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    Fluency and Phonics, Book 3

    TEACHER’S GUIDE 1- 9

    CONTENTS

    LESSON 1 Polar Bears (Grade 5) 1

    LESSON 2 Skeleton (Grade 5) 7

    LESSON 3 Robots (Grade 6) 13

    LESSON 4 Death Valley (Grade 6) 19

    LESSON 5 Camels (Grade 6) 25

    LESSON 6 Earthquakes (Grade 6) 31

    LESSON 7 Skateboarding (Grade 7) 37

    LESSON 8 The Olympics (Grade 7) 43

    LESSON 9 Yosemite (Grade 7) 49

    LESSON 10 Volcanoes (Grade 7) 55

    LESSON 11 Computers (Grade 7) 61

    Duplication of this book on a scale larger than the individual classroomIs permitted only with the publisher’s written approval.

    www.StrugglingReaders.com

  • 2

    TEACHER’S GUIDEINTRODUCING THE PROGRAM

    Fluency and Phonics, Book 3, is a reading program that builds onstudents’ natural language abilities to develop word recognition and readingfluency in an interesting reading passage context. The program alsoincludes phonics in a rhyming word context and word study from thereading passages. Fluency and Phonics, Book 3, has 11 lessons withgraded reading passages from grade 5 to grade 7 reading levels.

    Each of the 11 lessons includes phrase-cued reading, repeated reading,timed reading, and reading with expression all of which develop readingfluency.

    Phrase-Cued Reading is breaking the text into meaningful phrases tohelp with reading expression and comprehension.

    Repeated Reading is reading the same passage until students read thepassage at a mastery level.

    Timed Reading is reading a passage for one or two minutes andrecording the number of words read per minute.

    Reading with Expression is important for developing comprehension ofa passage.

    The program method produces exceptional reading success for at-riskreaders having one or more of the following reading characteristics:

    need a sense of the whole story before reading;experience difficulty blending sounds;read letter by letter, word by word;have strong verbal skills and weak written language skills; andexhibit delays in cadence and rhythm.

    Fluency and Phonics, Book 3, also is used with readers to improvereading speed and fluency.

  • 3

    Starting the Program

    Students’ Starting LevelTo start the program, students should read at grade 4 or higher readinglevel. Passage reading levels are listed in the program contents onpage 1. If teachers know students’ reading levels, they start them with thefirst lesson at those levels. Students may read at higher reading levels butexhibit problem reading characteristics such as:

    - read letter by letter, word by word and- exhibit delays in cadence and rhythm.

    For any of the eleven lessons, if students read words correctly but readword by word and lack expression, have them start with that lesson. It isbetter to start with an easier lesson. For groups, choose students withsimilar reading levels and abilities.

    Students’ Reading Mastery LevelTeachers determine reading level required for mastery. A 70 percentreading mastery level works well because students will see many of thesame words again in further lessons.

    Students’ Extended ReadingStudents participate in extended reading with books of their interests whileusing the program to reinforce reading skills.

    Using the Program

    Teacher Instructions, Lessons 1 Through 11The program is easy to use because all eleven lessons have the samestructure. Becoming familiar with the lesson 1 structure is all that isnecessary to teach all eleven lessons.

  • 4

    Lesson 1

    For the Teacher:

    For each student, duplicate and staple lesson pages 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 tomake the lesson 1 packet. (When you are ready to start lesson 1, give alesson packet to each student.)

    Pages 1 and 2 (Word Recognition, Phrasing, andExpression)

    Pages 1 and 2 develop word recognition, phrasing, and expression, allimportant to reading comprehension. They provide students with a readingmodel that moves them away from word-by-word reading to reading inmeaningful phrases.

    The pages have phrase-cued text. Phrase-cued text divides text accordingto natural pauses that occur in and between sentences. Phrase breakshelp students who have difficulty grouping words that go together andtherefore lack rhythm and expression. One slash (/) are in-sentencephrase markers. Make a slight pause at each phrase marker. Two slashes(//) are end-of-sentence markers. Pause slightly longer at two slashes.

    Instruction 1. Discuss the Title of the Passage, Polar Bears. (Page 1)Ask students what they think the passage will be about. For example, thefirst passage is about polar bears. Ask, “Can you tell me some thingsabout polar bears?” (Discussing the passage title is important because itbuilds a network of information that helps with comprehension and wordidentification.) Have students draw a picture of a polar bear in the box atthe top of the page or paste a picture of a polar bear there.

    Instruction 2. Read Entire Passage, Polar Bears. (Pages 1 and 2)While you are reading the passage, students follow along, moving theirwriting hands under each word and touching the page. This is tracking.

  • 5

    Tracking trains students’ eyes and hands to coordinate. It also insures thatstudents are looking at each word as it is read.

    -For the first practice, read at a slow pace but not so slow as to lackexpression. Reading with expression is important. Make a slight pause ateach phrase marker.

    -Do a second practice reading while reading at a normal pace havingstudents track under the words.

    (NOTE: If phrase markers cause student visual difficulty, have students use page 6rather than pages 1 and 2. Page 6 is the passage without phrase markers.)

    Instruction 3. Students Read Passage Parts and Passage. (Pages 1and 2)

    Have students read the passage or passage part with you. When studentshave difficulty with words, you say the words and continue reading.As you read together, students move their hands under the words.

    (Students do not need to master the passage now because they will bedoing added activities to help them read the passages.)

    PAGE 3, PART 1

    Instruction 1. Read passage part in the box with students.

    Instruction 2. Multisyllable Words. Rhyming Words, PassageWords. Students write, complete the words on the lines.

    Instruction 3. When completed, read words with students.Continue with the rest of the passage part activities for pages 3 and 4in same way as part 1.

  • 6

    PAGE 5 (TIMED READING)

    Timed reading improves reading speed. If decoding is slow, not automatic,students have difficulties comprehending what they read.

    Instruction 1. Passage Reading PracticeBefore timing, you and all students read the passage together. Studentstrack under words and read along with you as you read with expression ata normal reading pace. If students need additional practice, they read tothemselves or to partners.

    Instruction 2. Timed ReadingIndividually, students read as many words in the passage as they can intwo minutes, to you, aloud softly to themselves, or to student partners. Ifstudents finish reading, they start again at beginning and add to the totalnumber of words they have already read. (For some students, timing for 1minute works better.) Subtract one point for each missed word. Ifstudents make mistakes, do not have them try to sound out the word.Tell them the word and they continue reading.

    After students complete timed reading, they write their scores on the linesunder Timed Reading. Their scores are made from number of words readminus 1 point for each missed word. Have students do 3 one-minutetimed readings or 3 two - minute timed readings. Between timings, askstudents to look over the selection, reread it, and practice words thatcaused difficulty. Students circle their best scores. Students gain readingskills, and also enjoy timed readings. Repeat previous timed readings forstudents to improve their scores. Making graphs of their timed readingscores motivates students. Graph masters are on pages 8 and 9.

  • 7

    PAGE 6 (READING WITH EXPRESSION)

    Reading with expression is important for developing comprehension of apassage.

    Use pages 1 and 2, Phrase-Cued Text f, for the first passage practice.Students track under the words and read along with you as you read withexpression at a normal reading pace.

    Use page 6, Regular Text. Students track under words and read alongwith you as you read with expression at a normal reading pace. If studentsneed additional practice, they read to themselves or to student partners.Listen to as many students’ expressive readings as possible. Do notrequire students to read to the class unless they volunteer. Forcomprehension development, ask students questions about the passagesand discuss the passages.

  • 8

    REPEATED READING GRAPH (Graph 1)

    Student:____________________________Book: ____________________________

    Check One50 Word Passage

    100 Word Passage

    1 2 3

    4000

    5000

    6000

    7000

    8000

    MasteryRange

    10000

    90000

    Trial # 1Words Read ______Errors ______Score ______

    Trial # 2Words Read ______Errors ______Score ______

    Trial # 3Words Read ______Errors ______Score ______

    [Type

    a

    quote

    from

    the

    document

    or

    the

    summary

    of

    a

    [Type

    a

    quote

    from

    the

    document

    or

    the

    summary

    of

    3000

    Words Per Minute

  • 9

    REPEATED READING GRAPH (Graph 2)

    Student:____________________________Book: ____________________________

    Check One50 Word Passage

    100 Word Passage

    1 2 3

    8000

    9000

    100

    110

    120

    MasteryRange

    14000

    130Trial # 1Words Read ______Errors ______Score ______

    Trial # 2Words Read ______Errors ______Score ______

    Trial # 3Words Read ______Errors ______Score ______

    [Type

    a

    quote

    from

    the

    document

    or

    the

    summary

    of

    a

    [Type

    a

    quote

    from

    the

    document

    or

    the

    summary

    of

    7000

    Words Per Minute

  • 1

    Polar BearsThe Arctic / is one of / the coldest

    places / on earth. // Polar bears / are

    excellent bears / for the ice-bound

    Arctic. // Thick layers of fat / keep them

    from freezing / in icy waters. // Their

    special fur / collects sunlight. // Polar

    bears’ feet / have extra thick / hairy

    soles / for firm gripping. // The soles

    help them / run 20 miles an hour /

    across snow and ice. //

    People have spotted / polar bears

    swimming / 200 miles / from the nearest

    land. // Polar bears / spend the winters /

    hunting seals / in below-zero

    temperatures. // They drift for hours / on

    ice flows. // Polar bears / eat almost

    anything. They smell dead whales / up to

    20 miles away. // They smell live seals /

    three feet under the ice. //

    LESSON 1

    Phrase-Cued Text

  • 2

    Polar Bears (continued)In the short summers, / polar bears

    move south / to the tundra /

    (treeless plains) and forests.// They

    feed on berries. // Female polar

    bears / move inland / to have

    babies. // They have the babies / in

    caves they have dug / in large snow

    drifts. // Polar bears are born /

    around December. // They usually

    have / two cubs. // Each tiny cub

    weighs / little more than a pound! //

    Polar bear cubs / nurse on their

    mother’s milk. // The mother and

    cubs come out of their cave around

    March. // The cubs grow to full size

    / in a year / if they have lots of food.

