, motors etc)Not based on load current

  • LPI Shunt Products

  • LPI Series ProtectionLow let-through voltageWavefront slowed (low)Energy diverted and filteredPoor power conditionsBased on load currentVital for sensitive electronicsFine protectionCommon & differential mode

  • LPI Series FilterApplied Pulse 6kV 1.2/50s, 3kA 8/20s

  • LPI Series FilterTypical 3Ph Filter CircuitLPI 3Ph Filter

  • LPI Also OffersOver and Under Voltage DisconnectVoltage RegulatorsVoltage Stabilizers (Servo Controlled)UPS through reputed manufacturesRectifiersSealed Maintenance Batteries

  • LPI Step 4

    Protection of Signal, Data, RF and Communications Lines

  • LPI Signal, Data Comms & RFData Line Protection for LAN, WAN, Serial Port & RJ45Signal Line Protection (6v up to 150vdc)Levels, Pressure etc typical 4-20mAComms Analogue, ISDN & ADSL

  • LPI Signal, Data & Comms

  • LPI Installations

  • LPI Installations

  • LPI Installations

  • Thank You for Your AttentionFor any further details, kindly contact your local LPI authorized distributor or LPI Australia:Paul HollingsworthCEO Lightning Protection International Pty Ltd16 Mertonvale Circuit,Kingston, Tasmania 7050, AustraliaPhone: +61 3 6227 1944Fax: +61 3 6229 1900Email: [email protected] Web: www.lpi.com.au

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