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    Organizational Conflict

    Organizational Conflict

    Organizational conflict is a clash of opposing actions or ideas and notions among team

    members and colleagues who work together in an organization. This is caused by the divergence

    of interests, ethics and value orientations. Conflict arises due to mismatch of formal

    organizational principles and the actual behavior of team members (Schulz, !!"#.

    Conflict Origins

    One of the basic functions of management is leading. $ strong leader knows how to

    handle diverse members working in the organization. %n fact, an e&emplary leader would always

    prefer diversity rather than homogeneity and take the utmost advantage of the diverse work

    force. %t can be said that diversity in an organization can be a reason for the conflicts. 'owever,

    conflicts also arise when people belonging to different backgrounds, values, e&periences, beliefs

    and perceptions come together at a work place. Conflicts occur on a daily basis when people

    work in the team on specific proects. )hatever the situation is, the conflict * team management

    can be considered as a factor that almost always prevalent in every organization (+eter, !!#.

    Identification and analysis of a current area of organization

    Conflict management has also become a specialized field, and various methods have been

    devised to deal with the issues. Similarly, the conflict management team of my organization has

    identified that the use of the diverse team members has increased considerably which in turn

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    e&posed the organization and team working on the certain proect dangers of conflicts and issues

    ('erbert, !!-#.

    Tracing the origins of the conflict back to its inception

    ifferent warning signs showed the management of the organization that the company is

    heading for trouble. /usiness started to under0perform, more often than not demonstrated by

    missing trading targets. This resulted because of internal conflicts and differences. 1irst minor

    differences appeared among team member, but differences became conflicts when they linger on

    in a negative way and when they were not managed (Calvin, "223#.

    The main parties involved in the conflict

    $ll teams are groups but not all groups are teams. $ group is the mere assembly of

    people brought together while team members come together for a common cause and mission.

    The key difference between a team and a group is performance. )hen employees work as a team

    or work group they are also responsible for the numbers they are contributing and the targets

    they are achieving. They become responsible for numbers because they monitor and follow

    output and try to find out ways to improve it. %f they fail to achieve targets, work group members

    can work together to resolve the issues. On the other hand, conflicts and differences emerge if

    team members are not aware of the mission they are achieving and personal goals or egos take

    over the organizational goals and mission. This reveals that the main parties that were involved

    in the conflict were the team and group members (4iller, "22#.

    Identification of the primary source of the argument

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    $ poor team betrays hidden agendas with team goals subordinated to them thus breaching

    the trust which should serve as the glue. The climate in such a poor team is overly critical, tense,

    political, cynical, inhibiting and encouraging conflict and disagreements. $ll these factors were

    the primary source that initiated arguments among team members (+eter, !!#.

    Ways to mediate and resolve conflict

    The style of the team leader becomes important in creating the favourable climate. $n

    effective team leader focuses on the goals, ensures a collaborative climate, builds confidence,

    demonstrates sufficient technical knowhow, sets priorities, and manages performance as well as

    conflicts. $n outstanding leader should not play politics, should make communication safe, and

    should help the team members see their relevance to the goal thus keeping the goals alive and the

    mission stable in order to avoid any conflicts and manage performance. $ leader should be fair,

    impartial, and open and should be willing to match his5her resources with those of others, should

    the others have the resources the leader may not have. %n order to mange a team as well as

    conflicts within a team an important 6uality that a leader must possess is that he must be able to

    manage his5her ego (Calvin, "223#.

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    Similar instances of conflict

    There have been similar instances of conflicts in which different teams and groups

    indulged in the conflict. These instances of the group and team conflict occurred many years


    Conflicts negotiation

    )hen problems are repeated due to the group and team conflicts, then the management

    planned the usual coordination. Coordination was done through preset programs, which specified

    what activities are going running and when and who is supposed to report whom. %n contrast, in

    situations those were changing rapidly and in which there were always new and unfamiliar

    problems, in this case management decided to go for coordination by feedback. This

    coordination system was designed in such a way that it had the capability to perceive deviations

    and report to managers (4iller, "22#.

    Analysis of the sources of conflict

    7ine units and staff were designed to be highly interdependent, and the conflict between

    them can be seen as a special case of conflict between interdependent units. The creation of a

    unit of staff tends to diminish the authority of the line manager. %n addition, the unit staff was

    usually in the goalkeeper position relative to the line manager.