    // Polar bears' lifespans / are from

    28 to 33 years. //

    LESSON 1

    Phrase-Cued Text

  • 3

    The Arctic is one of the coldest places on earth. Polar bearsare excellent bears for the ice-bound Arctic. Thick layers offat keep them from freezing in icy waters. Their special furcollects sunlight. Polar bears’ feet have extra thick hairysoles for firm gripping. The soles help them run 20 miles anhour across snow and ice.

    (Write the words as one word.)Arc tic spe cial col lect sun light

    _Arctic__ __________ __________ ___________(Write the rhyming words.)

    1. polar – s o l a r m__ __ __ __ 2. oldest – c__ __ __ __ __ __3. found – p__ __ __ __ b__ __ __ __ 4. rent – excell__ __ __

    (Write the missing letters.)

    freezing – gripp i n g swimm__ __ __ hunt__ __ __ anyth__ __ __

    People have spotted polar bears swimming 200 miles from thenearest land. Polar bears spend the winters hunting seals inbelow-zero temperatures. They drift for hours on ice flows.Polar bears eat almost anything. They smell dead whales up to20 miles away. They smell live seals three feet under the ice.

    (Write the words as one word.)peo ple po lar al most tem per a ture

    _________ __________ __________ ___________(Write the rhyming words.)

    1. lift – dr__ __ __ sh__ __ __ 2. sing– anyth__ __ __3. found – r__ __ __ __ ar__ __ __ __ 4. flow – be__ __ __

    (Write the missing letters.)

    nearest – cold__ __ __ long__ __ __ low__ __ __ for__ __ __(Find the compound words.)

    PART 1 > sun__ __ __ __ __ PART 2 > be__ __ __ PART 2 > any__ __ __ __ __

    PART 2

    PART 1

  • 4

    In the short summers, polar bears move south to the tundra(treeless plains) and forests. They feed on berries. Femalepolar bears move inland to have babies. They have the babies incaves they have dug in large snow drifts. Polar bears are bornaround December. They usually have two cubs. Each tiny cubweighs little more than a pound!

    (Write the words as one word.)tun dra ber ries ba bies u su al ly

    _________ __________ __________ ___________(Write the rhyming words.)

    1. December – Nov__ __ __ __ __ rem__ __ __ __ __ 2. large – ch__ __ __ __3. found – p__ __ __ __ s__ __ __ __ 4.berries – ch__ __ __ __ __ __

    (Write the missing letters.)

    mother – bro__ __ __ __ o__ __ __ __ ano__ __ __ __ fa__ __ __ __

    Polar bear cubs nurse on their mother’s milk. The mother andcubs come out of their cave around March. The cubs grow to fullsize in a year if they have lots of food. Polar bears' lifespans arefrom 28 to 33 years.

    (Write the words as one word.)po lar moth er a round life spans

    _________ __________ __________ ___________(Write the rhyming words.)

    1. mother – bro__ __ __ __ o__ __ __ __ 2. year – f__ __ __ d__ __ __3. found – ar__ __ __ __ s__ __ __ __ 4.polar – s__ __ __ __

    (Write the missing letters.)

    oldest – young__ __ __ fast__ __ __ tall__ __ __ slow__ __ __(Find the compound words.)

    PART 3 > tree__ __ __ __ PART 4 > life__ __ __ __ __

    PART 3

    PART 4

  • 5

    Polar Bears (1)

    The Arctic is one of the coldest places onearth. Polar bears are excellent bears for theice-bound Arctic. Thick layers of fat keepthem from freezing in icy waters. Theirspecial fur collects sunlight. Polar bears’ feethave extra thick hairy soles for firm gripping.The soles help them run 20 miles an houracross snow and ice.

    People have spotted polar bears swimming200 miles from the nearest land. Polar bearsspend the winters hunting seals in below-zerotemperatures. They drift for hours on iceflows. Polar bears eat almost anything. Theysmell dead whales up to 20 miles away.They smell live seals three feet under the ice.

    In the short summers, polar bears movesouth to the tundra (treeless plains) andforests. They feed on berries. Female polarbears move inland to have babies. Theyhave the babies in caves they have dug inlarge snow drifts. Polar bears are bornaround December. They usually have twocubs. Each tiny cub weighs little more than apound!

    Polar bear cubs nurse on their mother’s milk.The mother and cubs come out of their cavearound March. The cubs grow to full size in ayear if they have lots of food. Polar bears'lifespans are from 28 to 33 years.

    9

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    253240485761

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    9097105114

    121128

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    158164163164

    172

    181191

    200

    207

    TIMEDREADING

  • 6

    Polar Bears (1)

    The Arctic is one of the coldest places onearth. Polar bears are excellent bears forthe ice-bound Arctic. Thick layers of fatkeep them from freezing in icy waters.Their special fur collects sunlight. Polarbears’ feet have extra thick hairy soles forfirm gripping. The soles help them run 20miles an hour across snow and ice.

    People have spotted polar bearsswimming 200 miles from the nearestland. Polar bears spend the wintershunting seals in below-zero temperatures.They drift for hours on ice flows. Polarbears eat almost anything. They smelldead whales up to 20 miles away. Theysmell live seals three feet under the ice.

    In the short summers, polar bears movesouth to the tundra (treeless plains) andforests. They feed on berries. Femalepolar bears move inland to have babies.They have the babies in caves they havedug in large snow drifts. Polar bears areborn around December. They usuallyhave two cubs. Each tiny cub weighslittle more than a pound!

    Polar bear cubs nurse on their mother’smilk. The mother and cubs come out oftheir cave around March. The cubs growto full size in a year if they have lots offood. Polar bears' lifespans are from 28to 33 years.Reading with Expression

  • 7

    Skeleton x17

    SkeletonYour skeleton / is the frame / that gives

    your body / its shape. // It protects

    body organs / such as the heart and

    lungs. // With the help of muscles, / it

    helps you move. // The bones / that

    make up the human skeleton / are

    living tissues / that grow and change. //

    Much of the growth and change /

    occurs during childhood. //

    Babies have / about 270 bones / when

    they are born. // As they get older, /

    their bones grow together. // Adults

    have 206 bones. // Babies’ bones / are

    all made of / soft tissue / called

    cartilage. // Cartilage is more flexible

    than bone, / allowing movement / and

    the ability to bend. // As the baby

    grows, minerals make / the cartilage

    harden, / and it becomes bone. //

    LESSON 2

    Phrase-Cued Text

  • 8

    Skeleton (continued)Here are / some interesting bone facts. //

    More than half / of the bones / in your

    body / are in / your hands and feet. //

    There are 54 bones in your hands. //

    There are 52 bones / in your feet / and

    ankles. // Humans and giraffes / have the

    same number / of bones in their necks. //

    The femur / is the longest bone / in your

    body. // Where is the femur located? //

    Bones store calcium. Calcium is

    important / for hearts and muscles. // If

    you lose too much calcium / from your

    bones, / they can become brittle / and

    break. // But your body can heal / broken

    bones / on its own. // While the bone is

    healing / it cannot take the stress / of a

    normal bone. // That is why / people use

    crutches and slings / to take the pressure

    / off of broken bones. //

    LESSON 2

    Phrase-Cued Text

  • 9

    Your skeleton is the frame that gives your body its shape. Itprotects body organs such as the heart and lungs. With thehelp of muscles, it helps you move. The bones that make upthe human skeleton are living tissues that grow and change.Much of the growth and change occurs during childhood.

    (Write the words as one word.)

    skel e ton musc les tis sues child hood_________ __________ __________ ___________

    (Write the rhyming words.)

    1. range – ch__ __ __ __ str__ __ __ __ 2. ape – sh__ __ __3. elect – prot__ __ __ coll__ __ __ 4. issue – t__ __ __ __ __

    (Write the missing letters.)

    living – giv__ __ __ dur__ __ __ allow__ __ __ interest__ __ __

    Babies have about 270 bones when they are born. As theyget older, their bones grow together. Adults have 206 bones.Babies’ bones are all made of soft tissue called cartilage.Cartilage is more flexible than bone, allowing movement andthe ability to bend. As the baby grows, minerals make thecartilage harden, and it becomes bone.

    (Write the words as one word.)ba bies car ti lage flex i ble min er als

    _________ __________ __________ ___________(Write the rhyming words.)

    1. older – c__ __ __ __ __ f__ __ __ __ __ 2. issue – t__ __ __ __ __3. growing – sh__ __ __ __ __ thr__ __ __ __ __ 4. ability – flexi__ __ __ __ __ __

    (Write the missing letters.)

    manage – stor__ __ __ mess__ __ __ dam__ __ __ cartil__ __ __ aver__ __ __(Find the compound words.)

    PART 1 > child__ __ __ __ PART 2 > move__ __ __ __ PART 2 > be__ __ __ __ __

    PART 2

    PART 1

  • 10

    Here are some interesting bone facts. More than half of thebones in your body are in your hands and feet. There are 54bones in your hands. There are 52 bones in your feet andankles. Humans and giraffes have the same number of bones intheir necks. The femur is the longest bone in your body. Whereis the femur located?

    (Write the words as one word.)ank les gir affe lo ca ted in ter est ing

    _________ __________ __________ ___________(Write the rhyming words.)

    1. lumber – n__ __ __ __ __ sl__ __ __ __ __ 2. longest – str__ __ __ __ __ __3. bones – t__ __ __ __ st__ __ __ __ __ 4. little – br__ __ __ __ __

    (Write the missing letters.)longest – strong__ __ __ cold__ __ __ inter__ __ __ inter__ __ __ing

    Bones store calcium. Calcium is important for the heart andmuscles. If you lose too much calcium from your bones, theycan become brittle and break. Your body can heal broken boneson its own. While the bone is healing, it can't take the stress ofa normal bone. That is why people use crutches and slings totake the pressure off of broken bones.

