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INTERPOL Authors: Natalia Amortegui, Adelaida Rodriguez Time for the opening speech: 90 seconds Committee description: The Interpol is the largest international police organization in a global scale, the idea was born in 1914 during the first International Criminal Police Congress, it was officially created in 1923 as the International Criminal Police Commission, and the organization became known as the Interpol in 1956. It´s main role and function is to work together in order to ensure security, as well as facilitating police access to the necessary services to properly perform their jobs, targeted training, expert investigative support relevant data and secure communication channels are provided. Actions are taken only within the limits of the existing laws in different countries and in the spirit of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Interpol´s constitution prohibits “any intervention or activities of a political, military, religious or racial character”. The Interpol is acts under international law, it is guided by the Interpol´s constitution, and has as well adopted the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties between States and International Organizations or between international organizations. TOPIC 1: Prevention and acts against terrorism that uses CBRNE materials: Terrorism using CBRNE materials (chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosives) has been on the rise recently, and it poses a great threat to public health and safety as well as stability in an national level. One of the major concerns is the growing risk of a higher number of victims when using this materials in terrorist attacks, terrorist groups have been endeavouring to acquire these materials and expertise to use them in their operations. Historical Context: The use of CBRNE materials is rare in terrorist attacks, some of the materials taken into account have been used for a longer time, meanwhile some others have just recently been used. Biological pathogens have been used since the middle ages, chemical warfare was first used during the First World War, and nuclear weapons during the end of the second world war, yet during the last thirty years there has been a rise in the use of said materials, mainly by extremist groups, attacks such as the sarin attack in the Tokyo metro in 1994 and the Anthrax attacks in the United States in 2001. 1

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INTERPOL Authors: Natalia Amortegui, Adelaida Rodriguez Time for the opening speech: 90 seconds Committee description: The Interpol is the largest international police organization in a global scale, the idea was born in 1914 during the first International Criminal Police Congress, it was officially created in 1923 as the International Criminal Police Commission, and the organization became known as the Interpol in 1956. It´s main role and function is to work together in order to ensure security, as well as facilitating police access to the necessary services to properly perform their jobs, targeted training, expert investigative support relevant data and secure communication channels are provided. Actions are taken only within the limits of the existing laws in different countries and in the spirit of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Interpol´s constitution prohibits “any intervention or activities of a political, military, religious or racial character”. The Interpol is acts under international law, it is guided by the Interpol´s constitution, and has as well adopted the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties between States and International Organizations or between international organizations. TOPIC 1:

Prevention and acts against terrorism that uses CBRNE materials: Terrorism using CBRNE materials (chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosives) has been on the rise recently, and it poses a great threat to public health and safety as well as stability in an national level. One of the major concerns is the growing risk of a higher number of victims when using this materials in terrorist attacks, terrorist groups have been endeavouring to acquire these materials and expertise to use them in their operations. Historical Context: The use of CBRNE materials is rare in terrorist attacks, some of the materials taken into account have been used for a longer time, meanwhile some others have just recently been used. Biological pathogens have been used since the middle ages, chemical warfare was first used during the First World War, and nuclear weapons during the end of the second world war, yet during the last thirty years there has been a rise in the use of said materials, mainly by extremist groups, attacks such as the sarin attack in the Tokyo metro in 1994 and the Anthrax attacks in the United States in 2001.

