Inventions and discoveries

  • View
    215

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

Some of the greates inventions or discoveries

Text of Inventions and discoveries

  • Some of the greatest

    inventions &

    discoveries

  • Mobile Phone

    Inventor Charles E. Alden claimed, in

    the 29 April 1906 issue of the New York

    World, to have invented a device called

    the vest pocket telephone although

    Alden never had the chance to produce

    this device in large quantities.

    The first mobile telephone calls were

    made from cars in 1946. Bell System's

    Mobile Telephone Service was made on

    17 June in St. Louis, Missouri, followed

    by Illinois Bell Telephone Company's car

    radiotelephone service in Chicago on 2

    October. The MTA phones were

    composed of vacuum tubes and relays, and weighed over 80 pounds (36 kg).

    There were initially only 3 channels for all the users in the metropolitan area,

    increasing later to 32 channels across 3 bands. This service continued into the

    1980s in large portions of North America. Due to the small number of radio

    frequencies available, the service quickly reached capacity. In 1956, the worlds

    first partly automatic car phone system, Mobile System A (MTA), was

    introduced in Sweden.

    John F. Mitchell, Motorola's chief of portable communication products in 1973,

    played a key role in advancing the development of handheld mobile telephone

    equipment. Mitchell successfully pushed Motorola to develop wireless

    communication products that would be small enough to use anywhere and

    participated in the design of the cellular phone. Martin Cooper, a Motorola

    researcher and executive, was the key researcher on Mitchell's team that

    developed the first hand-held mobile telephone for use on a cellular network.

    The new invention sold for $3,995 and weighed two pounds, leading to a

    nickname "the brick".

    The world's first commercial automated cellular network was launched in Japan

    by NTT in 1979, initially in the metropolitan area of Tokyo. In 1981, this was

    followed by the simultaneous launch of the Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT)

  • system in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Several countries then

    followed in the early-to-mid 1980s including the UK, Mexico and Canada.

    Features

    All mobile phones have a number of features in common, but manufacturers

    also try to differentiate their own products by implementing additional

    functions to make them more attractive to consumers. This has led to great

    innovation in mobile phone development over the past 20 years.

    The common components found on all phones are:

    A battery, providing the power source for the phone functions.

    An input mechanism to allow the user to interact with the phone. The

    most common input mechanism is a keypad, but touch screens are also

    found in some high-end smartphones.

    Basic mobile phone services to allow users to make calls and send text

    messages.

    All GSM phones use a SIM card to allow an account to be swapped

    among devices. Some CDMA devices also have a similar card called a R-

    UIM.

    Individual GSM, WCDMA, iDEN and some satellite phone devices are

    uniquely identified by an International Mobile Equipment Identity

    (IMEI) number.

    Low-end mobile phones are often referred to as feature phones, and offer basic

    telephony. Handsets with more advanced computing ability through the use of

    native software applications became known as smartphones.

    A printed circuit board inside a Nokia 3210

    By

    Andr Oliveira

  • Mouse

    When it was invented: The computer

    mouse as we know it today was

    invented and developed by Douglas

    Engle Bart during the 60's and was

    patented on November 17, 1970.

    While creating the mouse, Douglas

    was working at the Stanford

    Research Institute, a think tank

    sponsored by Stanford University,

    and originally referred to the mouse

    as a "X-Y Position Indicator for a

    Display System." This mouse was

    first used with the Xerox Alto

    computer system in 1973.

    However, because of its lack of

    success the first widely used mouse

    is credited to being the mouse found

    on the Apple Lisa computer. Today,

    the mouse is now found and used

    on every computer.

    How it was made: The unit was

    linked to the computer by a cable so

    the motion signals could be

    electrically transmitted to the

    computer for viewing on the

    monitor.

    Impact in our lives: A mouse is an

    input device that allows the user to

    move a pointer on the screen and

    interact with the computer system.

    It controls the position of the cursor.

    It activates application procedures.