    (Write the words as one word.)

    cal ci um im por tant mus cle crutch es_________ __________ __________ ___________

    (Write the rhyming words.)1. token – br__ __ __ __ sp__ __ __ __ 2. normal– f__ __ __ __ __3. sling – str__ __ __ spr__ __ __ 4. ant – import__ __ __

    (Write the missing letters.)normal – anim__ __ loc__ __ speci__ __ usu__ __ miner__ __

    (Find the compound word.) PART 4 > be__ __ __ __

    PART 3

    PART 4

  • 11

    Skeleton (2)Your skeleton is the frame that gives your bodyits shape. It protects body organs such as theheart and lungs. With the help of muscles, ithelps you move. The bones that make up thehuman skeleton are living tissues that grow andchange. Much of the growth and changeoccurs during childhood.

    Babies have about 270 bones when they areborn. As they get older, their bones growtogether. Adults have 206 bones. Babies’bones are all made of soft tissue calledcartilage. Cartilage is more flexible than bone,allowing movement and the ability to bend. Asthe baby grows, minerals make the cartilageharden, and it becomes bone.

    Here are some interesting bone facts. Morethan half of the bones in your body are in yourhands and feet. There are 54 bones in yourhands. There are 52 bones in your feet andankles. Humans and giraffes have the samenumber of bones in their necks. The femur isthe longest bone in your body. Where is thefemur located?

    Bones store calcium. Calcium is important forhearts and muscles. If you lose too muchcalcium from your bones, they can becomebrittle and break. But your body can healbroken bones on its own. While the bone ishealing, it cannot take the stress of a normalbone. That is why people use crutches andslings to take the pressure off of broken bones.

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    75839098

    105

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    146153162171173

    180188195

    203212221229

    238

    TIMEDREADING

  • 12

    Skeleton (2)Your skeleton is the frame that gives yourbody its shape. It protects body organs suchas the heart and lungs. With the help ofmuscles, it helps you move. The bones thatmake up the human skeleton are living tissuesthat grow and change. Much of the growthand change occurs during childhood.

    Babies have about 270 bones when they areborn. As they get older, their bones growtogether. Adults have 206 bones. Babies’bones are all made of soft tissue calledcartilage. Cartilage is more flexible than bone,allowing movement and the ability to bend.As the baby grows, minerals make thecartilage harden, and it becomes bone.

    Here are some interesting bone facts. Morethan half of the bones in your body are in yourhands and feet. There are 54 bones in yourhands. There are 52 bones in your feet andankles. Humans and giraffes have the samenumber of bones in their necks. The femur isthe longest bone in your body. Where is thefemur located?

    Bones store calcium. Calcium is important forhearts and muscles. If you lose too muchcalcium from your bones, they can becomebrittle and break. But your body can healbroken bones on its own. While the bone ishealing, it cannot take the stress of a normalbone. That is why people use crutches andslings to take the pressure off of brokenbones.

    Reading with Expression

  • 13

    RobotsRobots in films / often look like

    humans. // They act like humans. //

    They solve problems. // In real life /

    most robots work in factories, / and

    they do not look / like metal humans. //

    They are shaped / for the job / they will

    perform. // They might look like / a

    bendable metal arm / with a spray

    paint gun attached. //

    Robots do work / that humans cannot

    do / or do not want to do. // Robots are

    cheaper, / easier, / and sometimes the

    only way / we can get things done! //

    They carry out / a series of actions, /

    often tiring tasks. // For example, / in

    the production line / of a car assembly,

    / there may be / an industrial robot /

    that will tighten / the tire bolts. //

    Robots do not get bored / or tired. //

    LESSON 3

    Phrase-Cued Text

  • 14

    Robots (continued)Robots / often do dangerous work. //

    When something is too dangerous / for a

    human to do, / a robot may be used. //

    Robots are used / to find bombs, / handle

    dangerous chemicals, / and more. //

    Robots are used in space. // They have

    been sent / to Mars. // These robots

    collect soil, / rock, / and atmosphere

    samples. // They send the information /

    back to Earth. //

    Can robots make decisions / for

    themselves? // After being given / a set

    of instructions, / they can make decisions.

    // They gather information / about the

    physical world. // Based on the

    information / they can make decisions /

    about what to do. // Who knows what

    robots / may be able to do / in the future. //

    Maybe you will design / the "Super

    Robot." //

    LESSON 3

    Phrase-Cued Text

  • 15

    Robots in films often look like humans. They act likehumans. They solve problems. In real life most robots workin factories, and they do not look like metal humans. Theyare shaped for the job they will perform. They might look likea bendable metal arm with a spray paint gun attached.

    (Write the words as one word.)

    ro bots of ten fac tor ies bend a ble_________ __________ __________ ___________

    (Write the rhyming words.)

    1. say – st__ __ spr__ __ 2. metal – p__ __ __ __3. might – l__ __ __ __ br__ __ __ __ 4. act – ex__ __ __

    (Write the missing letters.)

    handle – examp__ __ bendab__ __ factory - hist__ __ __ categ__ __ __

    Robots do work that humans cannot do or do not want to do.Robots are cheaper, easier, and sometimes the only way wecan get things done! They carry out a series of actions, oftentiring tasks. For example, in the production line of a carassembly, there may be an industrial robot that will tighten thetire bolts. Robots do not get bored or tired.

    (Write the words as one word.)ea si er ex am ple ac tion in dus tri al

    _________ __________ __________ ___________(Write the rhyming words.)

    1. action – fr__ __ __ __ __ __ tr__ __ __ __ __ __ 2. action – attr__ __ __ __ __ __3. ample - s__ __ __ __ __ ex__ __ __ __ __ 4.production – instr__ __ __ __ __ __

    (Write the missing letters.)

    danger – cheap__ __ easi__ __ dri__ __ supp__ __ sup__ __(Find the compound words.)

    PART 2 > can__ __ __ PART 2 > some__ __ __ __ __

    PART 2

    PART 1

  • 16

    Robots often do dangerous jobs. When something is toodangerous for a human to do, a robot may be used. Robots areused to find bombs, handle dangerous chemicals, and more.Robots are used in space. They have been sent to Mars. Theserobots collect soil, rock and atmosphere samples. They send theinformation back to Earth.

    (Write the words as one word.)dan ger ous chem i cal at mos phere in for ma tion

    _________ __________ __________ ___________(Write the rhyming words.)

    1. oil – s__ __ __ b__ __ __ 2. sent – differ__ __ __

    3. danger – r__ __ __ __ __ str__ __ __ __ __ 4. collect – prot__ __ __(Write the missing letters.)

    metal – med__ __ pet__ __ centr__ __ physic__ __ chemic__ __

    Can robots make decisions for themselves? After being given aset of instructions, they can make decisions. They gatherinformation about the physical world. Based on the informationthey can make decisions about what to do. Who knows whatrobots may be able to do in the future. Maybe you will design the"Super Robot."

    (Write the words as one word.)

    de ci sion in struc tion in for ma tion phys i cal_________ __________ __________ ___________

    (Write the rhyming words)

    1. gather – r__ __ __ __ __ l__ __ __ __ __ 2. instruction – prod__ __ __ __ __ __

    3. able – c__ __ __ __ t__ __ __ __ 4. location – inform__ __ __ __ __(Find the compound words.)

    PART 3 > some__ __ __ __ __ PART 4 > them__ __ __ __ __ __ > may__ __

    PART 3

    PART 4

  • 17

    Robots (3)Robots in films often look like humans. They actlike humans. They solve problems. In real lifemost robots work in factories, and they do notlook like metal humans. They are shaped for thejob they will perform. They might look like abendable metal arm with a spray paint gunattached.

    Robots do work that humans cannot do or do notwant to do. Robots are cheaper, easier, andsometimes the only way we can get things done!They carry out a series of actions, often tiringtasks. For example, in the production line of acar assembly, there may be an industrial robotthat will tighten the tire bolts. Robots do not getbored or tired.

    Robots often do dangerous work. Whensomething is too dangerous for a human to do, arobot may be used. Robots are used to findbombs, handle dangerous chemicals, and more.Robots are used in space. They have been sentto Mars. These robots collect soil, rock, andatmosphere samples. They send the informationback to Earth.

    Can robots make decisions for themselves?After being given a set of instructions, they canmake decisions. They gather information aboutthe physical world. Based on the informationthey can make decisions about what to do. Whoknows what robots may be able to do in thefuture. Maybe you will design the "SuperRobot."

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    TIMEDREADING

  • 18

    Robots (3)Robots in films often look like humans. Theyact like humans. They solve problems. Inreal life most robots work in factories, andthey do not look like metal humans. Theyare shaped for the job they will perform.They might look like a bendable metal armwith a spray paint gun attached.

    Robots do work that humans cannot do ordo not want to do. Robots are cheaper,easier, and sometimes the only way we canget things done! They carry out a series ofactions, often tiring tasks. For example, inthe production line of a car assembly, theremay be an industrial robot that will tightenthe tire bolts. Robots do not get bored ortired.

    Robots often do dangerous work. Whensomething is too dangerous for a human todo, a robot may be used. Robots are usedto find bombs, handle dangerous chemicals,and more. Robots are used in space. Theyhave been sent to Mars. These robotscollect soil, rock, and atmosphere samples.They send the information back to Earth.

    Can robots make decisions for themselves?After being given a set of instructions, theycan make decisions. They gatherinformation about the physical world. Basedon the information they can make decisionsabout what to do. Who knows what robotsmay be able to do in the future. Maybe youwill design the "Super Robot."