    The distribution of power

    %n order to manage the conflicts, the idea of self0leadership has also surfaced according to

    which leader is not a designation on a certain level of organizational hierarchy rather all

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    members are allowed to take up leadership role. 8/y encouraging self leadership, organization

    can begin to tap the skills and capabilities of the entire workforce rather than ust those of the

    managerial elite. $pproaching leadership the tasks of freeing individuals to direct themselves

    turn many of our strongest notions of leadership to end. The definition of leadership changes to

    become one of leading others to lead themselves. The measure of a leader9s strength becomes the

    ability to ma&imize the contributions of others through recognitions of their abilities to guide

    their own destiny rather than the leader9s ability to bend the will of others to fit his or her own:

    (4iller, "22#.

    valuation of the decision!making that occurs under such conditions

    Organization made sure that training is imparted at all levels in the organization to

    inculcate the true concept of a team as well as the difference between the team and the group.

    The training did not blatantly about conflict resolution rather leadership seminars, and team

    management skills made eventually room for conflict management. 4odern management

    practices now encourage teams, empowerment and leadership at all levels and these concepts

    naturally negate conflicts of personal or other interests. 'ence, success lies in adopting such

    modern concepts of management (+eter, !!#.

    "o the decisions further fuel the fire of conflict or do they assuage the situation#

    $s a result, of the training that was provided at all levels of the organization was very

    helpful to deal with the issue of conflict management. This training lent a hand to the employees

    in understanding the real concept of working in teams. $s a result of this training, the occurrence

    of the events of conflict issue decreased significantly.

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    Calvin, 4. ("223#, 8The Executive Way: Conflict Management in Corporations:,

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    Conflict resolution and peacemaking


    Conflict resolution e&plores the causes of conflict. %t involves a negotiating process

    where each side pursues its interests and where the parties are able to reach a mutual agreement.

    %t refers to an agreement by both parties where they demonstrate a high level of commitment.

    The basic needs and insecurities have a great capacity to be sustained. )orking trust is build

    between parties. >ew relationship is building between parties such as partnership. %t transforms

    the relationship among parties. %t contributes towards peacemaking by developing improved

    relationships with different attitudes. $nother aspect of peacemaking is reconciliation.

    Settlement, resolution and reconciliation are three approaches of peacemaking ($ugsburger,


    Conflict resolution

    Conflicts are a sign of a healthy e&change of ideas and creativity. 'owever, conflicts can

    be harmful and cause discontent among employees, reduced productivity, poor customer service,

    absenteeism and higher turnover of staff, more stress or work0related. Conflicts are a certain part

    of human relationships. Conflicts can arise when different views and concerns that seems

    incompatible. %f we accept the conflict as a natural part of our emotional landscape 0 instead of

    waiting they disappear and do arise0more, we can resolve them more easily.

    The present study of international relations begins in the !th century with the e&perience

    of global conflict and the desire to shun successive wars. This normative impulsion still activates

    very small literature is associated to the study of peace rather than the study of war, and even less

    is dedicated to the study of peacemaking. )hereas the analysis of bargaining is currently the

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    citadel of the rationalist school, mediation and peacemaking are still strongholds of practitioners

    who rely mainly on psychological and sociological approaches. Third0party dispute resolution is

    one of the most conventional behaviors in international politics. 4ost violent or potentially

    violent conflicts in the twentieth century e&perienced mediation attempts, often multiple ones.

    %nternational organizations and private individuals are involved in numerous attempts to

    resolve international disputes without violence, or at least to minimize the level of violence

    resulting. 1or practitioners, such a framework can offer new insights and more rigid

    prescriptionsA for theorists it can help fill theoretical lacuna and offer pathways toward future

    research ($ugsburger, "22#.

    Conflict resolution is a concept associated with human relationships, primarily related to

    management and methods and tools to aid decision making. %t consists in choosing a solution to a

    confrontation and its implementation. )hen it comes to practices against the udicial system or a

    state decision, it is called alternative dispute resolution. The conflict is a situation where social

    actors in interdependence, or different goals, advocate conflicting values, have different interests

    or opposed, or competitively and simultaneously pursue a common goal.

