Charting & Diagramming(WSD)

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    Charting and Diagramming Techniques

    r. Goutam Sen

    Department of Industrial & Systems Engineering

    Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Kharagpur West Bengal, India 1

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    “It is not enough to be busy... The question is: what are we busy

    about?”

    ― Henry DavidThoreau

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    !T"I#$

    %. verview o& Charting and Diagramming Techniques

    '. #etwor( Diagrams ). Traditiona* $ngineering Charting and

    Diagramming Techniques +. ,*oc( Diagrams and -rocess a/s

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    b0ectives o& Charts and Diagrams

    %. To /ermit wor( /rocesses to be communicated and com/rehended more readi*y

    '. To use a*gorithms s/eci&ica**y designed &or the /articu*ar diagramming technique

    ). To divide a give wor( /rocess into its constituent e*ements &or ana*ysis /ur/oses

    +. To /rovide a structure in the search &or im/rovements

    1. To re/resent a /ro/osed new wor( /rocess or method

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    How to Create the Chart or Diagram

    2na*yst is intimate*y &ami*iar with the /rocess and deve*o/s a gra/hic to re/resent it

    2na*yst observes and records in&ormation about the /rocess

    ne3on3one interviews with those &ami*iar withthe /rocess 2 gra/hic mode* o& the /rocess is deve*o/ed based on the interviews

    4rou/ meetings with /ersonne* &ami*iar with /rocess

    2 gra/hic mode* o& the /rocess is deve*o/ed based on the grou/ meetings

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    How to 2na*y5e the Chart or Diagram

    2*gorithmic ana*ysis 6e.g.7 *ine ba*ancing7 critica* /ath methods8 Chec(*ists 9 genera* questions a//*ied to the /articu*ar /rocess

    ,rainstorming 9 team activity in which/artici/ants contribute recommendations e/arating va*ue3added and non3va*ue3added

    o/erations ;a*ue added ste/s: %. Im/ortant to customer '. -hysica**y change the /roduct or service

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    Categories o& Charts and Diagrams

    %. #etwor( diagrams '. Traditiona* industria* engineering charts and

    diagrams ). ,*oc( diagrams and /rocess ma/s

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    #etwor( Diagrams

    Consist o&: #odes re/resenting o/erations7 wor( e*ements7 or other entities

    2rrows connecting the nodes indicating re*ationshi/s among the nodes

    Two3way &*ows 6movement o& materia*s8: a

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    #etwor( Diagram

    $

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    Traditiona* I$ Charts and Diagrams

    /eration charts -rocess charts >*ow diagrams

    2ctivity charts

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    /eration Chart &or ubassemb*y

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    Chec(*ist o& @uestions

    Ahat a*ternative starting materia* cou*d be used?

    a(e or buy decision: shou*d the /art be /roduced in our &actory or /urchased?

    Is this /rocessing o/eration necessary? Can this o/eration be e*iminated7 combined7 or sim/*i&ied? Cou*d a di&&erent 0oining method be used? Is this ins/ection necessary? Cou*d the ins/ection tas( be automated?

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    -rocess Charts

    4ra/hica* and symbo*ic re/resentation o& the /rocessing activities /er&ormed on something or by somebody -rinci/a* ty/es o& /rocess charts:

    %. >*ow /rocess chart 9 ana*ysis o& a materia* or wor(/iece being /rocessed

    '. Aor(er /rocess chart 9 ana*ysis o& a wor(er /er&orming a tas(

    ). >orm /rocess chart 9 ana*ysis o& the /rocessing o& /a/erwor( &orms

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    >*ow -rocess Chart

    !ses &ive symbo*s to detai* the wor( /er&ormed on a materia* or wor(/art as it is /rocessed through a sequence o& o/erations and activities:

    /eration 9 /rocessing o& a materia*

    Ins/ection 9 chec( &or qua*ity or quantity ove 9 trans/ort o& materia* to new *ocation

    De*ay 9 materia* waiting to be /rocessed or moved

    torage 9 materia* (e/t in /rotected *ocation

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    >*ow -rocess Chart

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    >orm &or >*ow -rocess Chart

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    >*ow Diagram

    Drawing o& the &aci*ity *ayout with the addition o& *ines re/resenting movement o& materia*s or wor(ers within the &aci*ity

    2rrows on the *ines re/resent direction o&

    movement &ten used in con0unction with a /rocess chart

    Can be used to detect e

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    2ctivity Charts

    2 *isting o& the activities o& one or more sub0ects 6e.g.7 wor(ers7 machines8 /*otted against a time sca*e to indicate gra/hica**y how much time is s/ent on each activity

    Ty/es o& activity charts: Bight3hand *e&t3hand activity chart 6a.(.a. wor(/*ace activity chart8 Aor(er3machine activity chart

    Aor(er3mu*timachine activity chart 4ang activity chart 6a.(.a. mu*tiwor(er activity chart8

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    2ctivity Chart

    2ctivity chart &or a wor(er /er&orming a re/etitive tas(

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    hading >ormats &or 2ctivity Charts

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    Bight3Hand "e&t3Hand 2ctivity Chart

    Tas( invo*ves /*acing /egs into a /eg board

    #ote that *e&t hand is used as a wor(ho*der

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    Aor(er3 u*timachine 2ctivity Chart

    Can be used to indicate machine interference 6when a machine must wait &or service because wor(er is current*y servicing another machine8

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    ,*oc( Diagram

    !sed to de/ict &*ows and interre*ationshi/s among com/onents in com/*e< systems

    ,*oc( diagrams are common*y used in *inear contro* theory7 as shown be*ow &or a &eedbac(

    contro* system

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    -rocess a/s

    ,asic /rocess ma/ is a b*oc( diagram showing the ste/s in a /rocess Aide*y a//*ied to business /rocesses

    2*so a//*icab*e to /roduction7 *ogistics7 and service o/erations "eve*s o& detai*:

    High3*eve* /rocess ma/ 9 macrosco/ic view o& /rocess and inc*udes on*y the most im/ortant ste/s "ow3*eve* /rocess ma/ 9 used to ma/ each o& the ste/s in a high3*eve* /rocess ma/

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    ymbo*s in the ,asic -rocess a/

    -rocess ma/ symbo*s: 6a8 beginning ending /oint o& the /rocess7 6b8 tas( or activity ste/7 and 6c8 decision /oint

    ymbo*s are connected by arrows to indicate sequence

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    ,asic -rocess a/

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    2*ternative >orms o& -rocess a/s

    Be*ationshi/ /rocess ma/ 9 b*oc( diagram that shows the in/ut3out/ut connections among de/artments 6or other &unctiona* com/onents8 o& an organi5ation

    Cross3&unctiona* /rocess ma/ 9 b*oc( diagram showing how the ste/s o& a /rocess are accom/*ished by various de/artments

    De/artments *isted as rows se/arated by

    dashed *ines 2*so ca**ed a swim3*ane chart

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    Be*ationshi/ a/

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    Cross3>unctiona* -rocess a/

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    2B : %E TI $: 'E I#!T$

    3 3

    D r. J ite s h T h a k k a r, IIT K h a ra g p u r

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    2 motorist e

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    He removed the s/are tire &rom the trun( and /*aced it near the rear *e&t whee*. #e

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    The neor good measures7 he again tightened the &ive *ug nuts now that the car was secure*y on the ground. 36

    Dr. J