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Weapons used in terrorist attacks 1970 to 2007 (retrieved from Global Terrorism Database) CAUSES: Extremist groups: These groups have had a major contribution in the expansion and growing concern over the threat of the use of these materials. Firstly Osama bin Laden in 1998 and 2007 declared that acquiring methods of mass destruction was a religious jihadi duty, due to said statement many Islamic extremist groups have been trying to gain control of these materials, ISIS has been attempting to recruit scientists and CBRNE materials to carry out attacks on civilians. Increasing cross-border movement: The constant increase of flow of people across borders allows for terrorists members and organizations to recruit specialized personnel in this topic, and to acquire CBRNE materials. Technological advancements:

The constant and major technological advances have caused the accessibility to these materials and technology to become largely accessible, groups at the margin of the law such as ISIS have been trying and managing to recruit scientists which allow them to acquire both the necessary information and technology to carry out their attacks. these groups gain the financing not only for the technology but generally by three main methods, which are firstly donations. For several years these donations were one of the largest monetary incomes to Al-Qaeda, according to a 2002 CFR Task Force Report, following the largest income source for these groups are illegal activities, such as illicit drug trade, amongst other illegal commerce methods, and another method is using front companies, from which these groups can operate a legitimate business, but as well using it as a front for money laundering. Repercussions: Considering the topic and its multiple repercussions, there are two main repercussions that the delegate shall take into account to properly resolve the issue, these are, firstly: Health repercussions: The medical repercussions of a person who has been targeted with any of the materials vary and depend widely upon the kind of agent used. Chemical and biological agents: chemical agents such as cyanides, mustard agent, nerve agents and toxic industrial chemicals and their use can

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focus either upon poisoning food and water, spreading the agents on surfaces to poison skin, or the most concerning of all, which are broader dissemination techniques. Biological agents are those, which generally make use of bacterium, such as anthrax, botulinum toxin, amongst other, which as well can cause death. Radiological, nuclear and explosive devices: Radiological devices are bombs designed to disperse radioactive material, the greater damage with these devices other than causing death, is that they cause contamination, which can further lead to malformation of children and toxic air. Nuclear devices are intended to cause a nuclear explosion, these devices could use volatile elements such as highly enriched uranium or plutonium, which not only cause death but a great destruction. And lastly, explosives cause death and great injuries but as well are meant to damage infrastructure.

Cancer mortality graph in Hiroshima, Nagasaki after the bomb of Hiroshima. Nevertheless these health repercussions do not only affect the

individual harmed itself, but as well the country's government and the international community, considering that these attacks are specifically designed to affect masses, and due to this there will be a great need of medical attention. Besides, some of these attacks, such as nuclear leave harmful agents behind, which can cause further health problems and crisis, which will cause an involvement of the international community, as well considering the principal of international cooperation. Infrastructure: Considering the large damage this materials can produce, when an attack using CBRNE occurs there are damages to infrastructure, mainly when these attacks use nuclear and explosive materials, the amount of infrastructure damage depends heavily upon on the range these materials have, nevertheless any kind of infrastructural damage affects the citizens and the country as a whole. Economy: This type of terrorism affects economy on several ways. Firstly there is direct economic destruction, this is when terrorist attacks destroy plants, transportation systems, machines or even so higher targets as the World Trade Center in 2001, it destroys a large source of income and resources that generate valuable goods. it as well affects greatly tourism in the country where an attack took place, as people are frightened to enter this country and find themselves

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vulnerable, as an example of this Vangulis Panayotis, who is a director of MKG tourism consultancy stated that he expected a 30% decline in visitors to France after the Nice attacks, this are some of the main effects of terrorism on economy, nevertheless it is encouraged for the delegate to further its research upon the topic. Current moment: Interpol’s response: The organization counts with methods to prevent and to counterattack these actions, firstly there are three established specialized teams which focus on the prevention of three types of terrorism, which are radiological and nuclear terrorism, bioterrorism and chemical and explosives terrorism, these count with proper information sharing and analytical support measurements, capacity building and training in order to be able to prevent and respond to radioactive incidents, operational and investigative support. However, they do not count with measurements to directly secure any facilities that count with the presence of these materials. Other of the organization´s methods for countering the threat are information sharing and intelligence analysis, capacity building and training, and operational and investigative support, the organization is supposed to count as well with on-the-ground operations yet there is no great presence of this point. Some other difficulties that the criminal use of CBRNE material pose are the