    The concept of social status refers to that link and threshold beyond which a relationship

    is established (one cannot be in conflict with a stranger than when it is related to us#. The conflict

    arises in a system akin to a set of elements inter dynamics with a single purpose, which all the

    elements involved in achieving it. The conflict is a divergence in the purpose. The competition at

    the root of conflict, intended or not, but she cannot be substantiated as a group does not motivate

    (=ilady, !""#. Conflict can also be a negative and detrimental to the success of the group. %t is

    then for the group to approach conflict constructively before it is finally settled, not only

    escalates and corrodes the foundation until the structure collapses.

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    +eacemaking, especially in the literature on third0party contributions to dispute

    resolution, is concerned especially with the conditions whereby mutually acceptable settlement

    of disputes can be achieved. Bet there are circumstances under which coercive settlement can be

    useful. ominance by one party may actually help propel movement toward a settlement, as can

    the power of a third0party intervener that is not neutral. This understanding informs recent

    developments in the role of ations peacekeeping, shifting away from traditional

    peacekeeping (impartial, largely nonviolent, with the consent of the parties, only after a ceasefire

    has been achieved# to more active and vigorous efforts to enforce peace.

    4any theorists of international relations neglect peacemaking, leaving it to practitioners

    and, to proponents of psychological and sociological approaches. The result is literature with a

    relatively prescriptive and ad hoc case study approach that leaves a wide gap between it and

    normal concerns in international relations theory. That gap hampers dialogue and pushes the

    topic to the periphery, far from its real importance in the day0today practice of international

    relations. The reasons for these deficiencies are many. 1or some analysts the need for

    peacemaking already suggests a failure of the theoretical endeavor because the war was not

    averted. They therefore, direct their efforts toward means to release us from the need for

    peacemaking by preventing conflicts altogether.


    +eacemaking techni6ues are commonly employed to avert war preventive diplomacy,

    mediation, arbitration and adudication can take place before a single bullet is fired. Thus, the

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    notion of peacemaking need not imply the e&istence of a vital war, but rather a conflict of

    interest that might deteriorate into war. 4ediation in such circumstances is often 6uiet and

    unobtrusive, with little e&ternal manifestation of any sense of crisis, thus making it virtually

    impossible to bind the universe of cases and especially to identify successes. >evertheless, third0

    party intervention is also widely employed long after violence has become intense, as a means to

    bring about a ceasefire and, ultimately, a peaceful settlement.

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    $ugsburger, . ("22#. Conflict mediation across cultures. 7ouisville, Dentucky )estminster 5

    ?ohn Dno& +ress.

    =ilady, 7ilach, and /ruce ;ussett. (!""#E+eacemaking and Conflict ;esolution.E 'andbook of

    %nternational ;elations. S$=F +ublications.

    )ilmot,). * ?ouyce 'ocker. (!!G#. %nterpersonal conflict. >ew Bork, >B 4c=raw0'ill

    Companies ()ilmot, !!G#.

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    Conflict Resolution in Project Management


    Project management refers to all actions required to meet a

    definite need within the deadlines. Thus, as the project is a

    temporary action that has a beginning and end, using identified

    resources (human and material during its e!ecution, and that

    costs should be budgeted resources and a balance sheet

    separately from the company ("rame, #$$$. %&nd products% refers

    to the e!pected outcomes of the project. The difficulty of

    managing a project is largely on the number of people in'ol'ed.

    n fact, in contrast with personal or internal projects in small

    scale for which the need and the response to this need can be

    pro'ided by the same person or a limited group of people, in a

    project in the professional sense, the term of need and

    satisfaction of this need is generally the responsibility of

    different people ("rame, #$$$. This increases the probability

    of conflict while managing the project) hence, it is said that

    *conflict during project management is ine'itable+.

    Thus, it is necessary to ensure (for the duration of the

    project that the product is being clearly meets the

    e!pectations of the %client.% n contrast to the traditional

    commercial model (%eller% - %purchaser% in which a customer

    buys a product and manufactured to meet your needs, the project

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    sees to create an original product that meets a specific need

    that must be clearly e!pressed. This e!pression of needs is e'en

    more difficult because usually the project is unprecedented in

    the company, since it is a no'elty. n the opposite way, it is

    generally difficult to summari/e e!isting solutions focus solely

    on the needs in functional terms.

