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    Emergy & Complex Systems

    Day 1, Lecture 1.

    Energy SystemsDiagramming

    A Systems language...symbols,conventions and simulation

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    Emergy & Complex Systems

    Day 1, Lecture 1.

    A system is a group of parts which are

    connected and work together. Systems with

    living and nonliving parts are called

    ecosystems (which is short for ecological

    systems).(Odum, Odum, and Brown, 1997)

    What is a system?

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    Emergy & Complex Systems

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    To convert non-quantitative verbal modelsto more quantitative, more accurate, more

    predictive, more consistent, and lessconfusing network diagrams

    Why a systems language?

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    Emergy & Complex Systems

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    Understanding environment and society as a systemmeans thinking about parts, processes, andconnections.

    To help understand systems, it is helpful to drawpictures of networks that show components andrelationships.

    Understanding systems

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    Emergy & Complex Systems

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    With a system diagram, we can carry thesesystem images in the mind. And learn the wayenergy, materials, and information interact.

    By adding numerical values for flows andstorages, the systems diagrams become

    quantitative and can be simulated with computers.

    Visualizing systems

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    Emergy & Complex Systems

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    System Frame: A rectangular box drawn to represethe boundaries of the system selected.

    ENERGY SYSTEMS SYMBOLS

    Systems Language

    E & C l S

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    Symbols continued...

    Pathway Line: a flow of energy, often with a flowof materials.

    SOURCE: outside source of energy; a forcing function..

    STORAGE: a compartment of energy storage within the systemstoring quantity as the balance of inflows and outflows

    E & C l S t

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    INTERACTION: process which combines different types

    of energy flows or material flows to produce anoutflow in proportion to a function of the inflows.

    PRODUCER: unit that collects and trnasforms low-qualityenergy under control interactions of higher quality flows.

    CONSUMER: unit that transforms energy quality, stores it,and feeds it back autocatalytically to improve inflow

    .

    Symbols continued...

    E & C l S t

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    TRANSACTION: a unit that indicates the sale of goods or

    services (solid line) in exchange for payment of money(dashed line).

    SWITCHING ACTION: symbol that indicates one or moreswitching functions where flows are interrupted orinitiated.

    BOX: miscellaneous symbol for whatever unit or function islabled.

    Symbols continued...

    Emergy & Complex Systems

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    Systems are organized hierarchically

    Emergy & Complex Systems

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    Language Conventions.

    sources arranged

    according to

    t heir quality

    Components arranged within

    boundary according to their

    q u a l it y

    Used Energy

    Emergy & Complex Systems

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    Procedures for Drawing a Systems Model

    1. Draw the frame of attention that selectsthe boundary

    2. Make a list of the important input pathways

    that cross the boundary

    3. Make a list of the components believed to beimportant

    4. Make a list of the processes believed to beimportant within the defined system.

    Emergy & Complex Systems

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    5. Remember that matter is conserved.

    6. Check to see that money flows form a

    closed loop within the frame and thatmoney inflows across the boundary lead tomoney outflows.

    7. Check all pathways to see that energy

    flows are appropriate.

    Procedures for Drawing a Systems Model

    Emergy & Complex Systems

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    8. If color is used, the following are suggested:

    Yellow sunlight, heat flows and used energy flowsBlue circulating materials of the biosphere such

    as water, air, nutrientsBrown geological components, fuels, miningGreen environmental areas, producers, productionRed consumers (animal and economic), population,

    industry, citiesPurple - money

    Procedures for Drawing a Systems Model

    Emergy & Complex Systems

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    9. If a complex diagram has resulted (> 25symbols), redraw it to make it neat and saveit as a useful inventory and summary of the

    input knowledge. Redraw the diagram withthe same boundary definition, aggregatingsymbols and flows to obtain a model of thedesired complexity (perhaps 3-10 symbols).

    (Odum and Odum, 1996)

    Procedures for Drawing a Systems Model

    Emergy & Complex Systems

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    Production & Consumptiona simple ecosystem.

    Producer ConsumerEnergy

    Source

    Feedback

    Diagramming Conventions.

    Emergy & Complex Systems

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    Emergy & omplex Systems

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    .

    B i o -

    mass

    Plants

    B i o -

    mass

    Wildl i fe

    Nutrients

    Positive Feedback

    Nutrient Recycle

    Used Energ y

    Forest Ecosystem

    Sunlight

    A more complex diagram of a forest...

    Diagramming Conventions.

    Emergy & Complex Systems

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    gy p y

    Day 1, Lecture 1.

    . .

    Bio -

    mass

    Plant s

    B io -

    mass

    Wildl i fe

    Nutrients

    Posit iv e Feedback

    Nutrient Recycle

    Used Energy

    Forest Ecosystem

    Sunlight

    Goods &

    Services

    Markets

    Sales

    Pur cha se s

    Cutting

    X

    Diagramming Conventions.

    Adding more complexity...

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    gy p y

    Day 1, Lecture 1.

    Bio -

    mass

    Plant s

    B

    Nutrients

    Used Energy

    Ecosystem

    Sunlight

    H2O

    H2O N

    O.M.

    Consumers

    Bio-

    diversity

    Species

    A generic ecosystem...

    Diagramming Conventions.

    Emergy & Complex Systems

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    gy p y

    Day 1, Lecture 1.

    Renewable

    Sources

    Natural

    Ecosyst ems

    Agric ult ure

    GreenSpace

    Commerce

    & Industry

    Infra-

    Structure

    PeopleGov't

    $

    Waste

    Fuel Goods Services

    People

    Support Region

    Cit y

    .

    Bio -

    mass

    Plants

    Bio -

    mass

    Wildlife

    Nutrients

    Positive Feedback

    Nutrient Recycle

    Diagramming Conventions.

    A city & support region...

    Emergy & Complex Systems

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    gy p yDay 1, Lecture 1.

    $$

    $

    Environment al

    Production

    Consumers

    Wastes

    Environmental

    Recycle

    Reserves

    Stress

    Markets

    Goods

    Services

    FuelsPurchased

    Inputs

    Prices

    Prices

    Service to

    Nature

    Impacts

    Environ.

    Sources

    Ecological

    Engineering Interface

    Self designed

    Economic

    Uses &

    ValuesAdded,

    Human Design

    Ecological Engineering

    Diagramming Conventions.

    Emergy & Complex Systems

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    Day 1, Lecture 1.

    .

    Soils,

    Wood

    Tidal

    Energy

    Sunlight

    Geologic

    Processes

    Environment al

    Systems

    Fuels,

    Materials

    Stock

    Pile

    Assets

    Wastes

    Recycle

    Economic

    Syst ems

    1 .

    2 .

    3 .

    Coupling humanity and environment

    Diagramming Conventions.

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    Day 1, Lecture 1.

    Picture Mathematics.

    W

    B

    A

    Jo J

    R

    k1

    k2

    k3 k4

    k5

    k6

    k7

    k8

    k0

    k9

    Ra

    dW/dt = Ra - K2*R*W - K1*W

    dB/dt = k3*R*W - k4*B*A - k5*B

    dA/dt = k6*A*B - k7*A*B - k8*a

    Sun

    Rain

    Water

    ProducersConsumers

    Drawing systemsdiagramsexplicitly writes

    mathematicalequationsexpressingrelationshipsbetween flowsand storages

    Emergy & Complex Systems

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