    Reading with Expression

  • 19

    Death ValleyWhere is the hottest temperature / ever

    recorded / in the Western Hemisphere /

    (where America is located)? // It is

    Furnace Creek / in Death Valley, /

    California. // On July 10, / 1913, / the

    temperature was 134 degrees

    Fahrenheit / in the shade. // Death

    Valley is the lowest, / driest, / and hottest

    region / of the United States. // In1994, /

    it became Death Valley National Park. //

    Death Valley is a desert. // A desert /

    does not get / more than 10 inches of

    rain / each year. // Death Valley gets /

    an average of / only 2.5 inches of rain

    yearly. // The climate of Death Valley / is

    arid / because it is surrounded by /

    mountains on all sides. // Hot, / dry air

    masses / often get trapped / in Death

    Valley. //

    LESSON 4

    Phrase-Cued Text

  • 20

    Death Valley (continued)Badwater in Death Valley/ is the lowest point /

    in the Western Hemisphere. // It is 282 feet /

    below sea level. // A nearby mountaintop /

    soars about two miles / above this area. // It

    is Mount Whitney. // How did Badwater / get

    its name? // A surveyor / could not get his

    mule / to drink / from a small pool / of water. //

    He wrote / on his map / that the area had

    "bad water," / and the name stuck. // The

    water / was not poisonous, / just salty. //

    Stunning sand dunes / are at the northern

    end / of the valley floor. // They are nearly

    surrounded / by mountains on all sides. //

    The mountains trap windblown sand / in

    valleys, / making the beautiful / sand dunes. //

    These dunes have ripples / and graceful

    curves. // The sand dune scenes / are

    popular with people / for photographs / and

    have been used / in many films. //

    LESSON 2LESSON 4

    Phrase-Cued Text

  • 21

    Where is the hottest temperature ever recorded in theWestern Hemisphere (where America is located)? It isFurnace Creek in Death Valley, California. On July 10,1913, the temperature was 134 degrees Fahrenheit in theshade. Death Valley is the lowest, driest, and hottest regionof the United States. In1994, it became Death ValleyNational Park.

    (Write the words as one word.)re cord ed hem is phere tem per a ture Fahr en heit

    _________ __________ __________ ___________(Write the rhyming words.)

    1. late – r__ __ __ st__ __ __ loc__ __ __ 2. alley – v__ __ __ __ __3. made – sh__ __ __ lemon__ __ __ 4. seek – cr__ __ __

    (Write the missing letters.)sphere – atmo__ __ __ __ __ __ hemi__ __ __ __ __ __ bio__ __ __ __ __ __

    Death Valley is a desert. A desert does not get more than 10inches of rain each year. Death Valley gets an average ofonly 2.5 inches of rain yearly. The climate of Death Valley isarid because it is surrounded by mountains on all sides. Hot,dry air masses often get trapped in Death Valley.

    (Write the words as one word.)

    val ley des ert year ly sur round ed_________ __________ __________ ___________

    (Write the rhyming words.)

    1. rain – tr__ __ __ spr__ __ __ gr__ __ __ 2. inch – p__ __ __ __3. mountain – f__ __ __ __ __ __ __ 4. yearly – n__ __ __ __ __

    (Write the missing letters.)

    damage – cott__ __ __ mess__ __ __ aver__ __ __ cartil__ __ __

    PART 2

    PART 1

  • 22

    Badwater in Death Valley is the lowest point in the WesternHemisphere. It is 282 feet below sea level. A nearbymountaintop soars about two miles above this area. It is MountWhitney. How did Badwater get its name? A surveyor could notget his mule to drink from a small pool of water. He wrote on hismap that the area had "bad water," and the name stuck. Thewater was not poisonous, just salty.

    (Write the words as one word.)Bad wa ter hem is phere poi son ous moun tain top

    _________ __________ __________ ___________(Write the rhyming words.)

    1. mount – c__ __ __ __ am__ __ __ __ 2. lowest – slow__ __ __3. near – f__ __ __ d__ __ __ app__ __ __ 4. pool – c__ __ __

    (Write the missing letters.)

    lowest – hott __ __ __ dri__ __ __ long__ __ __ near__ __ __ for__ __ __

    Stunning sand dunes are at the northern end of the valley floor.They are nearly surrounded by mountains on all sides. Themountains trap windblown sand in valleys, making the beautifulsand dunes. These dunes have ripples and graceful curves.The sand dune scenes are popular with people for photographsand have been used in many films.

    (Write the words as one word.)sur round ed beau ti ful pop u lar pho to graphs

    _________ __________ __________ ___________(Write the rhyming words.)

    1. found – s__ __ __ __ surr__ __ __ __ 2. running – st__ __ __ __ __ __(Write the missing letters.)graceful – help__ __ __ hope__ __ __ wonder__ __ __ beauti__ __ __(Find the compound words.)

    PART 3 > Bad__ __ __ __ __ > be__ __ __ near__ __ PART 4 > wind__ __ __ __ __

    PART 3

    PART 4

  • 23

    Death Valley (4)Where is the hottest temperature ever recorded inthe Western Hemisphere (where America islocated)? It is Furnace Creek in Death Valley,California. On July 10, 1913, the temperature was134 degrees Fahrenheit in the shade. DeathValley is the lowest, driest, and hottest region ofthe United States. In1994, it became Death ValleyNational Park.

    Death Valley is a desert. A desert does not getmore than 10 inches of rain each year. DeathValley gets an average of only 2.5 inches of rainyearly. The climate of Death Valley is arid becauseit is surrounded by mountains on all sides. Hot, dryair masses often get trapped in Death Valley.

    Badwater in Death Valley is the lowest point in theWestern Hemisphere. It is 282 feet below sealevel. A nearby mountaintop soars about two milesabove this area. It is Mount Whitney. How didBadwater get its name? A surveyor could not gethis mule to drink from a small pool of water. Hewrote on his map that the area had "bad water,"and the name stuck. The water was notpoisonous, just salty.

    Stunning sand dunes are at the northern end of thevalley floor. They are nearly surrounded bymountains on all sides. The mountains trapwindblown sand in valleys, making the beautifulsand dunes. These dunes have ripples andgraceful curves. The sand dune scenes arepopular with people for photographs and havebeen used in many films.

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    TIMEDREADING

  • 24

    Death Valley (4)

    Where is the hottest temperature ever recordedin the Western Hemisphere (where America islocated)? It is Furnace Creek in Death Valley,California. On July 10, 1913, the temperaturewas 134 degrees Fahrenheit in the shade.Death Valley is the lowest, driest, and hottestregion of the United States. In1994, it becameDeath Valley National Park.

    Death Valley is a desert. A desert does not getmore than 10 inches of rain each year. DeathValley gets an average of only 2.5 inches of rainyearly. The climate of Death Valley is aridbecause it is surrounded by mountains on allsides. Hot, dry air masses often get trapped inDeath Valley.

    Badwater in Death Valley is the lowest point inthe Western Hemisphere. It is 282 feet belowsea level. A nearby mountaintop soars abouttwo miles above this area. It is Mount Whitney.How did Badwater get its name? A surveyorcould not get his mule to drink from a small poolof water. He wrote on his map that the area had"bad water," and the name stuck. The waterwas not poisonous, just salty.

    Stunning sand dunes are at the northern end ofthe valley floor. They are nearly surrounded bymountains on all sides. The mountains trapwindblown sand in valleys, making the beautifulsand dunes. These dunes have ripples andgraceful curves. The sand dune scenes arepopular with people for photographs and havebeen used in many films.

    Reading with Expression

  • 25

    CamelsCamels are large, / strong animals. // They are

    easy to recognize / because of their size / and the

    humps / on their backs. // There are two kinds / of

    camels, / those with one hump / and those with

    two humps. // Arabian camels / have one hump. //

    Bactrian camels / have two humps. // The Arabian

    camels / live mostly / in the deserts / of North

    Africa / and Arabia. // Bactrian camels are found /

    in the plains and deserts / of Central Asia / where

    the summers are hot / and the winters / are cold. //

    Whether one-humped / or two, / camels have

    features / that make it possible / for them to live /

    in harsh desert climates. // Their eyes are large /

    and protected from wind and sand / by double

    layers / of long eye lashes. // Even when their

    eyelids / are closed, / the camels can see. // This

    helps them travel / in blinding sandstorms. // The

    camel’s ears and nose / are lined with hair / for

    protection / from dust and sand. //

    LESSON 5

    Phrase-Cued Text

  • 26

    Camels (continued)Camels can survive / for weeks

    without water. // A camel's hump / is

    made up of fatty tissue. Fatty tissue

    is changed / into energy and water /

    when there is a need. // While the

    camel / uses up the energy reserve,

    / the hump shrinks. // Food, / water, /

    and rest / will restore a camel's

    hump / to its normal shape. // A

    thirsty camel / can drink 30 gallons

    of water / in less than 15 minutes! //

    Camels are very strong / and can

    carry loads / weighing more than

    900 pounds. // But it is typical for

    them / to carry no more than 450

    pounds. // The camels’ nickname is /

    “Ships of the Desert.” // Why do

    you think / they have that

    nickname? //

    LESSON 2

    LESSON 5

    Reading with Expression

  • 27

    Camels are large, strong animals. They are easy torecognize because of their size and the humps on theirbacks. There are two kinds of camels, those with one humpand those with two humps. Arabian camels have one hump.Bactrian camels have two humps. The Arabian camels livemostly in the deserts of North Africa and Arabia. Bactriancamels are found in the plains and deserts of Central Asiawhere the summers are hot and the winters are cold.

    (Write the words as one word.)

    rec og nize be cause A ra bi an Bac tri an_________ __________ __________ ___________

    (Write the rhyming words.)1. long – wr__ __ __ str__ __ __ 2. size – recogn__ __ __3. plain – tr__ __ __ str__ __ __ 4. winter – spl__ __ __ __ __

    (Write the missing letters.)

    summer – wint__ __ wheth__ __ weath__ __ Bactrian - Arab__ __ __ As__ __ __

    Whether one-humped or two, camels have features that makeit possible for them to live in harsh desert climates. Their eyesare large and protected from wind and sand by double layersof long eye lashes. Even when their eyelids are closed, thecamels can see. This helps them travel in blindingsandstorms. The camel's ears and nose are lined with hair forprotection from dust and sand.

