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Lecture 10: Circuit Families. CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 10: Circuit Families2 Outline  Pseudo-nMOS Logic (Ratioed Logic)  Dynamic Logic

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Text of Lecture 10: Circuit Families. CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 10: Circuit Families2 Outline...

PowerPoint PresentationLecture 10:
Circuit Families
10: Circuit Families
10: Circuit Families
I = C dV/dt -> tpd (C/I) DV
low capacitance
high current
small swing
pMOS are the enemy!
Can we take the pMOS capacitance off the input?
Various circuit families try to do this…
10: Circuit Families
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10: Circuit Families
Instead, use pull-up transistor that is always ON
In CMOS, use a pMOS that is always ON
Ratio issue
10: Circuit Families
Pseudo-nMOS
Pseudo-NMOS VTC
Pseudo-nMOS Design
10: Circuit Families
to compare with unit inverter.
pMOS fights nMOS
Iout = 4I/3 – I/3
10: Circuit Families
10: Circuit Families
to compare with unit inverter.
pMOS fights nMOS
10: Circuit Families
10: Circuit Families
Pseudo-nMOS Design
Ex: Design a k-input AND gate using pseudo-nMOS. Estimate the delay driving a fanout of H
G = 1 * 8/9 = 8/9
N = 2
10: Circuit Families
Called static power P = IDDVDD
A few mA / gate * 1M gates would be a problem
Explains why nMOS went extinct
Use pseudo-nMOS sparingly for wide NORs
Turn off pMOS when not in use
10: Circuit Families
10: Circuit Families
The chip contains a 32 word x 48 bit ROM
Uses pseudo-nMOS decoder and bitline pullups
On average, one wordline and 24 bitlines are high
Find static power drawn by the ROM
Ion-p = 36 mA, VDD = 1.0 V
Solution:
Pseudo-NMOS Design
Pseudo-nMOS gates will not operate correctly if VOL>VIL of the driven gate.
This is most likely in the SF corner.
Conservative design requires extra weak pMOS.
Another choice is to use replica biasing.
Idea comes from analog design.
Replica biasing allows 1/3 the current ratio rather than the conservative ¼ ratio of earlier.
10: Circuit Families
Replica Biasing
Ganged CMOS
Ganged CMOS
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Improved Loads
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EE141
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DCVSL Transient Response
10: Circuit Families
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Example: AND Gate
10: Circuit Families
NMOS-Only Logic
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• Restorer adds capacitance, takes away pull down current at X
• Ratio problem
Restorer Sizing
10: Circuit Families
Use weak pMOS feedback to pull fully high
Ratio constraint
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10: Circuit Families
Avoids need for ratioed feedback
Optional cross-coupling for rail-to-rail swing
10: Circuit Families
Alternative CPL
Transmission Gate
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10: Circuit Families
CMOS + Transmission Gates:
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Transmission Gate XOR
10: Circuit Families
10: Circuit Families
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EE141
10: Circuit Families
EEPL (Energy Economized Pass Transistor Logic)
PPL (Push-Pull Pass Transistor Logic)
SRPL (Swing Restored Pass Transistor Logic)
DCVSPG (Differential Cascode Voltage Switch with Pass Gate Logic)
10: Circuit Families
10: Circuit Families
Benefits over static CMOS were small or negative
No longer generally used
However, pass transistors still have a niche in special circuits such as memories where they offer small size and the threshold drops can be managed
10: Circuit Families
Single Clock 2-Phase System
Shift Register
Shift Register
When f = 1, data move through the first transmission gate to the inverter.
10: Circuit Families
Charge Leakage
Charge Leakage
Charge Leakage
10: Circuit Families
Charge Sharing
Charge Sharing
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Dynamic CMOS
In static circuits at every point in time (except when switching) the output is connected to either GND or VDD via a low resistance path.
fan-in of n requires 2n (n N-type + n P-type) devices
Dynamic circuits rely on the temporary storage of signal values on the capacitance of high impedance nodes.
requires on n + 2 (n+1 N-type + 1 P-type) transistors
EE141
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CMOS VLSI Design
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Conditions on Output
Once the output of a dynamic gate is discharged, it cannot be charged again until the next precharge operation.