easy manipulation of the agents, difficult detection of the materials by human sense or detection equipment and lastly the difficulty of giving an immediate response to a contaminated area. Study cases: The Interpol has been providing training in several countries about how to handle the CBRNE threat, recently a conference was carried out in Bali, Indonesia where they targeted the trafficking of chemical and explosive materials, yet once again this training lacked the knowledge about securing and protecting said materials. Al-Qa´ida has shown interest in radiological dispersal devices also known as ¨dirty bombs¨. This is quite alarming considering radiological materials are not difficult to acquire form industrial or medical sources. To aggravate the situation, there was as well a document recovered from an Al-Qa´ida facility in Afghanistan which contained a sketch of a crude nuclear device. Focus of The Committee: It is expected from the delegates to firstly discuss the availability of CBRNE materials, and the lack of security to ensure they do not fall upon the hands of terrorist groups, the present prevention and response actions, and their working, current faults in Interpol´s programs and how to fix them, as well as new plan for prevention and response, and for you to elaborate several plans where it is established how will you as a

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committee improve the actual functioning of measurements taken to combat this threat, and for new measurements to be implemented. Guiding Questions:

1. Is there presence of any trafficking of CBRNE materials in your country?

2. Has your government and police force taken any measurements to prevent or respond to thee attacks?

3. Has your country ever been victim of an attack that uses CBRNE materials? If so, what response and prevention measurements where taken by your government and police force?

4. How would your country secure the facilities where there is presence of CBRNE materials through the Interpol?

5. Is your country in possession of CBRNE materials? If so, how are they being secured?

Sources: Interpol.int. (N/A). CBRNE / CBRNE / Crime areas / Internet / Home - INTERPOL. [online] Available at: https://www.interpol.int/Crime-areas/CBRNE/CBRNE [Accessed 10 Dec. 2017]. Cia.gov. (2003). Terrorist CBRN: Materials and Effects — Central Intelligence Agency. [online] Available at: https://www.cia.gov/library/reports/general-reports-1/terrorist_cbrn/terrorist_CBRN.htm [Accessed 10 Dec. 2017]. Hsdl.org. (2003). Terrorist CBRN: Materials and Effects. [online] Available at: https://www.hsdl.org/?abstract&did=3829 [Accessed 10 Dec. 2017].

Support Links:

1. https://www.interpol.int/Crime-areas/CBRNE/CBRNE

2. https://www.hsdl.org/?abstract&did=3829

TOPIC 2: Identifying and combating the presence of organized crime in the cyberspace: A financial crime is an offence generally of international nature, often committed via the internet. They have a negative impact in the economic and social systems incurring a considerable loss of monetary resources. Usually this type of acts affects not only individuals but also organizations and even nations. Financial crimes can be divided into two types of conducts: the activities that generate wealth for those who participate in the act in question and the behavior that does not involve the direct dishonest taking of a benefit, but protects or facilitates an already obtained benefit. There are many actors in a financial crime, including different groups of people that take advantage of the situations to commit frauds. This crime´s impact and organization may vary from each context. The following are the most common types of acts: fraud, electronic crime, money laundering, terrorist financing, bribery and corruption, market abuse and insider dealing and information

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security. Additionally, it is widely recognized that in almost all affected societies there is a threat to the stability and development of an economy. The cyber related factor exists given that it is a common platform in which these crimes occur and evolve. Taking into account that these activities have neither physical or virtual boundaries, it as a prone environment for criminal expansion, provoking serious harm and real threats worldwide. As well, this platform is of a easily evolving nature, which means that the strategies to criminals act under anonymity are constantly strengthening. There are two distinctions for the main types of internet-related crimes: first, the advanced cyber crime, that consists in sophisticated attacks against a computer hardware and software. Second, the cyber-enabled crime, that consists in many traditional crimes that have taken a new from with the advent of the internet (a financial crime may be included as this type). (Interpol.int, 2017) Historical Context: Nowadays, the internet is a common tool for human beings. This complex network changed a lot over the past years. The idea started in the late 1950's and was mainly developed in the United States. Internet evolved from ARPANET (American network used in the cold war) . After, in the 90's the internet was of popular use.