    (Write the words as one word.fea tures pos si ble cli mates pro tec tion

    _________ __________ __________ ___________(Write the rhyming words.)

    1. protect – coll__ __ __ insp__ __ __ 2. feature – crea__ __ __ __3. protection – coll__ __ __ __ __ __ 4. double – tr__ __ __ __ __

    (Write the missing letters.)travel – cam__ __ lev__ __ shov__ __ PART 2> eye__ __ __ __ sand__ __ __ __ __ __

    PART 2

    PART 1

  • 28

    Camels can survive for weeks without water. A camel's hump ismade up of fatty tissue. Fatty tissue is changed into energy andwater when there is a need. While the camel uses up the energyreserve, the hump shrinks. Food, water, and rest will restore acamel's hump to its normal shape. A thirsty camel can drink 30gallons of water in less than 15 minutes!

    (Write the words as one word.)sur vive en er gy re serve thir sty

    _________ __________ __________ ___________(Write the rhyming words.)

    1. range – ch__ __ __ __ str__ __ __ __ 2. arrive – surv __ __ __3. ink – s__ __ __ shr__ __ __ 4. issue – t__ __ __ __ __

    (Write the missing letters.)

    thirsty – fat__ __ safe__ __ abili__ __ water – wint__ __ wheth__ __ weath__ __

    Camels are very strong and can carry loads weighing more than900 pounds. But it is typical for them to carry no more than 450pounds. The camels’ nickname is “Ships of the Desert.” Why doyou think they have that nickname?

    (Write the words as one word.car ry weigh ing typ i cal des ert

    _________ __________ __________ ___________(Write the rhyming words.)

    1. pound – s__ __ __ __ ar__ __ __ __ 2. camel – enam__ __3. eight – w__ __ __ __ __ fr__ __ __ __ __ 4. carry – m__ __ __ __

    (Write the missing letters.)

    central - anim__ __ typic__ __ physic__ __ sever__ __ med__ __ miner__ __(Find the compound words.)

    PART 3 > with__ __ __ PART 4 > nick__ __ __ __

    PART 3

    PART 4

  • 29

    Camels (5)Camels are large, strong animals. They are easy torecognize because of their size and the humps ontheir backs. There are two kinds of camels, thosewith one hump and those with two humps. Arabiancamels have one hump. Bactrian camels have twohumps. The Arabian camels live mostly in thedeserts of North Africa and Arabia. Bactrian camelsare found in the plains and deserts of Central Asiawhere the summers are hot and the winters arecold.

    Whether one-humped or two, camels have featuresthat make it possible for them to live in harsh desertclimates. Their eyes are large and protected fromwind and sand by double layers of long eye lashes.Even when their eyelids are closed, the camels cansee. This helps them travel in blinding sandstorms.The camel's ears and nose are lined with hair forprotection from dust and sand.

    Camels can survive for weeks without water. Acamel's hump is made up of fatty tissue. Fattytissue is changed into energy and water when thereis a need. While the camel uses up the energyreserve, the hump shrinks. Food, water, and restwill restore a camel's hump to its normal shape. Athirsty camel can drink 30 gallons of water in lessthan 15 minutes!

    Camels are very strong and can carry loadsweighing more than 900 pounds. But it is typical forthem to carry no more than 450 pounds. Thecamels’ nickname is “Ships of the Desert.” Why doyou think they have that nickname?

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    TIMEDREADING

  • 30

    Camels (5)Camels are large, strong animals. They are easy torecognize because of their size and the humps ontheir backs. There are two kinds of camels, thosewith one hump and those with two humps. Arabiancamels have one hump. Bactrian camels have twohumps. The Arabian camels live mostly in thedeserts of North Africa and Arabia. Bactrian camelsare found in the plains and deserts of Central Asiawhere the summers are hot and the winters arecold.

    Whether one-humped or two, camels have featuresthat make it possible for them to live in harsh desertclimates. Their eyes are large and protected fromwind and sand by double layers of long eye lashes.Even when their eyelids are closed, the camels cansee. This helps them travel in blinding sandstorms.The camel's ears and nose are lined with hair forprotection from dust and sand.

    Camels can survive for weeks without water. Acamel's hump is made up of fatty tissue. Fattytissue is changed into energy and water when thereis a need. While the camel uses up the energyreserve, the hump shrinks. Food, water, and restwill restore a camel's hump to its normal shape. Athirsty camel can drink 30 gallons of water in lessthan 15 minutes!

    Camels are very strong and can carry loadsweighing more than 900 pounds. But it is typical forthem to carry no more than 450 pounds. Thecamels’ nickname is “Ships of the Desert.” Why doyou think they have that nickname?

    Reading with Expression

  • 31

    EarthquakesYou may notice / a gentle shaking / or

    a violent jolt. // You may notice / light

    fixtures swaying / or furniture shaking.

    // It is an earthquake! // An earthquake

    / is a sudden release / of energy. // It is

    caused by /shifting masses of rock /

    miles below the surface / of the earth. //

    During an earthquake / the earth

    shakes. //

    Seismometers are used / to measure

    the magnitude / of earthquakes. // The

    magnitude is a measure / of how

    strong an earthquake is. // You are

    unlikely / to feel a magnitude 3

    earthquake. // A magnitude 6

    earthquake / could cause damage. //

    The largest earthquake / ever recorded

    / was in Chile, / South America, / in

    1960. // It was a magnitude 9.5. //

    LESSON 6

    Phrase-Cued Text

  • 32

    Earthquakes (continued)In some areas, / earthquakes happen / more

    frequently. // Earthquakes usually occur /

    where they have happened / in the past. //

    From 1975 to1995, / there were only four

    states / that did not have / any earthquakes.

    // They were Florida, / Iowa, / North Dakota, /

    and Wisconsin. // Today, / Florida and North

    Dakota / have the smallest number of

    earthquakes / in the United States. //

    Here is some / earthquake safety

    information. // If outdoors, / stay outdoors. If

    indoors, / stay indoors. // Most people get

    hurt / when they enter / or leave buildings. //

    If you are inside, / learn the safe place / in a

    room. // At home / it is under / a sturdy piece

    / of furniture, / like the dining room table. // At

    school it is / under a desk / or other well-built

    / pieces of furniture. You can find / many

    booklets / about earthquake safety. //

    LESSON 2

    LESSON 6

    Phrase-Cued Text

  • 33

    You may notice a gentle shaking or a violent jolt. You maynotice light fixtures swaying or furniture shaking. It is anearthquake! An earthquake is a sudden release of energy.It is caused by shifting masses of rock miles below thesurface of the earth. During an earthquake the earthshakes.

    (Write the words as one word.vi o lent fix tures fur ni ture earth quake

    _________ __________ __________ ___________(Write the rhyming words.)

    1. lifting – sh__ __ __ __ __ __ dr__ __ __ __ __ __ 2. fixture – m__ __ __ __ __ __3.paying – sw__ __ __ __ __ st__ __ __ __ __ 4. baking – sh__ __ __ __ __

    (Write the missing letters.)

    fixture – furni__ __ __ __ pic__ __ __ __ fea__ __ __ __ na__ __ __ __

    Seismometers are used to measure the magnitude ofearthquakes. The magnitude is a measure of how strong anearthquake is. You are unlikely to feel a magnitude 3earthquake. A magnitude 6 earthquake could cause damage.The largest earthquake ever recorded was in Chile, SouthAmerica, in 1960. It was a magnitude 9.5.

    (Write the words as one word.)seis mom e ter mag ni tude earth quake A mer i ca_________ __________ __________ ___________(Write the rhyming words.)

    1. measure – tr__ __ __ __ __ __ pl__ __ __ __ __ __ 2. make – qu__ __ __

    3. ever – l__ __ __ __ n__ __ __ __ for__ __ __ __ 4. could – sh__ __ __ __(Write the missing letters.)

    damage – pack__ __ __ mess__ __ __ cott__ __ __ bagg__ __ __ aver__ __ __(Find the compound word.) PART 1 > earth__ __ __ __ __

    PART 2

    PART 1

  • 34

    In some areas, earthquakes happen more frequently.Earthquakes usually occur where they have happened in thepast. From 1975 to1995, there were only four states that did nothave any earthquakes. They were Florida, Iowa, North Dakota,and Wisconsin. Today, Florida and North Dakota have thesmallest number of earthquakes in the United States.

    (Write the words as one word.)earth quakes fre quent ly u su al ly Wis con sin

    _________ __________ __________ ___________(Write the rhyming words.)

    1. recent – frequ__ __ __ differ__ __ __ 2. take – earthqu__ __ __3. state – sl__ __ __ loc__ __ __ 4. smallest – t__ __ __ __ __ __

    (Write the missing letters.)Iowa – Florid__ Dakot__ Americ__ Californi__ Asi__ Olympi_

    Here is some earthquake safety information. If outdoors, stayoutdoors. If indoors, stay indoors. Most people get hurt whenthey enter or leave buildings. If you are inside, learn the safeplace in a room. At home it is under a sturdy piece of furniture,like the dining room table. At school it is under a desk or otherwell-built pieces of furniture. You can find many booklets aboutearthquake safety.

    (Write the words as one word.)in for ma tion build ings fur ni ture di ning_________ __________ __________ ___________(Write the rhyming words.)

    1. nation – loc__ __ __ __ __ inform__ __ __ __ __ 2. dining – sh__ __ __ __ __

    3. tool – p__ __ __ c__ __ __ st__ __ __ sch__ __ __ 4. enter – c__ __ __ __ __(Find the compound words.)

    PART 3 > earth__ __ __ __ __ PART 4 > out__ __ __ __ __ in__ __ __ __ __ in__ __ __ __

    PART 3

    PART 4

  • 35

    Earthquakes (6)You may notice a gentle shaking or a violent jolt.You may notice light fixtures swaying or furnitureshaking. It is an earthquake! An earthquake is asudden release of energy. It is caused by shiftingmasses of rock miles below the surface of theearth. During an earthquake the earth shakes.

