# Introduction to CMOS VLSI Design â€“ Lecture 9: Circuit .Introduction to CMOS VLSI Design Lecture

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Introduction toCMOS VLSI

Design

Lecture 9: Circuit Families

David Harris

Harvey Mudd CollegeSpring 2004

9: Circuit Families Slide 2CMOS VLSI Design

Outlineq Pseudo-nMOS Logicq Dynamic Logicq Pass Transistor Logic

9: Circuit Families Slide 3CMOS VLSI Design

Introductionq What makes a circuit fast?

I = C dV/dt -> tpd (C/I) V low capacitance high current small swing

q Logical effort is proportional to C/Iq pMOS are the enemy!

High capacitance for a given currentq Can we take the pMOS capacitance off the input?q Various circuit families try to do this

B

A

11

4

4

Y

9: Circuit Families Slide 4CMOS VLSI Design

Pseudo-nMOSq In the old days, nMOS processes had no pMOS

Instead, use pull-up transistor that is always ONq In CMOS, use a pMOS that is always ON

Ratio issue Make pMOS about effective strength of

pulldown network

Vout

Vin16/2

P/2

Ids

0 0.3 0.6 0.9 1.2 1.5 1.80

0.3

0.6

0.9

1.2

1.5

1.8

P = 24

P = 4

P = 14

Vin

Vout

9: Circuit Families Slide 5CMOS VLSI Design

Pseudo-nMOS Gatesq Design for unit current on output

to compare with unit inverter.q pMOS fights nMOS

Inverter NAND2 NOR2

AY

B

AY

A B

gu =gd =gavg =pu =pd =pavg =

Y

gu =gd =gavg =pu =pd =pavg =

gu =gd =gavg =pu =pd =pavg =

finputs

Y

9: Circuit Families Slide 6CMOS VLSI Design

Pseudo-nMOS Gatesq Design for unit current on output

to compare with unit inverter.q pMOS fights nMOS

Inverter NAND2 NOR2

4/3

2/3

AY

8/3

8/3

2/3

B

AY

A B 4/34/3

2/3

gu =gd =gavg =pu =pd =pavg =

Y

gu =gd =gavg =pu =pd =pavg =

gu =gd =gavg =pu =pd =pavg =

finputs

Y

9: Circuit Families Slide 7CMOS VLSI Design

Pseudo-nMOS Gatesq Design for unit current on output

to compare with unit inverter.q pMOS fights nMOS

Inverter NAND2 NOR2

4/3

2/3

AY

8/3

8/3

2/3

B

AY

A B 4/34/3

2/3

gu = 4/3gd = 4/9gavg = 8/9pu =pd =pavg =

Y

gu = 8/3gd = 8/9gavg = 16/9pu =pd =pavg =

gu = 4/3gd = 4/9gavg = 8/9pu =pd =pavg =

finputs

Y

9: Circuit Families Slide 8CMOS VLSI Design

Pseudo-nMOS Gatesq Design for unit current on output

to compare with unit inverter.q pMOS fights nMOS

Inverter NAND2 NOR2

4/3

2/3

AY

8/3

8/3

2/3

B

AY

A B 4/34/3

2/3

gu = 4/3gd = 4/9gavg = 8/9pu = 6/3pd = 6/9pavg = 12/9

Y

gu = 8/3gd = 8/9gavg = 16/9pu = 10/3pd = 10/9pavg = 20/9

gu = 4/3gd = 4/9gavg = 8/9pu = 10/3pd = 10/9pavg = 20/9

finputs

Y

9: Circuit Families Slide 9CMOS VLSI Design

Pseudo-nMOS Designq Ex: Design a k-input AND gate using pseudo-nMOS.

Estimate the delay driving a fanout of H

q G = q F =q P =q N =q D =

In1

Ink

Y

Pseudo-nMOS1

1 H

9: Circuit Families Slide 10CMOS VLSI Design

Pseudo-nMOS Designq Ex: Design a k-input AND gate using pseudo-nMOS.

Estimate the delay driving a fanout of H

q G = 1 * 8/9 = 8/9q F = GBH = 8H/9q P = 1 + (4+8k)/9 = (8k+13)/9q N = 2q D = NF1/N + P =

In1

Ink

Y

Pseudo-nMOS1

1 H

4 2 8 133 9

H k ++

9: Circuit Families Slide 11CMOS VLSI Design

Pseudo-nMOS Powerq Pseudo-nMOS draws power whenever Y = 0

Called static power P = IVDD A few mA / gate * 1M gates would be a problem This is why nMOS went extinct!

q Use pseudo-nMOS sparingly for wide NORsq Turn off pMOS when not in use

A BY

C

en

9: Circuit Families Slide 12CMOS VLSI Design

Dynamic Logicq Dynamic gates uses a clocked pMOS pullupq Two modes: precharge and evaluate

1

2A Y

4/3

2/3

AY

1

1

AY

Static Pseudo-nMOS Dynamic

Precharge Evaluate

Y

Precharge

9: Circuit Families Slide 13CMOS VLSI Design

The Footq What if pulldown network is ON during precharge?q Use series evaluation transistor to prevent fight.