Inputs to the gate can make at most one transition during evaluation.
Output can be in the high impedance state during and after evaluation (PDN off), state is stored on CL
EE141
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This behavior is fundamentally different than the static counterpart that always has a low resistance path between the output and one of the power rails.
CMOS VLSI Design
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Logic function is implemented by the PDN only
number of transistors is N + 2 (versus 2N for static complementary CMOS)
Full swing outputs (VOL = GND and VOH = VDD)
Non-ratioed - sizing of the devices does not affect the logic levels
Faster switching speeds
reduced load capacitance due to lower input capacitance (Cin)
reduced load capacitance due to smaller output loading (Cout)
no Isc, so all the current provided by PDN goes into discharging CL
EE141
CMOS VLSI Design
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Overall power dissipation usually higher than static CMOS
no static current path ever exists between VDD and GND (including Psc)
no glitching
extra load on Clk
PDN starts to work as soon as the input signals exceed VTn, so VM, VIH and VIL equal to VTn
low noise margin (NML)
Needs a precharge/evaluate clock
10: Circuit Families
Two modes: precharge and evaluate
10: Circuit Families
10: Circuit Families
Use series evaluation transistor to prevent fight.
10: Circuit Families
10: Circuit Families
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Clk
Clk
Out
A
Mp
Me
CL
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leakage sources are reverse-biased diode and the sub-threshold leakage of the NMOS pulldown device.
Charge stored on CL will leak away with time (input in low state during evaluation)
Requires a minimum clock rate - so not good for low performance products such as watches (or when have conditional clocks)
PMOS precharge device also contributes some leakage due to reverse bias diode and subthreshold conduction that, to some extent, offsets the leakage due to the pull down paths.
CMOS VLSI Design
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Keeper
CL
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During precharge, Out is VDD and inverter out is GND, so keeper is on
During evaluation if PDN is off, the keeper compensates for drained charge due to leakage.
If PDN is on, there is a fight between the PDN and the PUN - circuit is ratioed so PDN wins, eventually
Note Psc during switching period when PDN and keeper are both on simultaneously
CMOS VLSI Design
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Clk
Clk
A
Out
Mp
Me
Charge stored originally on CL is redistributed (shared) over CL and CA leading to reduced robustness
CL
CA
CB
EE141
CMOS VLSI Design
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Out = A xor B xor C
What is the worst case change in voltage on node Out - assume all inputs are low during precharge and all internal capacitances are initially 0V
Worst case is obtained by exposing the maximum amount of internal capacitance to the output node during evaluation. This happens when !A B C or A !B C
30/(30+50) * 2.5 V = 0.94 V so the output drops to 2.5 - 0.94 = 1.56 V
CMOS VLSI Design
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Clk
Clk
Me
Mp
A
B
Out
Mkp
Clk
Precharge internal nodes using a clock-driven transistor (at the cost of increased area and power)
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Clk
Clk
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Due to capacitive backgate coupling between the internal and output node of the static gate and the output of the dynamic gate, Out1 voltage reduces
CMOS VLSI Design
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Sheet:
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Clk
Clk
B
A
Out
Mp
Me
Coupling between Out and Clk input of the precharge device due to the gate to drain capacitance. So voltage of Out can rise above VDD. The fast rising (and falling edges) of the clock couple to Out.
CL
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Danger is that signal levels can rise enough above VDD that the normally reverse-biased junction diodes become forward-biased causing electrons to be injected into the substrate.
CMOS VLSI Design
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Clk
In
Out1
Out2
V
VTn
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Out2 should remain at VDD since Out1 transitions to 0 during evaluation. However, since there is a finite propagation delay for the input to discharge Out1 to GND, the second output also starts to discharge.
The second dynamic inverter turns off (PDN) when Out1 reaches VTn.
Setting all inputs of the second gate to 0 during precharge will fix it.