    Seismometers are used to measure the magnitudeof earthquakes. The magnitude is a measure ofhow strong an earthquake is. You are unlikely tofeel a magnitude 3 earthquake. A magnitude 6earthquake could cause damage. The largestearthquake ever recorded was in Chile, SouthAmerica, in 1960. It was a magnitude 9.5.

    In some areas, earthquakes happen morefrequently. Earthquakes usually occur where theyhave happened in the past. From 1975 to1995,there were only four states that did not have anyearthquakes. They were Florida, Iowa, NorthDakota, and Wisconsin. Today, Florida and NorthDakota have the smallest number of earthquakesin the United States.

    Here is some earthquake safety information. Ifoutdoors, stay outdoors. If indoors, stay indoors.Most people get hurt when they enter or leavebuildings. If you are inside, learn the safe place ina room. At home it is under a sturdy piece offurniture, like the dining room table. At school it isunder a desk or other well-built pieces of furniture.You can find many booklets about earthquakesafety.

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    223230231

    TIMEDREADING

  • 36

    Earthquakes (6)You may notice a gentle shaking or a violent jolt.You may notice light fixtures swaying or furnitureshaking. It is an earthquake! An earthquake is asudden release of energy. It is caused by shiftingmasses of rock miles below the surface of theearth. During an earthquake the earth shakes.

    Seismometers are used to measure the magnitudeof earthquakes. The magnitude is a measure ofhow strong an earthquake is. You are unlikely tofeel a magnitude 3 earthquake. A magnitude 6earthquake could cause damage. The largestearthquake ever recorded was in Chile, SouthAmerica, in 1960. It was a magnitude 9.5.

    In some areas, earthquakes happen morefrequently. Earthquakes usually occur where theyhave happened in the past. From 1975 to1995,there were only four states that did not have anyearthquakes. They were Florida, Iowa, NorthDakota, and Wisconsin. Today, Florida and NorthDakota have the smallest number of earthquakesin the United States.

    Here is some earthquake safety information. Ifoutdoors, stay outdoors. If indoors, stay indoors.Most people get hurt when they enter or leavebuildings. If you are inside, learn the safe place ina room. At home it is under a sturdy piece offurniture, like the dining room table. At school it isunder a desk or other well-built pieces of furniture.You can find many booklets about earthquakesafety.

    Reading with Expression

  • 37

    SkateboardingSkateboarding probably started / in the

    1950's / with surfers in California. // They

    wanted / something to surf/ when the

    ocean waves / were flat. // It often was

    called / "Sidewalk Surfing." // The first

    skateboarders / started on wooden

    boards / with roller skate wheels / on the

    bottom. // Soon companies were /

    producing skateboards. //

    Out of all / of the sports / played around

    the world today, / skateboarding has

    been ranked / number 6. // In the United

    States, / there are more than / 300

    skateboarding parks. // National

    Skateboarding Championships / are held

    every year. // The first one / was held in

    1965. // More than half / of all the people

    / who are skateboarders / live in

    California. //

    LESSON 7

    Phrase-Cued Text

  • 38

    Skateboarding (continued)About 100,000 people / are injured each

    year / while skateboarding. // Most of the

    injuries / are wrist injuries. // Even skilled

    skateboarders / suffer from injuries. // Most

    of these / are due to falls. // Many of them /

    could be avoided / by skateboarders

    wearing / the proper protective gear. //

    When shopping / for a skateboard, / pay

    attention to / the weight rating of the board.

    // If you weigh too much / for the board, /

    you are more likely / to fall. // Make sure /

    the protective gear you have / is approved

    for skateboarding. // Not all protective gear

    / will provide proper protection. // Good

    skaters / inspect their gear / for cracks or

    tears. // They replace it / as needed. //

    Would you rather be / a surfer / or a

    skateboarder? //

    LESSON 2

    Phrase-Cued Text

    LESSON 7

  • 39

    Skateboarding probably started in the 1950's with surfers inCalifornia. They wanted something to surf when the oceanwaves were flat. It often was called "Sidewalk Surfing." Thefirst skateboarders started on wooden boards with rollerskate wheels on the bottom. Soon companies wereproducing skateboards.

    (Write the words as one word.)

    skate board ing pro ba bly Cal i for ni a com pa nies_________ __________ __________ ___________(Write the rhyming words.)

    1. skate – st__ __ __ loc__ __ __ 2. roller – str__ __ __ __ __3. save – w__ __ __ beh__ __ __ 4. start – he__ __ __

    (Write the missing letters.)

    surfing – skateboard__ __ __ someth__ __ __ produc__ __ __ roll__ __ __

    Out of all of the sports played around the world today,skateboarding has been ranked number 6. In the UnitedStates, there are more than 300 skateboarding parks.National Skateboarding Championships are held every year.The first one was held in 1965. More than half of all thepeople who are skateboarders live in California.

    (Write the words as one word.)

    u ni ted na tion al Cal i for ni a cham pi on ship_________ __________ __________ ___________(Write the rhyming words.)

    1. port – sp__ __ __ sh__ __ __ res__ __ __ 2. ranked – th__ __ __ __ __

    3. year – d__ __ __ f__ __ __ sp__ __ __ 4. nation – st__ __ __ __ __(Find the compound words.)

    PART 1 > skate__ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ some__ __ __ __ __ side__ __ __ __

    PART 2 > to__ __ __ skate__ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ champion__ __ __ __ __

    PART 2

    PART 1

  • 40

    About 100,000 people are injured each year while skateboarding.Most of the injuries are wrist injuries. Even skilled skateboarderssuffer from injuries. Most of these are due to falls. Many of themcould be avoided by skateboarders wearing the proper protectivegear.

    (Write the words as one word.)in jured skate board ing wear ing pro tec tive

    _________ __________ __________ ___________(Write the rhyming words.)

    1. skilled – f__ __ __ __ __ ch__ __ __ __ __ 2. protect – refl__ __ __3. wear – b__ __ __ t__ __ __ p__ __ __ 4. skilled – thr__ __ __ __ __

    (Write the missing letters.)

    surfer – skat__ __ skateboard__ __ prop__ __ Novemb__ __ Decemb__ __

    When shopping for a skateboard, pay attention to the weightrating of the board. If you weigh too much for the board, you aremore likely to fall. Make sure the protective gear you have isapproved for skateboarding. Not all protective gear will provideproper protection. Good skaters inspect their gear for cracks ortears. They replace it as needed. Would you rather be a surferor a skateboarder?

    (Write the words as one word.)

    a tten tion pro tec tive pro tec tion skate board er_________ __________ __________ ___________(Write the rhyming words.)

    1. protect – coll__ __ __ resp__ __ __ 2. attention – inv__ __ __ __ __ __

    3. hopping – sh__ __ __ __ __ __ st__ __ __ __ __ __4. weight – fr__ __ __ __ __(Find the compound words.)

    PART 3 > skate__ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ skate__ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ PART 4 > skate__ __ __ __ __

    PART 3

    PART 4

  • 41

    Skateboarding (7)Skateboarding probably started in the 1950'swith surfers in California. They wantedsomething to surf when the ocean waves wereflat. It often was called "Sidewalk Surfing." Thefirst skateboarders started on wooden boardswith roller skate wheels on the bottom. Sooncompanies were producing skateboards.

    Out of all of the sports played around the worldtoday, skateboarding has been ranked number6. In the United States, there are more than300 skateboarding parks. NationalSkateboarding Championships are held everyyear. The first one was held in 1965. Morethan half of all the people who areskateboarders live in California.

    About 100,000 people are injured each yearwhile skateboarding. Most of the injuries arewrist injuries. Even skilled skateboarders sufferfrom injuries. Most of these are due to falls.Many of them could be avoided byskateboarders wearing the proper protectivegear.

    When shopping for a skateboard, pay attentionto the weight rating of the board. If you weightoo much for the board, you are more likely tofall. Make sure the protective gear you have isapproved for skateboarding. Not all protectivegear will provide proper protection. Goodskaters inspect their gear for cracks or tears.They replace it as needed. Would you ratherbe a surfer or a skateboarder?

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    149159169178184

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    TIMEDREADING

  • 42

    Skateboarding (7)Skateboarding probably started in the 1950'swith surfers in California. They wantedsomething to surf when the ocean waves wereflat. It often was called "Sidewalk Surfing." Thefirst skateboarders started on wooden boardswith roller skate wheels on the bottom. Sooncompanies were producing skateboards.

    Out of all of the sports played around the worldtoday, skateboarding has been ranked number6. In the United States, there are more than300 skateboarding parks. NationalSkateboarding Championships are held everyyear. The first one was held in 1965. Morethan half of all the people who areskateboarders live in California.

    About 100,000 people are injured each yearwhile skateboarding. Most of the injuries arewrist injuries. Even skilled skateboarders sufferfrom injuries. Most of these are due to falls.Many of them could be avoided byskateboarders wearing the proper protectivegear.

    When shopping for a skateboard, pay attentionto the weight rating of the board. If you weightoo much for the board, you are more likely tofall. Make sure the protective gear you have isapproved for skateboarding. Not all protectivegear will provide proper protection. Goodskaters inspect their gear for cracks or tears.They replace it as needed. Would you ratherbe a surfer or a skateboarder?

    Reading with Expression

  • 43

    The Olympics

    The Olympic Games / are the world's

    oldest / athletic contest. // The first known

    Olympic Games / took place at Olympia /

    in Greece in 776 B.C. // The modern

    Olympic Games / began in 1896. // The

    modern Olympics / are in two parts, / the

    Winter Olympics / and the Summer

    Olympics. // Each is held / once every four

    years. // The Winter Olympics / and the

    Summer Olympics / take turns every two

    years. //

    At every opening Olympics, / a parade of

    nations / is led by Greece, / the founder

    nation. // The host country / comes last. //

    The rest of the nations / appear in

    alphabetical order. // Athletes and officials /

    take the Olympic oath. Then the Olympic

    torch is lit, / and the Olympic flag is raised.