Regarding cyber-crime the origin of hacking, one of the most important types of this criminal offense, started in the 1960's. At that time a group of individuals developed programs and systems able to interfere computers. Nevertheless, it was not until the 80's that the term hacking became known by the masses and present all over the cyberspace. Societies were affected because computer fraud and software damage began, these groups invented new methods every day. They were now able to create security holes in the internet, therefore they accessed private information. Additionally, it is worth mentioning that these people were mainly located in the United States and Germany. Causes: The reasons why criminal groups and individuals commit the cyber acts vary completely, it may differ from political to economic reasons. Therefore, it is more relevant to consider the causes of insecurity or the issues in the platform that may enable criminals to attack. Insecurity: Errors or weakness in the system Nowadays in the internet there are different types of malwares (malcius software used to harm computer users). Including: virus, worms, trojan horse, spyware, ransomware and more. Each of these have a specific trait or characteristic in their design, used to attack in a certain way. A frequent financial cyber aggress is ransomware. A malware designed to

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infect a user's system and encrypt the data. The purpose of the cybercriminal is to then demand a payment from the victim in exchange for decrypting the system's data. Corporations, nations and organizations have something called databases. They are a structured set of data hold in a computer, especially one that is accessible in various ways. These bases contain private (or public) information of high importance for the group of people. Databases may be vulnerable as many hackers access them to extort the victim, to steal the information or to damage it. The reason why hackers have access to databases, is because the design and structure of the database is not completely safe or strong. In some cases, hackers can enter “holes” or mistakes of the database. A typical cyber-attack consists in the following:

1. Reconnaissance, including: identified target and search for vulnerabilities.

2. Attack target, including: Exploit of vulnerabilities and defeat remaining controls.

3. Achieve objective, including: Disruption of systems, extraction (eg of money, IPR or confidential data) and manipulation (eg adding, changing or deleting key information) (crest-approved.org, 2017)

An example of a recent malware ransomware that attacked populations

around the world is “Petya”. The data of the victim was blocked, and it required a password that costed $300, paid in Bitcoin to unblock it. “Petya” is a new type of “WannaCry”. In the specific case of this malware, the vulnerability of Microsoft was used to provoke the attack. Evidencing, that through the minimal error of a program it is possible to allow an offence. Microsoft released a security update to fix the flaw, updated computers aren't exposed anymore. There are many types of mistakes that may provoke this, varying from errors in the same software or, in other cases, failure in the system encryption. The actions that can be taken include: situational awareness, collaboration, solid architectural system design, standard controls, penetration testing, cyber security incident response and cyber security insurance. Nevertheless, hackers are experts in finding errors, it is important to provide a complete and strong security for databases with sensitive information. Repercussions: Cyber-attacks affect societies in many ways, especially in the following three fields: social, economic and security. Every country faces different threats and attacks, and usually the response taken leave other reproductions. The problem with the internet is; it is very hard to locate a criminal and each action has a consequence in the non-virtual world. Data breach:

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The identity and private information of a person or organization may be stolen, this is one cybercrime type of consequence. Happening through acts such as phishing and hacking.

DATA RECORDS STOLEN OR LOST BY INDUSTRY in 2017 (retrieved from http://breachlevelindex.com/, 2017) The previous chart shows the amount of data lost per industry, an important concern as in the case of the government there is 19.85% of information stolen from the databases and in the financial sector 7.25%. Many of this information stolen from databases includes personal content that it may be used for crimes such as fraud. Additionally, attackers take this information and they make a long-term use of it, for example in some cases they may extort people to increase the monetary benefit. Monetary loss: The data breach is mostly used by criminals to acquire monetary resources. This type of act have a massive global cost, according to the World Economic Forum the cost will reach $2 trillion dollars by 2019 and the estimated growth for 2015 is of $500 billion dollars. In addition, it is important to consider that this amount is just the tip of the iceberg as a significant portion of cybercrimes are

undetected. The most affected organizations by this are the health care and financial services (as shown in the graphic below)

