Dict Arab Englez

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CORNELLUNIVERSITY LIBRARY

nm7:H.m.l.l!

the letter

Words containing a letter of prolongation or a doubled consonant.thrownthus:

In Derivatives or Plurals of this description, not found in the Dictionary,or only rendered by meanings which do not fully meet the requirementsof the case, these letters are to beout, to obtain the root, or

the singular,1.\

if

it is

a plural nounthe measures

;

in words of"

J^\i/a'i7, the

well-known form of the Agent or active

participle,

who

does."

JUi

/a"Z,

where also the double consonantfrequently, habitually, by

is

to be rejected, or in

other words, the Ta&did to be removed, intensive of the former,"

who does

way

of trade."

* It is true that, by the arrangement explained in this and the previous paragraph, sometimes different roots or their derivatives are thrown together under the same heading under the heading Jic for:

we give, besides ^add and Hdd, belonging to the root (J*c), also the word ^udd, " pustule," apparently itself a root, and under the feminine form 6.vc we include 'ida-t, " promise, threat," derived from the root (>"^^). But this very juxtaposition of disparate meanings willinstance,strike the attention of a thoughtful student, and continually remind him, that in Arabic, more than in any other language, very similar forms may have a vastly distinct origin.

VI

t

PREFACE.

J^

fi'dl.

Infinitive, exceptionally

case,

however,

it

of the primitive verb (in which alphabetical will be found as a reference in its

the more place), regularly of the third conjugation, along with " doing with regard mufd'ala-t, measurefrequently usedto another,

^U-

doing reciprocally on the part of two or more."fi'l,

Also Plural of nouns of the measure Ji/a'Z,feminine form in6.

fw'l,

and

its

^

^

'^fa'W,

of feminine of the measure J>^\ afal, forming adjectives

defect

and colour

(see Class II.)letters,

Lastly, in Plurals of

words which consist of four or moretrisyllabic,

trieither originally, or through the introduction of servile letters into

literal roots.(1

These plurals are

with a

(

)

after the first,

(\

) after the second,

and

i

()I

after the penultimate consonant.

If all the letters of the singular are radical, the

measure

is

JJUi

fa'dlil,

where the secondbe

corresponds to the fourth and fol;

lowing consonants of the singularquadriliteral,it

andwill

if

the

singular\

is

will

obtained

by dropping theit

of pro-

longation of

the plural;

otherwise

be referred to in

the alphabetical place of the latter.*

The plural measurestriliteral roots, are

of words of four

and more

letters, reducible to

JcU\

afit'il,

plural of nouns, or of certain other plurals beginning,

with

\

or of adjectives of the measure J**^ afal used substan-

tively (see Class II.).

JcUj

tafd'il,

plural of

a1Aj tafila-t.

Infinitive of the second conjugation,

mostly of verbs terminating in a weak consonant (see Class III.).JjVi fa'd'il,

not given in the Dictionary amongst the alphabetical

references

when

it

is

plural of J-i fa'U or Huai fa'ila-t (the

* The plural ^^;J dinVnm, for instance, is not mentioned, in the alphabetical order, because the elimination of the \ points to the singular ^)J dirhiDi, name of the well-known coin but Ej^ safari] is quoted 'anddil as plural of '-t-^aac as plural of J=i-/- safarjal, "quince," 'andalib, " nightingale," because they do not contain all the letters of;

JJ^

their respective singulars. t For instance: g^^ asdh>\ plural of f~o\ nsha', 'isha', "finger"; w_J\^ al-i'ilib, plural of ^^^ alduh, plural of paucity of ^-^ halh, " dog " aa\vjWk/i(/( i/i(, plural of ^->^ adhum, " very black," used substantively Throwing out the for a black horse, or for the chains of a prisoner.;

Alif of prolongation you obtain the heading under which the wished- for information will be found.