Correct operation is guaranteed (ignoring charge redistribution and leakage) as long as the inputs can only make a single 0 -> 1 transition during the evaluation period
CMOS VLSI Design
10: Circuit Families
0 -> 0
0 -> 1
1 -> 1
10: Circuit Families
Illegal for one dynamic gate to drive another!
10: Circuit Families
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Ensures all inputs to the Domino gate are set to 0 at the end of the precharge period. Hence, the only possible transition during evaluation is 0 -> 1
CMOS VLSI Design
10: Circuit Families
Produces monotonic outputs
10: Circuit Families
10: Circuit Families
Domino Optimizations
Each domino gate triggers next one, like a string of dominos toppling over
Gates evaluate sequentially but precharge in parallel
Thus evaluation is more critical than precharge
HI-skewed static stages can perform logic
10: Circuit Families
10: Circuit Families
AND, OR but not NAND, NOR, or XOR
Dual-rail domino solves this problem
Takes true and complementary inputs
Produces true and complementary outputs
sig_h
sig_l
Meaning
0
0
Precharged
0
1
‘0’
1
0
‘1’
1
1
invalid
10: Circuit Families
10: Circuit Families
10: Circuit Families
10: Circuit Families
np-CMOS
NORA Logic
NP Domino
Zipper CMOS
The NP-Domino or NORA logic is very susceptible to noise and leakage.
Zipper Domino has the same structure, but the precharge transistors are left slightly ON during evaluation.
10: Circuit Families
10: Circuit Families
Transistors are leaky (IOFF 0)
Dynamic value will leak away over time
Formerly miliseconds, now nanoseconds
Must be weak enough not to fight evaluation
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10: Circuit Families
10: Circuit Families
10: Circuit Families
Typically need to precharge every other node
Big load capacitance CY helps as well
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10: Circuit Families
Inputs: VIH Vtn
Noise sources
Capacitive crosstalk
Charge sharing
10: Circuit Families
Output evaluates and precharges
Output rises and falls on half the cycles
Clocked transistors have a = 1
For a 4 input NAND, aCMOS = 3/16, aDynamic = 1/4
Leads to very high power consumption
However, glitching does not occur in dynamic logic.
The load capacitances are lower.
10: Circuit Families
Completion Detection
Keepers
10: Circuit Families
Conventional Keeper
Weak Keepers
Differential Keeper
Burn-in Conditional Keeper
10: Circuit Families
Adaptive Keeper
Leakage Current Replica Keeper
Footed and Footless Domino
8-input Domino AND
10: Circuit Families
8-input Domino AND
10: Circuit Families
MODL
It is often necessary to compute multiple functions where one is a subfunction of the other or shares a subfunction.
One very typical example is the carry in addition:
10: Circuit Families
MODL Carry Chains
10: Circuit Families
MODL
10: Circuit Families
10: Circuit Families
1.3 – 2x faster than static CMOS
But many challenges:
Monotonicity, leakage, charge sharing, noise
Widely used in high-performance microprocessors in 1990s when speed was king
Largely displaced by static CMOS now that power is the limiter
Still used in memories for area efficiency
10: Circuit Families
2-input MUX
Which Logic Style?
Ease of design
Which Logic Style?
10: Circuit Families
Circuit Pitfalls
Threshold drops
Ratio failures
Charge sharing
Circuit Pitfalls
Threshold Drops
Ratio Failures
Power Supply Noise
10: Circuit Families
Hot Spots
Caused by nonuniform power dissipation even when the overall power consumption is within budget.
Causes variation in delay between gates.
Full-chip temperature simulation is required.
10: Circuit Families
Minority Carrier Injection
10: Circuit Families
Minority Carrier Injection
Sometimes, a node voltage can momentarily exceed power supply voltages.
Then, the drain-body junction becomes forward biased.
Noise tools can identify potential problems.
10: Circuit Families
Diffusion Input Noise Sensitivity
Diffusion Input Noise Sensitivity
Standard cell latches should be built with buffered inputs.
In data paths, one can still utilize exposed diffusion inputs since one knows the structure.
10: Circuit Families
Domino Noise Budgets
Domino Noise Budgets
10: Circuit Families
Silicon-on-Insulator Circuit Design
Potential for higher performance and lower power consumption.