Average annual costs caused by global cybercrime as of August 2017, by industry sector (in million U.S. dollars) (retrieved from statista.com,2017) Current Moment: International measures Countries have gathered in many opportunities to treat this issue, thus, there are multiple international agreements that address cybercrime. There is for instance, the Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime, which includes the types of cybercrime offences, the investigative procedures and the expected international cooperation. The main issue related to this convention is the amount of ratifying countries is fewer than the ideal. There have been an important amount of international conferences regarding cyber security. Additionally, The INTERPOL Global Complex for

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Innovation is also fighting this situation. Evidenced as one of the components of the complex includes boosting cyber security, key regarding international cooperation. Study cases: Financial crimes and organized crimes via the internet are both widely spread. For example, countries that have the highest malware infections in computers are: China (49%), Taiwan (47.34%), Turkey (40.99%), Russia (38.95%) and Guatemala (37.56%). Additionally, countries with the highest number of users attacked by a ransomware are: India (9.6%), Russia (6.41%) and Kazakhstan (5.75%). “WannaCry” and “Petya” attacks: In the past months there have been two massive malware attacks affecting Microsoft Windows users. Firstly, the software identified in May of 2017 as WannaCry. Secondly, a similar malware named Petya that appeared in Ukraine. The threat is composed by two main parts: a worm module, responsible for the propagation of the threat in Windows vulnerability and a ransomware module, responsible for performing the extortion-related activities. In the case of WannaCry, it demanded US$300 to $600 paid in bitcoins. Given the nature of an infection routine, it is possible that the first WannaCry worm was initially seeded in a small number of targets. Then, the propagation continued to expand out the pool of compromised computers. This type of routine is one of the main

worm-related concerns, as infections spread easily. The malware impact left between 200,000 to 300,000 crippled computers in at least 150 countries. WannaCry repercutions left much international controversy. For example, it is believed that the Microsoft vulnerability exploited was discovered by the US National Security Agency and then stolen by a group of hackers. Another controversy was that Petya started as an attack to the Ukrainian government and businesses. Also, unlike WannaCry, Petya was a more targeted malware and it was rather a destruction system than a extortion system as there was permanent damage to the hard disk. Therefore, it is believed that there may be a state-sponsored actor involved. Both attacks are exceptionally alarming. Thus, they indicate the wide cybersecurity deficiency faced by international organizations. Also, cybercriminals are no longer targeting individuals, but rather: governments, organizations and businesses. In addition, another consequence is they demonstrate a high level of sophistication in ransomware and an incremental innovation. Focus of the Comittee: Delegates are expected to arrive to the committee with full knowledge of their countries’ police scope regarding the issue. Additionally, as we are in INTERPOL countries must join and collaborate to address the issue, each member must be able to provide a

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police support regarding: investigation, technology, experience and action. Delegates must identify criminal patterns and provide a full analysis of the situation. Action regarding cyber attacks must be taken throughout an innovated plan or operative. Also, it is expected that delegates provide methods and protocols able to react or prevent a cyber assault. It is important that delegates remember the focus of the topic: financial crimes, therefore, measures taken should be linked to it. Guiding Questions:

1. Identify and list the most common cyber attacks your country faces and the impact of each in your country economy.

2. Are there any cyber criminal groups acting in your country? Which have been the actions taken by your government to address them?

3. Which have been the most effective police actions taken to arrest and stop cyber criminals? How easily can they be applied in other countries?

4. Does your country have an active intelligence in the cyberspace? If so, which have been the most important information acquire or actions taken? Against who?