PREFACE.The Author'saim, in preparing the present volume, has been to provide

the English student, at a moderate price, with a Dictionary which would

enable him to read, not only Arabic books of a limited vocabulary, asthe Qur'dn, or of a comparatively easy and familiar style, as the Arabian

Nights; but also such other standard works of a wider etymologicalrange, as theal-Hariri,

Hamdsah, the Mu'allaqnt, and, abovelate

all,

the

Maqdmdt

of

which may, with the

Mr. Chenery, be aptly designated as

a "

niceties.

Compendium of the Arabic Language " in all its intricacies and The dif&culty of such an undertaking lies in finding the golden mean between a merely alphabetical arrangement, which would swell thebook into an inordinatesize,

and a

strictly etymological disposition

under

roots,

which would, undoubtedly, be more to the taste of the scholar,

but frequently embarrass, and hence discourage, the learner

whom we

want to aid in his

first

steps on a journey sufficiently toilsome in itself.

An

endeavour of this kind has been made by Prof. Cherbonneau, in his

Ai'abic-French Dictionary, and, on a far more extensive scale and in asuperior manner, by Dr. Adolfof the Arabic and

Wahrmund, in his Manual Dictionary German Languages and these two works, especially;

the latter, checked by, and occasionally enlarged upon from the

MuM{

(an Arabic Dictionary, published in Arabic by Dr. P. Bustani in Bey rout),

form the groundwork of our own book, with such modifications andadditions, however, as to secure forit

a fair degree of originality.

We

are

now going

to set forth, as briefly as can be done compatiblyis

with clearness, the general plan on which this Dictionary

worked

out.

The Arabic words are given in their crude form,

i.e.

the form in which

they appear before the grammatical terminations are added, and in

Arabic type only as far as they are represented by the

letters

of the

IV

PREFACE.

alphabet, leaving the rendering of the diacritical signs,to the transliteration.*

Hamzah included,were, a skeleton,

Thus each word forms,itself,

as

it

dead and meaningless in(vowel-points),

by the Harakat and further to be individualized, as of Arab kin by thebut moved intolife

rrab (grammatical

inflection).

To every male,

if

I

may be

allowed to

continue the metaphor, its consort is allotted, that is to say,

under each

heading the form or forms with the feminine terminationto those withoutit, if

are subjoined

both are in use.

This has been done, because

frequently the two forms stand mutually in the relationship of singular

and

plural,

article,

many

and therefore, by bringing them together in the same In a similar way cross-references could be spared.ffinal

derivatives

with a

ts

>

especially

when

forming the so-calledoffspring,if

Nisbah or noun of relation

(in ^5), are, as

a natural

joined

under the same headingbetical order

to the parent-iorm,

but only,

the alphait

would already bring them in immediate contact with

(see e.g. article

JW^

haydl, &c., p. 347).

Roots, whether triHteral or quadriliteral, are found under two headings.

One, placed in parentheses, gives the primitive verbs in the third personsingular masculine, together with their Infinitives,

and the

Infinitives of

the derived conjugations.

In

triliteral

verbs the medial vowel of the

* The student, when about to make use of this Dictionary, is of course supposed to be well acquainted with these signs from his Grammar, and should his text be pointed, he will have no difficulty in finding the equivalent in transliteration, for any word he may look out, by referIf, on the contrary, these signs are ring to the heading in Arabic type. omitted from the text, as is always done in editions printed in the East (for instance, in the Arabian Nights, which he is particularly expected to read), it would be decidedly more bewildering for him to pick out, from perhaps half-a-dozen or more repetitions of the same group of Arabic letters, variously marked, that special combination which he wants while, by using the one heading, which represents the letters in his book, as a master-key for the different meanings, his eye has simply to run over the article in order to ascertain that particulai- form which gives an appropriate sense to the passage in hand. i f If in the first part of an article is placed after a generic noun it if after an adjective, indicates either the female or the noun of unity In the second part, the various forms are it stands for the feminine. given in which a word ha