    &ffecti'e project management requires efficient crisis

    management techniques) because while managing a project there is

    a strong probability of crisis or conflicts. Project management

    requires interaction of a lot of people) each ha'ing a different

    frame of mine, beha'ior, personality and range of ideas that he

    wants to contribute ("rame, #$$$. 0ence, when all these people

    interact with each other the situation of conflict often arises.

    Therefore conflict management is critically important while

    managing a project because the project will ultimately fail if

    proper techniques are not adapted for resol'ing the conflict.

    Discussion and Analysis

    Project Management Overview

    Project management in'ol'es four different stages1

    Project nitiation

    Project Planning

    Project &!ecution

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    Project Closedown

    Project Initiation

    The initiation phase project management in'ol'es three

    different stages1

    #. dentification of 'aluable projects

    2. coping the project goals

    3. 4nderstanding riss and constraints

    Identification of Valuable Projects

    To identify worthwhile projects is important to consider

    certain criteria for its successful completion, among which

    stood out in this section were1

    The selection and prioriti/ation of projects is the first

    step in the startup phase of the project management process.

    5ist all projects must be completed, including those who

    ha'e started and those who want to do.

    6ot e'ery project is worthwhile will be reali/ed as to

    differentiate between good and bad in accordance with the

    following steps are suggested for this purpose1

    o 5ist all current projects.

    o 7etermine the need or opportunity for e'eryone.

    o &stablishing deadlines and tentati'e budgets.

    o Rate the o'erall feasibility of each project.

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    o &stablish riss associated with each project.

    o Condense the 'iability of each project with the team.

    o Remo'e from list projects that turned out to be

    inappropriate or impractical.

    o elect the most important projects and act on them.

    The success of any project depends on the proper balance of

    time and resources to meet specific objecti'es.

    The project management process helps us get things done on

    time and within budget (7insmore, Cabanis89rewin, 2::;.

    Scoping the Project Goals

    The goals are to specify what is e!pected to reach the end

    of a project are also considered the heart, the mission and

    purpose of starting a project (7insmore, Cabanis89rewin, 2::;.

    9ecause of its importance must meet the following criteria1

    Must be specific as to what is intended by the project.

    hould be realistic, i.e. achie'able.

    Must ha'e a time component. nclude a target date of


    Must be measurable and deli'erable in their results.

    9e agreed by the client and the team.

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    =nother important point is to consider the scope of the


    Understanding risks and Constraints

    >ne ris in'ol'es something that can be e!pected to

    malfunction, so the planning must anticipate those that may

    interfere with proper de'elopment. n this regard, a critical

    analysis of the project is crucial to start in an acceptable and

    feasible (Reiss, #$$?. =lso, if the goals of a project seem too

    large or risy, you should thin about split to mae smaller

    projects, each with greater feasibility (Reiss, #$$?.

    "urthermore, the restrictions are an important factor in

    establishing the project plan and when it is aimed. There are

    three types of constraints1

    Those that can be predicted.

    Those that arise in the medium project.

    Projects that are based on ill thought out or lacing


    ome of the restrictions in the projects are1

    The budget


    The people responsible for the project

    "acilities and equipment

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    Project Planning

    There are fi'e steps in'ol'ed while planning the project)

    assigning the tass, structuring the project, ris management,

    monitoring the progress and e'aluation.

    Assigning the Tasks

    &ach project is composed of tass or acti'ities. "or the

    project to succeed, first of all it is necessary to carefully

    plan the tass and then organi/e them in order of priority. The

    following form can be used to present some useful ideas to your

    group or project staff (Richman, 2::2. 7i'ide people into small

    groups and as them to plan a simple tas. Tal about ways that

    were used to plan the same tas. =s the same groups that are

    newly formed and gi'e a more difficult tas of planning

    preferably something related to their wor (Richman, 2::2.

    Together, compile a single list of tass in order of priority.

    6ow introduce the idea of the "i'e "inger @uestions.