Sources: 20 Eye-Opening Cybercrime Statistics. (2017). Security Intelligence. Retrieved 11 December 2017, from

https://securityintelligence.com/20-eye-opening-cybercrime-statistics/ Financial crime / Financial crime / Crime areas / Internet / Home - INTERPOL. (2017). Interpol.int. Retrieved 11 December 2017, from https://www.interpol.int/Crime-areas/Financial-crime/Financial-crime What is Financial Crime?. (2017). Int-comp.org. Retrieved 11 December 2017, from https://www.int-comp.org/careers/a-career-in-financial-crime-prevention/what-is-financial-crime/ Support Links: http://breachlevelindex.com https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2017/11/tabletop-cyber-cybersecurity-hack-data-breach-japan-world-cup https://www.crest-approved.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/CSIR-Procurement-Guide.pdf https://www.interpol.int/Crime-areas/Financial-crime/Financial-crime https://www.symantec.com/security_response/writeup.jsp?docid=2017-051310-3522-99 TOPIC 3: Illicit traffic of cultural heritage: According to the UNESCO, cultural heritage can be defined and

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categorized by the following; tangible cultural heritage: immovable, movable, underwater and intangible cultural heritage: oral traditions performing arts, rituals. These are of great scientific, historical, social, cultural or religious value for humanity therefore, are protected by the UNESCO. Regarding illicit traffic, the cultural heritage that can be susceptible to these sorts of acts is movable heritage (for example: paintings and archaeological objects). Illicit traffic is defined as the offence of moving or transporting illegal ware. It may be considered as such if the permissions and process for this exportation or importation aren't followed. Also, the artefacts should not leave the country's borders as cultural goods convey a symbolic value mostly linked to history and the context in which they originate. In the case of artworks, they are considered cultural heritage and for that reason no movement should be permitted. Illicit traffic of cultural ware is of great concern for the international community, it is known as an organized crime that works like a “cyclical chain”. The looters that represent the supplier side, provide the illicitly obtained artefacts to a intermediary, who then transmits the artefacts to the dealer. In order to create a “provenance document” it is a

common practice to transfer artifacts to successive dealers until it is finally sold. In many cases the artefacts are transmitted to border counties in order to take advantage of the legal gaps borne form different national legislations and enforcement. Here is where the most difficult phase of the chain, “laundering”, takes place. Few legislations consider illegal export of artefacts as illegal imports. Nevertheless, this situation has changed as new laws and restrictions have been imposed in places such as Europe. Therefore, the affected countries from this type of offences are the ones of origin, transit and destination. Illicit trade of artworks exists because of reasons including: the demands of the art market, political instability of countries, open borders and improved transportation system. Historical Context: Theft, looting and illicit traffic of cultural heritage are no recent phenomenon. In human history acts of destruction and violence evidence them. These practices negatively affected a wide range of societies, which were unable to recover this type of knowledge inherited.

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Causes: Demand from the artistic market: There has been a great rise in the demand from the arts market, and considering the lack of security or weak prosecution measures of several countries, traffickers have taken advantage of the situation in order to fulfil the existing demand, this is a major cause, considering the existence of artworks in the black market has become highly lucrative.

Increase demand in the art market. (retrieved from The Telegraph)

Annual sales in the art market.

(retrieved from Cultural Security) Opening of borders and improvement of transport systems: The fact that there are several countries with open borders such as union of countries, and the transport system has highly improved, trafficking routes have become more accessible, and for trafficking to take place without the police knowing. Political instability: Countries that are politically unstable and are in the midst of an armed conflict become easier targets for illicit traffic of cultural heritage to take place, due to the lack of security being placed in the facilities, which hold these objects that constitute cultural heritage. Weak Prosecution: Due to the aforementioned causes it has became highly difficult for police forces to easily prosecute these criminals, thus it is of the uttermost importance for you as delegates to determine which strategies can be used to reinforce the prosecution in these cases. Lack of security: Some places that hold these artworks lack the proper security in order to keep them safe, and the fact that it has