Higher manufacturing cost and more complicated circuit design due to unusual transistor behavior.
There is no bulk, but insulator.
Body is floating, thus changes in Vt.
10: Circuit Families
SOI Inverter Cross Section
SOI Process Electron Micrograph
SOI Circuit Design
Partially Depleted (PD)
Fully Depleted (FD)
In FD SOI, the body is thinner than the channel depletion width, so the body charge is fixed. Thus, the body voltage does not change.
In PD SOI, the body is thicker and its voltage can vary depending on how much charge is present. This varying body voltage changes Vt.
FD SOI is difficult to manufacture.
10: Circuit Families
10: Circuit Families
Charge Paths
There are two paths through which charge can build up in the body:
Reverse biased drain-to-body (Ddb) and possibly source-to-body (Dsb) junctions.
High-energy carriers causing impact ionization, creating electron-hole pairs. Some electrons are injected into the gate or gate oxide, leaving holes behind.
The charge can exit the body through two paths:
As body voltage increases, Dsb becomes slightly forward biased. Eventually, this cancels the first mechanism above.
A rising gate or drain voltage capacitively couples the body voltage upward, too. This strongly forward biases Dsb junction and charge spills out.
10: Circuit Families
SOI Advantages
Potential for lower threshold voltages.
Vt is dependent on channel length for bulk CMOS. Thus, worst case conditions are selected in determining Vt. In SOI, variations are smaller, thus smaller Vt can be chosen.
Lower n, hence better subthreshold slope.
n decreases from 1.5 to about 1.2.
SOI is immune to latchup.
10: Circuit Families
SOI Disadvantages
8% variation in gate delay.
Can be a problem for sensitive analog circuits.
Presence of a parasitic bipolar transistor.
If the source and drain are held high for an extended period of time while the gate is low, the base will float high due to leakage.
If the source is pulled low, the npn turns ON, creating a pulse of current.
This is sometimes called pass-gate leakage.
Self-heating => oxide is an insulator for heat as well.
10: Circuit Families
Parasitic BJT in SOI
Implications for Circuit Styles
Lower delay, lower power consumption.
Standard CMOS design suffers slightly from history effect.
Dynamic circuits suffer from pass-gate leakage. Many precautions must be taken.
Analog circuits suffer from threshold mismatches.
10: Circuit Families
Subthreshold Circuit Design
As discussed earlier, the minimum energy point is at a region where VDD < Vt.
Typically, around 300 mV.
Frequency is in the high kHz or low MHz region.
Vt variations are very important, use large transistors where possible.
Use standard CMOS, but avoid complex gates. Not more complex than NAND3. Due to variations, ON current in one branch may be smaller than OFF current in the series stack.
10: Circuit Families
Pitfalls and Fallacies
Failing to plan for advances in technology
Comparing a well-tuned new circuit to a poor example of engineering practice
Ignoring driver resistance when characterizing pass-transistor circuits.
Reporting only part of the delay of a circuit
Making outrageous claims about performance
Building circuits without adequate verification tools.
Sizing subthreshold circuits for speed
10: Circuit Families
Historical Perspective
Dynamic gates were proposed in early 1970’s.
Even with CMOS, domino gates were still used for area and power advantages, for example in BELLMAC-32A from Bell Labs.
The world’s first 32-bit microprocessor
10: Circuit Families
Historical Perspective
By the time of Alpha 21264, leakage had become so important that keepers had to be used.
1996, superscalar, out-of-order execution
180 nm Pentium 4 used self-resetting domino.
90 nm Pentium 4 used extraordinarily complex LVS logic. Custom design of 6.8M transistors.
Japanese engineers favored pass transistor logic all through 1990’s.
IBM has always relied on static CMOS.
Hundreds of logic families in academic literature, but very few have found application in industry.
10: Circuit Families
violates monotonicity
during evaluation
Y
A
X
f
Y
f
Precharge
Evaluate
X
Precharge
Goal: to reduce the number of devices over complementary CMOS
V
DD
V
SS
PDN
In
1
In
2
In
3
F
R
L
Load
Resistive

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