    For a sign of peace / doves are released. //

    LESSON 8

    Phrase-Cued Text

  • 44

    The Olympics (continued)The Summer Olympic sports / are archery, /

    badminton, / basketball, / beach volleyball, /

    boxing, / cycling, / diving, / judo, / mountain

    biking, / rowing, / sailing, / shooting, / soccer, /

    swimming, / wrestling, / and more. // The

    Winter Olympic sports are / alpine skiing, /

    bobsledding, / figure skating, / ice hockey, /

    snowboarding, / speed skating, / and more. //

    Athletes / from different nations compete. //

    The winners gain medals / but no prize

    money. // Norway / has won the most medals /

    at the Winter Games. // The United States /

    has won the most medals / at the Summer

    Games. // The aim / of the Olympic Games / is

    to promote peace, / equality, / and friendship. //

    On the scoreboard / at every Olympics / is the

    message, / "The most important thing / in the

    Olympic Games / is not to win / but to take

    part." //

    LESSON 2

    LESSON 8

    Phrase-Cued Text

  • 45

    The Olympic Games are the world's oldest athletic contest.The first known Olympic Games took place at Olympia inGreece in 776 B.C. The modern Olympic Games began in1896. The modern Olympics are in two parts, the WinterOlympics and the Summer Olympics. Each is held onceevery four years. The Winter Olympics and the SummerOlympics take turns every two years.

    (Write the words as one word.)

    old est O lym pic O lym pi a ath let ic_________ __________ __________ ___________(Write the rhyming words.)

    1. oldest – b__ __ __ __ __ __ c__ __ __ __ __ __ 2. summer – dr__ __ __ __ __

    3. athletic – magn__ __ __ __ gen__ __ __ __ 4. known – gr__ __ __(Write the missing letters.)

    Olympic – athlet__ __ mus__ __ bas__ __ scen__ __ traff__ __ electron__ __

    At every opening Olympics, a parade of nations is led byGreece, the founder nation. The host country comes last.The rest of the nations appear in alphabetical order. Athletesand officials take the Olympic oath. Then the Olympic torch islit, and the Olympic flag is raised. For a sign of peace dovesare released.

    (Write the words as one word.)O lym pics na tions coun try al pha bet i cal

    _________ __________ __________ ___________(Write the rhyming words.)

    1. fear – n__ __ __ app__ __ __ 2. order – b__ __ __ __ __

    3. nation – st__ __ __ __ __ loc__ __ __ __ __ 4. athletic – kin__ __ __ __

    (Write the missing letters.)

    central – speci__ __ offici__ __ typic__ __ physic__ __ alphabetic__ __

    PART 2

    PART 1

  • 46

    The Summer Olympic sports are archery, badminton, basketball,beach volleyball, boxing, cycling, diving, judo, mountain biking,rowing, sailing, shooting, soccer, swimming, wrestling, and more.The Winter Olympic sports are alpine skiing, bobsledding, figureskating, ice hockey, snowboarding, speed skating, and more.

    (Write the words as one word.ar cher y bas ket ball cy cling snow board ing

    _________ __________ __________ ___________(Write the rhyming words.)

    1. sort – f__ __ __ sp__ __ __ sh__ __ __ 2. diving – arr__ __ __ __ __3. rowing – t__ __ __ __ __ sn__ __ __ __ __ 4. mountain – f__ __ __ __ __ __ __

    (Write the missing letters.)

    boxing – cycl__ __ __ div__ __ __ bik__ __ __ skat__ __ __ snowboard__ __ __

    Athletes from different nations compete. The winners gainmedals but no prize money. Norway has won the most medalsat the Winter Games. The United States has won the mostmedals at the Summer Games. The aim of the Olympic Gamesis to promote peace, equality, and friendship. On the scoreboardat every Olympics is the message, "The most important thing inthe Olympic Games is not to win but to take part."

    (Write the words as one word.)ath letes na tions u ni ted e qual i ty

    _________ __________ __________ ___________(Write the rhyming words.)

    1. Pete – athl__ __ __ obsol__ __ __ 2. rent – diffe__ __ __ __3. gaming – t__ __ __ __ __ fr__ __ __ __ __ 4. winner – th__ __ __ __ __

    (Find the compound words.)

    PART 3 > basket__ __ __ __ volley__ __ __ __ bob__ __ __ __ __ __ __ __

    PART 3 > snow__ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ PART 4 > friend__ __ __ __

    PART 3

    PART 4

  • 47

    Olympic Games (8)The Olympic Games are the world's oldestathletic contest. The first known Olympic Gamestook place at Olympia in Greece in 776 B.C. Themodern Olympic Games began in 1896. Themodern Olympics are in two parts, the WinterOlympics and the Summer Olympics. Each isheld once every four years. The WinterOlympics and the Summer Olympics take turnsevery two years.

    At every opening Olympics, a parade of nationsis led by Greece, the founder nation. The hostcountry comes last. The rest of the nationsappear in alphabetical order. Athletes andofficials take the Olympic oath. Then theOlympic torch is lit, and the Olympic flag israised. For a sign of peace, doves are released.

    The Summer Olympic sports are archery,badminton, basketball, beach volleyball, boxing,cycling, diving, judo, mountain biking, rowing,sailing, shooting, soccer, swimming, wrestling,and more. The Winter Olympic sports are alpineskiing, bobsledding, figure skating, ice hockey,snowboarding, speed skating, and more.

    Athletes from different nations compete. Thewinners gain medals but no prize money. Norwayhas won the most medals at the Winter Games.The United States has won the most medals at theSummer Games. The aim of the Olympic Games isto promote peace, equality, and friendship. On thescoreboard at every Olympics is the message, "Themost important thing in the Olympic Games is not towin but to take part."

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    TIMEDREADING

  • 48

    Olympic Games (8)

    The Olympic Games are the world's oldest athleticcontest. The first known Olympic Games took placeat Olympia in Greece in 776 B.C. The modernOlympic Games began in 1896. The modernOlympics are in two parts, the Winter Olympics andthe Summer Olympics. Each is held once everyfour years. The Winter Olympics and the SummerOlympics take turns every two years.

    At every opening Olympics, a parade of nations isled by Greece, the founder nation. The host countrycomes last. The rest of the nations appear inalphabetical order. Athletes and officials take theOlympic oath. Then the Olympic torch is lit, and theOlympic flag is raised. For a sign of peace dovesare released.

    The Summer Olympic sports are archery,badminton, basketball, beach volleyball, boxing,cycling, diving, judo, mountain biking, rowing,sailing, shooting, soccer, swimming, wrestling, andmore. The Winter Olympic sports are alpine skiing,bobsledding, figure skating, ice hockey,snowboarding, speed skating, and more.

    Athletes from different nations compete. Thewinners gain medals but no prize money. Norwayhas won the most medals at the Winter Games.The United States has won the most medals at theSummer Games. The aim of the Olympic Games isto promote peace, equality, and friendship. On thescoreboard at every Olympics is the message, "Themost important thing in the Olympic Games is not towin but to take part."

    Reading with Expression

  • 49

    Yosemite (Yo sem it e) National Park

    Yosemite National Park / is located in

    California. // The park is known / for its

    towering rocks / and stunning

    waterfalls. // It has the most

    astonishing / and drastic landscape / of

    lakes, / trees, / rivers, / and mountains.

    // At Yosemite / you can rent tents, /

    rooms, / and cottages. //

    You can hike / to groves of giant

    sequoias. // The giant sequoia trees /

    are the largest living things / on earth. //

    You can view / one or more / of

    Yosemite's famous waterfalls. // They

    are a close walk / from the parking

    area. // Stop at El Capitan Meadow /

    for a view / of the famous rock

    formations. // Use binoculars / to look

    for climbers / on the rock formations. //

    LESSON 9

    Phrase-Cued Text

  • 50

    Yosemite National Park (continued)Watch the stars / on warm summer

    nights. // Because the park / is miles from

    city lights, / it offers a place to see

    constellations. // A constellation / is a

    group of stars / that forms pictures / in

    the sky. // Astronomy walks and talks /

    are offered at several locations /

    throughout the summer. //

    Tioga Road / is one of the most popular /

    scenic drives. // You will pass / granite

    domes, / lakes, / and meadows. // If you

    prefer / not to drive, / take the two-hour /

    Yosemite Valley tram tour. // The tour

    includes / a discussion of Yosemite's /

    most famous landmarks / and the history

    of the park. //

    LESSON 2

    LESSON 9

    Phrase-Cued Text

  • 51

    Yosemite National Park is located in California. The park isknown for its towering rocks and stunning waterfalls. It hasthe most astonishing and drastic landscape of lakes, trees,rivers, and mountains. At Yosemite you can rent tents,rooms, and cottages.

    (Write the words as one word.)Yo sem it e na tion al Cal i for ni a a ston ish ing_________ __________ __________ ___________(Write the rhyming words.)

    1. tower – p__ __ __ __ fl__ __ __ __ 2. running – st__ __ __ __ __ __3. drastic – pl__ __ __ __ __ fant__ __ __ __ __ 4. astonish – adm__ __ __ __ __

    (Write the missing letters.)

    stunning – liv__ __ __ park__ __ __ tower__ __ __ astonish__ __ __ bik__ __ __

    You can hike to groves of giant sequoias. The giant sequoiatrees are the largest living things on earth. You can view oneor more of Yosemite's famous waterfalls. They are a closewalk from the parking area. Stop at El Capitan Meadow for aview of the famous rock formations. Use binoculars to look forclimbers on the rock formations.

    (Write the words as one word.)

    se quoi as mead ow for ma tions bi noc u lars_________ __________ __________ ___________(Write the rhyming words.)