    Ahat is the tas you are planningB

    0ow do you carry out the tasB

    Aho will carry out the worB

    Ahere will be the job doneB

    Ahen will do the jobB

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    Project Structure

    The purpose of the structure of the project is ensuring

    detailed planning of acti'ities throughout the project. 4nlie

    the pre'ious method, this includes monitoring (record eeping

    constant modification of wor and e'aluation (to measure the

    success of the wor ("rame, 2::2. The structure is set at the

    beginning of the project and is modified as necessary. t is

    ad'isable to e!pose the structure of the walls of the project


    Risk Manageent

    Riss are e'ents that can negati'ely affect your project.

    ha'e wored on projects in which the riss included1 a staff job

    that he had the technical sills required to perform the wor,

    lac of timely deli'ery of hardware or other equipment, a

    control room at ris of flooding and many others. The riss

    'ary with each project but should be early identification of

    project riss in particular ("rame, 2::2. hould be planned to

    a'oid the riss or, if riss cannot be a'oided, to mitigate its

    impact on the project if it actually happens. This is nown as

    ris management.

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    Monitoring and Reporting Project Status

    >nce the project is running you must closely monitor and

    compare actual progress with the project. Progress reports need

    to be producing project team members.

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    from the client (0owes, 2::#. 7uring project e!ecution,

    emphasis should be placed in communication to mae decisions as

    quicly as possible if problems arise. t is possible to

    accelerate the project by establishing a communication plan


    The use of a board that graphically displays the results of

    the project, allowing the project manager to arbitrate in

    case of 'ariations.

    = progress report that allows e'eryone in'ol'ed in the

    project to be informed about actions in progress and those

    completed. enerally, %report% includes the complete

    preparation and reporting on acti'ities.

    n addition, should be organi/ed regularly (once a wee,

    preferably meetings to manage the project team, i.e. regularly

    discuss project progress and identify priorities for the ne!t

    few wees (0owes, 2::#.

    Project Closedown

    Projects must be completed as accurately they were started.

    9efore tacling new tass, those that were started should be

    completed correctly. 0owe'er, the fence project is often

    neglected, and the projects are completed %properly%. 9efore

    tacling new tass, those that were started should be completed


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    Control objecti'es

    4nload the project manager

    Clarify the legal ambiguities and trade

    &nsure and maintain the gains

    &nsure integration of project worers in serial tass or

    new projects.

    t is recommended to close a project using a checlist1

    7ates for the final presentation and the dismantling of the

    project team and project infrastructure set with the payer.

    &'aluation of the negati'e and positi'e results.

    n'itation sent to the final presentation.

    "inal presentation conducted.

    >utcome of the project formally appro'ed and documented

    performance of the contract.

    Post8project calculations made.

    Closure report for the proposed project.

    mportant documents of the archi'e project in a structured


    Project Closeout celebrated with all participants.

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    Understanding the Conflict

    Conflict is normal in a dynamic company, where ideas flow.

    The absence of tension would e'en rather bad sign. The notion of

    conflict is ey and core of the thought of Psychology ocial.

    Conflict is inherent in the interaction of man (Rahim, #$$:.

    Conflict pertains to different interests and opinions between

    two or more parties on a particular situation or issue. t

    in'ol'es thining and action of those in'ol'ed. There are

    different types of conflicts that arise while managing a project

    some of them are constructi'e and some destructi'e (Rahim, #$$:.

    Interest-based Conflicts

    These conflicts are about the actual or percei'ed

    competition by different people or groups ha'e conflicting

    interests o'er the content or procedures wor, how they e'aluate

    the wor and people (Rahim, #$$:. Possible management

    inter'entions recommended in such conflicts are to define

    objecti'e criteria for ordering and assessing tass, focus on

    interests and not positions of people and de'elop solutions that

    integrate the interests of different parties.

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    Structural Conflicts

    The perception of authority and unequal distribution (fair

    share of resources, en'ironmental factors that hinder

    cooperation. n these cases, possible management inter'entions

    are recommended1 clear definitions of tass, authority and

    responsibility, role changes, reallocation of resources and

    control, establishing decision8maing processes that are

    acceptable to the parties to modify styles influence, much less

    %coercion% and more persuasi'e (Pammer, Dillian, 2::3.

    Conflict of Values

    These conflicts require using different criteria to

    e'aluate ideas and decisions, different perceptions about the

    same things different specific goals and 'alues. Possible

    management inter'entions may be directed to allow the parties to

    a di'ersity of approaches and in some cases, encourage this, to

    identify %super objecti'e% that can be shared between the

    parties or to encourage the elimination of their differences, to

    eliminate the problem definition in terms of %'alues%. (Pammer,

    Dillian, 2::3

    Conflicts of Relations

    These conflicts arise due to the poor communication,

    repetiti'e negati'e beha'iors between the parties, strong

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    emotions, stereotypes and misunderstandings. =mong the

    recommendations made to management to act in these cases are1 to

    clarify perceptions, establish procedures, general rules and

    e!changes between the parties, promote the e!pression of

    emotions, feelings legitimate, promote effecti'e communications,

    changing the structure and roles (Pammer, Dillian, 2::3.