    It dispatches mouse down events.

    By Gustavo Correia

  • GPS (Global Position System)

    Introduction

    GPS or Global Position System was created

    during the World War II to solve the problem of

    accurate location, and to combat this problem

    several projects were created over time, to reach

    the nowadays GPS.

    A brief History of GPS

    Although the history of GPS begins with the military, scientists,

    fisherman, ambulance drivers and even hikers now use GPS units.

    From cell phones to commercial aircraft, GPS use is increasing at

    an incredible rate.

    1. GPS: The Little Satellite In 1957, the Soviet Union launched a beach ball-sized satellite named Sputnik. Scientists in the US, who were tracking the device, noticed that changes in the radio signals it emitted allowed them to predict Sputnik's location. The concept of satellite navigation quickly followed. The US Navy built the first satellite navigation system, TRANSIT, in the early 1960s. TRANSIT used five satellites and took several hours to update positions. The Navy upgraded to the TIMATION system in the late 1960s to help with submarine navigation

    2. A Military Solution In the 1970s, the US Department of Defense began an effort to combine Navy and Air Force systems into a single system that could provide global navigation capability to all forces. System development continued and in 1978, the first NAVSTAR satellite was launched. Over the next several years, 10 satellites were put into orbit. Each satellite contained a radio transmitter and an atomic clock used to provide the timing accuracy needed to make the system work.

  • 3. Tragedy Opens Up GPS In 1983, Soviet fighters shot down a Korean airliner that had strayed into restricted space due to a navigational error. US President Regan quickly announced that the GPS system would be declassified for civilian use. Although available for civilian navigation, GPS accuracy was restricted for non-military use through a process called Selective Availability (SA). SA introduced intentional errors

    that resulted in an accuracy of only 100 meters for civilian users. While this level of accuracy was fine for commercial navigation, it provided little practical use at the personal level.

    4. The Modern GPS Era In 1996, US President Clinton issued an order rescinding Selective Availability; in 2000, the order was carried out, increasing the accuracy of civilian GPS units by a factor of 10. Today, GPS receiving capability fits on a single chip and GPS receivers are in use in all forms of transportation and in handheld and cell phone devices.

    After reading its history, what can we conclude about GPS?

    GPS is a radio navigation system that allows us to know the exact

    location of a point through information from the satellites. Operates

    under all weather conditions, through signals sent by a constellation

    of 24 satellites revolving around the Earth in six different orbital

    planets. It takes 12 hours for a ride to Earth.

    By Diogo Nuno Pontes Encarnao

  • TV set Everybody likes to be distracted, but sometimes we don't know how to do it. The

    television it's always a good option. We sit on a comfy sofa, turn the television

    on, until here it's all very simple. But it wasn't very simple to create this device

    that captures millions attentions in this world. To reach these days, the

    television needed science and many years of study. Today, we never think

    about the work and the number of people who work many hours to give us the

    privilege to see it. This work will show us the history of this revolutionary device,

    called television.

    What is a TV set? How it was made? And when it was invented?

    A television set (also called a television, TV set, TV, or "Telly" (UK) ) is a device

    that combines a tuner, display, and speakers for the purpose of viewing

    television. Television sets became a popular consumer product after the

    Second World War, using vacuum tubes and cathode ray tube displays. The

    addition of color to broadcast television after 1953 further increased the

    popularity of television sets, and an outdoor antenna became a common feature

    of suburban homes. The ubiquitous television set became the display device for

    the first generation of home computers. Televisions were made in 1923.

    Who invented the TV set?

    Mechanical televisions were commercially sold from 1928 to 1934 in the United

    Kingdom, United States, and Soviet Union.The earliest commercially made

    televisions sold by Baird in the UK in 1928 were radios with the addition of a

    television device consisting of a neon tube behind a mechanically spinning disk

    (patented by German engineer Paul Nipkow in 1884, see Nipkow disk) with a

    spiral of apertures