AY

foot

precharge transistor Y

inputs

Y

inputs

footed unfooted

f f

9: Circuit Families Slide 14CMOS VLSI Design

Logical EffortInverter NAND2 NOR2

1

1

AY

2

2

1

B

AY

A B 11

1

gd =pd =

gd =pd =

gd =pd =

Y

2

1

AY

3

3

1

B

AY

A B 22

1

gd =pd =

gd =pd =

gd =pd =

Y

footed

unfooted

32 2

9: Circuit Families Slide 15CMOS VLSI Design

Logical EffortInverter NAND2 NOR2

1

1

AY

2

2

1

B

AY

A B 11

1

gd = 1/3pd = 2/3

gd = 2/3pd = 3/3

gd = 1/3pd = 3/3

Y

2

1

AY

3

3

1

B

AY

A B 22

1

gd = 2/3pd = 3/3

gd = 3/3pd = 4/3

gd = 2/3pd = 5/3

Y

footed

unfooted

32 2

9: Circuit Families Slide 16CMOS VLSI Design

Monotonicityq Dynamic gates require monotonically rising inputs

during evaluation 0 -> 0 0 -> 1 1 -> 1 But not 1 -> 0

Precharge Evaluate

Y

Precharge

A

Output should rise but does not

violates monotonicity during evaluation

A

9: Circuit Families Slide 17CMOS VLSI Design

Monotonicity Woesq But dynamic gates produce monotonically falling

outputs during evaluationq Illegal for one dynamic gate to drive another!

A X

Y

Precharge Evaluate

X

Precharge

A = 1

Y

9: Circuit Families Slide 18CMOS VLSI Design

Monotonicity Woesq But dynamic gates produce monotonically falling

outputs during evaluationq Illegal for one dynamic gate to drive another!

A X

Y

Precharge Evaluate

X

Precharge

A = 1

Y should rise but cannot

Y

X monotonically falls during evaluation

9: Circuit Families Slide 19CMOS VLSI Design

Domino Gatesq Follow dynamic stage with inverting static gate

Dynamic / static pair is called domino gate Produces monotonic outputs

Precharge Evaluate

W

Precharge

X

Y

Z

A

B C

C

AB

W X Y Z =X

ZH H

A

W

B C

X Y Z

domino AND

dynamicNAND

staticinverter

9: Circuit Families Slide 20CMOS VLSI Design

Domino Optimizationsq Each domino gate triggers next one, like a string of

dominos toppling overq Gates evaluate sequentially but precharge in parallelq Thus evaluation is more critical than prechargeq HI-skewed static stages can perform logic

S0

D0

S1

D1

S2

D2

S3

D3

S4

D4

S5

D5

S6

D6

S7

D7

YH

9: Circuit Families Slide 21CMOS VLSI Design

Dual-Rail Dominoq Domino only performs noninverting functions:

AND, OR but not NAND, NOR, or XORq Dual-rail domino solves this problem

Takes true and complementary inputs Produces true and complementary outputs

invalid11

101

010

Precharged00

Meaningsig_lsig_hY_h

f

inputs

Y_l

f

9: Circuit Families Slide 22CMOS VLSI Design

Example: AND/NANDq Given A_h, A_l, B_h, B_lq Compute Y_h = A * B, Y_l = ~(A * B)

9: Circuit Families Slide 23CMOS VLSI Design

Example: AND/NANDq Given A_h, A_l, B_h, B_lq Compute Y_h = A * B, Y_l = ~(A * B)q Pulldown networks are conduction complements

Y_h

Y_lA_h

B_hB_lA_l

= A*B= A*B

9: Circuit Families Slide 24CMOS VLSI Design

Example: XOR/XNORq Sometimes possible to share transistors

Y_h

Y_lA_l

B_h

= A xor B

B_l

A_hA_lA_h= A xnor B

9: Circuit Families Slide 25CMOS VLSI Design

Leakageq Dynamic node floats high during evaluation

Transistors are leaky (IOFF 0) Dynamic value will leak away over time Formerly miliseconds, now nanoseconds!

q Use keeper to hold dynamic node Must be weak enough not to fight evaluation

A

H

2

2

1 kX Y

weak keeper

9: Circuit Families Slide 26CMOS VLSI Design

Charge Sharingq Dynamic gates suffer from charge sharing

B = 0

AY

x

Cx

CYA

x

Y

9: Circuit Families Slide 27CMOS VLSI Design

Charge Sharingq Dynamic gates suffer from charge sharing

B = 0

AY

x

Cx

CYA

x

Y

Charge sharing noise

x YV V= =

9: Circuit Famil

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