    1. formation – loc__ __ __ __ __ rot__ __ __ __ __ 2. parking – b__ __ __ __ __ __3. cove – gr__ __ __ st__ __ __ dr__ __ __ 4. giving – l__ __ __ __ __

    (Write the missing letters.)

    magma – lav__ Tiog__ sequoi__ are__ Olympia Californ__ __ As__ __(Find the compound words.)

    PART 1 > water__ __ __ __ __ land__ __ __ __ __ PART 2 > water__ __ __ __ __

    PART 2

    PART 1

  • 52

    Watch the stars on warm summer nights. Because the park ismiles from city lights, it offers a place to see constellations. Aconstellation is a group of stars that forms pictures in the sky.Astronomy walks and talks are offered at several locationsthroughout the summer.

    (Write the words as one word.)con stell a tion a stron o my sev er al through out_________ __________ __________ ___________(Write the rhyming words.)

    1. nights– l__ __ __ __ __ fl__ __ __ __ __ 2. location – form__ __ __ __ __3. nation – st__ __ __ __ __ constell__ __ __ __ __ 4. soup – gr__ __ __

    (Write the missing letters.)

    location – form__ __ __ __ __ popul__ __ __ __ __ migr__ __ __ __ __

    Tioga Road is one of the most popular scenic drives. You willpass granite domes, lakes, and meadows. If you prefer not todrive, take the two-hour Yosemite Valley tram tour. The tourincludes a discussion of Yosemite's most famous landmarks andthe history of the park.

    (Write the words as one word.)se quoi as mead ows for ma tions bi noc u lars

    _________ __________ __________ ___________(Write the rhyming words.)

    1. drastic – elast__ __ fantast__ __ 2. history – vic __ __ __ __3. location – constell__ __ __ __ __ 4. numerous – humor__ __ __

    (Write the missing letters.)

    scenic – drast__ __ volcan__ __ mus__ __ traff__ __ athlete__ __ realist__ __(Find the compound word.)

    PART 3 > through__ __ __

    PART 3

    PART 4

  • 53

    Yosemite National Park (9)Yosemite National Park is located inCalifornia. The park is known for itstowering rocks and stunning waterfalls. Ithas the most astonishing and drasticlandscape of lakes, trees, rivers, andmountains. At Yosemite you can renttents, rooms, and cottages.

    You can hike to groves of giant sequoias.The giant sequoia trees are the largestliving things on earth. You can view one ormore of Yosemite's famous waterfalls.They are a close walk from the parkingarea. Stop at El Capitan Meadow for aview of the famous rock formations. Usebinoculars to look for climbers on the rockformations.

    Watch the stars on warm summer nights.Because the park is miles from city lights, itoffers a place to see constellations. Aconstellation is a group of stars that formspictures in the sky. Astronomy walks andtalks are offered at several locationsthroughout the summer.

    Tioga Road is one of the most popularscenic drives. You will pass granitedomes, lakes, and meadows. If you prefernot to drive, take the two-hour YosemiteValley tram tour. The tour includes adiscussion of Yosemite's most famouslandmarks and the history of the park.

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    TIMEDREADING

  • 54

    Yosemite National Park (9)Yosemite National Park is located inCalifornia. The park is known for itstowering rocks and stunning waterfalls. Ithas the most astonishing and drasticlandscape of lakes, trees, rivers, andmountains. At Yosemite you can renttents, rooms, and cottages.

    You can hike to groves of giant sequoias.The giant sequoia trees are the largestliving things on earth. You can view one ormore of Yosemite's famous waterfalls.They are a close walk from the parkingarea. Stop at El Capitan Meadow for aview of the famous rock formations. Usebinoculars to look for climbers on the rockformations.

    Watch the stars on warm summer nights.Because the park is miles from city lights, itoffers a place to see constellations. Aconstellation is a group of stars that formspictures in the sky. Astronomy walks andtalks are offered at several locationsthroughout the summer.

    Tioga Road is one of the most popularscenic drives. You will pass granitedomes, lakes, and meadows. If you prefernot to drive, take the two-hour YosemiteValley tram tour. The tour includes adiscussion of Yosemite's most famouslandmarks and the history of the park.

    Reading with Expression

  • 55

    Volcanoes

    Volcanoes are / one of nature's most

    spectacular / and dangerous wonders. //

    Volcanoes are openings / in the earth’s

    surface. // When they are active, / burning gas,

    / boiling rocks, / and ash / escape from the

    opening. // They are like / giant safety valves /

    that release the pressure / that builds up inside

    the earth. // When a volcano explodes, / it is

    called an eruption. There are flying rocks, /

    landslides, / and lava flows. //

    Some volcanoes can be / gently sloping

    mountains. // They can have one / or more

    cracks / where liquid rock, or magma, can

    travel upward / from deep inside the earth. //

    Once magma reaches the surface, / it is called

    lava. // Other volcanoes are steep mountains /

    with a large hole / at the top. // These are

    called / cinder cone volcanoes. They are the

    kind of volcano / that explodes. //

    LESSON 10

    Phrase-Cued Text

  • 56

    Volcanoes (continued)Most cinder cones / have a bowl-shaped crater / at

    the summit. // They rarely rise / more than a

    thousand feet / above their surroundings. // Cinder

    cones are numerous in / western North America /

    and throughout other volcanic areas. // Scientists

    have divided volcanoes / into three main categories: /

    active (recently erupted, / may erupt soon); / dormant

    (not erupted in long time, / but can erupt); / and

    extinct (with no possibility of eruption). //

    There are about 535 active volcanoes. // Eighty of

    these / are below the sea. // Erupting volcanoes /

    can do much damage. Volcanic eruptions / can

    send ash / high into the air, / over 17 miles / above

    the earth’s surface. // When Iceland's volcano /

    erupted in April, / 2010, / airplanes in Europe were

    grounded / because the ash / could harm their

    engines. // Volcanoes can make new land. In 1963,

    / an island called Surtsey / south of Iceland, / was

    made by a volcano / erupting under the sea. //

    LESSON 2LESSON 10

    Phrase-Cued Text

  • 57

    Volcanoes are one of nature's most spectacular anddangerous wonders. Volcanoes are openings in the earth’ssurface. When they are active, burning gas, boiling rocks,and ash escape from the opening. They are like giant safetyvalves that release the pressure that builds up inside theearth. When a volcano explodes, it is called an eruption.There are flying rocks, landslides, and lava flows.

    (Write the words as one word.)vol ca noes spec tac u lar dan ger ous e rup tion

    _________ __________ __________ ___________(Write the rhyming words.)

    1. danger –r__ __ __ __ __ str__ __ __ __ __ 2. burning – t__ __ __ __ __ __3. lease – rel __ __ __ __ incr__ __ __ __ 4. eruption – corr__ __ __ __ __ __

    (Write the missing letters.)

    famous – danger__ __ __ numer__ __ __ poison__ __ __ mountain__ __ __

    Some volcanoes can be gently sloping mountains. They canhave one or more cracks where liquid rock, or magma, cantravel upward from deep inside the earth. Once magmareaches the surface, it is called lava. Other volcanoes aresteep mountains with a large hole at the top. These are calledcinder cone volcanoes. They are the kind of volcano thatexplodes.

    (Write the words as one word.)vol ca noes moun tains up ward ex plodes

    _________ __________ __________ ___________(Write the rhyming words.)

    1. roping – h__ __ __ __ __ sl__ __ __ __ __ 2. mountain – f__ __ __ __ __ __ __3. reaches – b__ __ __ __ __ __ t__ __ __ __ __ __ 4. travel – g__ __ __ __ __

    (Write the missing letter.)

    lava – magm__ tundr__ Florid__ Iow__ Tiog__ Dakot__ Californi__

    PART 2

    PART 1

  • 58

    Most cinder cones have a bowl-shaped crater at the summit.They rarely rise more than a thousand feet above theirsurroundings. Cinder cones are numerous in western NorthAmerica and throughout other volcanic areas. Scientists havedivided volcanoes into three main categories: active (recentlyerupted, may erupt soon); dormant (not erupted in long time, butcan erupt); and extinct (with no possibility of eruption).

    (Write the words as one word.sur round ings A mer i ca through out cat e gor y_________ __________ __________ ___________(Write the rhyming words.)

    1. later – cr__ __ __ __ sk__ __ __ __ 2. around – sur__ __ __ __ __3. panic – volc__ __ __ __ org__ __ __ __ 4. erupt – dis__ __ __ __

    (Write the missing letters.)

    volcanic – organ__ __ drast__ __ scen__ __ mus__ __ electron__ __

    There are about 535 active volcanoes. Eighty of these are belowthe sea. Erupting volcanoes can do much damage. Volcaniceruptions can send ash high into the air, over 17 miles above theearth’s surface. When Iceland's volcano erupted in April, 2010,airplanes in Europe were grounded because the ash could harmtheir engines. Volcanoes can make new land. In 1963, an islandcalled Surtsey south of Iceland, was made by a volcano eruptingunder the sea.

    (Write the words as one word.)eight y e rupt ing air planes en gines

    _________ __________ __________ ___________(Write the rhyming words.)

    1. found – gr__ __ __ __ surr__ __ __ __ 2. under – th__ __ __ __ __(Write the missing letters.)

    active – attrac__ __ __ __ protect__ __ __ erupting fly__ __ __ open__ __ __

    PART 3

    PART 4

  • 59

    Volcanoes (10)Volcanoes are one of nature's most spectacular anddangerous wonders. Volcanoes are openings in the earth’ssurface. When they are active, burning gas, boiling rocks,and ash escape from the opening. They are like giantsafety valves that release the pressure that builds up insidethe earth. When a volcano explodes, it is called aneruption. There are flying rocks, landslides, and lava flows.

    Some volcanoes can be gently sloping mountains. Theycan have one or more cracks where liquid rock, or magma,can travel upward from deep inside the earth. Oncemagma reaches the surface, it is called lava. Othervolcanoes are steep mountains with a large hole at