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become increasingly easy to traffick these artworks without the knowledge of the police forces, allows for there to be presence of this issue. Corruption: It is not completely certain, nevertheless it is a topic that gravely affects this issue, subsequently it is of high importance for you as delegates to find a way to properly assure these artworks will be safe from the effects of corruption. Reprocaussions: Demand from the arts market: The high demand of the arts market, causes for the black market to hold a higher interest in these artworks, and the increased rate of illicit trafficking of these objects affect the country or origin, by affecting its cultural heritage, another major repercussion is the growth of the black market regarding works of art, which causes for a higher crime rate to be a repercussion as well, which affects the economy and unemployment rate. Opening of borders and improvement of transport system: The open borders and improvement of transport system allows for trafficking to take place much in a much easier way, this could be improved by holding

higher security standards in the open borders. Political instability: The continued targeting of politically unstable countries regarding the illicit trade of cultural heritage, affects not only this country but also the international community´s economy, and causes these countries to have to sustain higher duress. Current movement: Measures taken by the Interpol and the international community: Firstly concerning the growing trend of illegal trafficking of cultural objects in the Middle East, in February 2015 the United Nations Security Council passed resolution 2199, which firstly condemns any trade with the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant, the Al-Nusrah Front and any other entities associated with Al-Qaida, as well as condemning the destruction of cultural heritage in Iraq and Syria, and the resolution established that all Member States should cooperate with the Interpol, UNESCO, and other international organizations, in order to prevent the trade regarding items of cultural, scientific and religious importance illegally removed from either country during periods of war.

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Interpol has been as well working to raise awareness of the problem, and established the database of stolen works of art. Traffic in the Middle East: For the past ten years there has been an increasing trend of illegal trafficking of cultural objects, from countries in the middle east which have been affected by the armed conflict, due to this the black market regarding works of art is becoming equally lucrative as the one for drugs, weapons and counterfeit goods Focus of the comittee: The committee shall be focused firstly upon not only the traffic of cultural heritage in general, but as well in the specific situations where countries are in midst of armed conflict considering their vulnerability due to the aforementioned, following this, it is necessary for you as delegates to evaluate how the demand from the arts market has caused this issue to increase drastically and how to counterattack it, it is necessary for you to establish other methods to prevent and respond to the illicit trafficking of cultural heritage other than the exchange of data at an international level, yet when doing this it is necessary for you to bear in mind the scope (which is mentioned in introduction to the committee) of the

organization, as it cannot take military or political measurements, it is necessary for you as delegates to know it is not possible to approach the problem from the law, considering the Interpol’s constitution, nevertheless you have to create strategies to that do not involve neither of the aforementioned, to resolve this problematic. Guiding questions:

1. Has your country given information to the Interpol's database?

2. Is your country politically unstable? If so has this caused your country to be targeted by traffickers of cultural heritage?

3. Has your country taken any measurements to secure their cultural heritage? If so, which? And can they be applied to other countries?

Sources: Interpol.int. (n.d.). Works of art / Works of art / Crime areas / Internet / Home - INTERPOL. [online] Available at: https://www.interpol.int/Crime-areas/Works-of-art/Works-of-art [Accessed 10 Dec. 2017]. Interpol.int. (n.d.). Database / Works of art / Crime areas / Internet / Home - INTERPOL. [online] Available at: https://www.interpol.int/Crime-areas/W

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orks-of-art/Database [Accessed 10 Dec. 2017]. Un.org. (2017). Unanimously Adopting Resolution 2199 (2015), Security Council Condemns Trade with Al-Qaida Associated Groups, Threatens Further Targeted Sanctions | Meetings Coverage and Press Releases. [online] Available at: http://www.un.org/press/en/2015/sc11775.doc.htm [Accessed 11 Dec. 2017]. Supporting links: https://www.interpol.int/Crime-areas/Works-of-art/Works-of-art http://www.un.org/press/en/2015/sc11775.doc.htm http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0022/002255/225521E.pdf

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