    Conflicts of Information

    These conflicts arise due to the absence or limited

    information, different 'iews on what are most important,

    differences in 'aluation procedures, decisions and situations.

    n these cases, the possible inter'ention of the heads may be

    directed to decide what the most important data, clarify the

    process of collecting and distributing information, using

    e!perts %outside opinions% (Pammer, Dillian, 2::3.

    Approaches and Styles in Conflict esolution

    =ll people do not react the same way to situations of

    conflict. The beha'ior %personal response% is what is called

    style in conflict management%. 4nder this approach, the

    %conflict management styles% mo'e on two dimensions1 interest

    (priority for oneEs goals and concern for people

    (relationships (Rahim, 2::#. The research suggested

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    %Managerial rid% as a leadership that should be %focused on the

    tass (results% and %people8centered% (Rahim, 2::#.

    The combination of these two dimensions identifies fi'e

    styles of conflict management, force, assign, a'oid (escape,

    compromise or collaborate. n style %"orce% beha'ior focuses on

    fighting to defend (get the interests or goals of their own,

    regardless of the in'ol'ement of the other party, or the

    relations between them. =t the other e!treme, the style of

    %i'ing% is used by people who 'alue the relationships that

    %pressure% to get the results themsel'es (Rahim, 2::#.

    People in which, as a trend, the pre'ailing style of

    %='oiding (bypass try to a'oid, postpone, or e'en unaware of

    the conflict. n general, they fear the possible consequences of

    dealing with conflict, do not feel prepared to address it, or

    feel should be decided by others more liely. n style %Commit%,

    it comes to finding a solution %compromise% on each side gi'e in

    something, it is common to %split the difference% (Dahn,

    9oulding, #$;F.

    People in the pre'ailing style of %Collaborate% tend to

    wor with the other party, to find solutions that meet the

    interests of both, which requires e!ploring the issues in

    dispute to find solutions to %win8win.% =lthough this might be

    the preferred style for dealing with conflict is only possible

    when both parties are willing to share.

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    &ach of these styles has its ad'antages and disad'antages.

    People are liely to %mo'e% in the fi'e styles. 0owe'er,

    research shows that e'eryone has their preferences, which

    ultimately are what determine their beha'ior. "or these reasons,

    it is useful to now the situations in which it is most

    effecti'e a particular style, and with this information, namely

    the %strategy% (style that organi/ation must apply (Dahn,

    9oulding, #$;F. =ccording to e!perts, the situations which are

    more effecti'e each of these styles can be summari/ed as follows1

    t is recommend to use the strategy (style %"orce% when1

    need a quic decision, there are important issues on which

    decisions are unpopular or against indi'idual beha'iors that can

    tae ad'antage of more %fle!ible%, and considered a weaness

    (Dahn, 9oulding, #$;F.

    The strategy of %=ssign%, it is recommended that1

    organi/ations should understand that they are wrong or made a

    mistae (this gi'es us more authority in the future, the matter

    is more important to the other party for us and the %cost% that

    pay is not significant, and to gain acceptance in subsequent

    issues most important to us. (Thompson, 5e'ine, Messic, #$$$

    The strategy of %compromise% may be appropriate when the

    two %opponents% ha'e equal power and seeing mutually e!clusi'e

    goals, to mae temporary fi!es on comple! issues, or when

    competition and collaboration are not successful.

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    The strategy of %Aoring% is recommended to1 integrate interests

    and opinions of people with different points of 'iew whose

    satisfaction is only possible with the cooperation of both, to

    achie'e accession to incorporate interest in consensus, sol'e

    problems of feelings that ha'e hampered a relationship, or when

    the objecti'e is to secure an agreement that lasts. This

    strategy is only possible when both parties share (Thompson,

    5e'ine, Messic, #$$$.


    =fter the in8depth analysis of the data it can be concluded

    that conflict resolution is surely ine'itable in project

    management because of the in'ol'ement of different people in

    order to complete the project. t is ob'ious that each and e'ery

    indi'idual that is the part of the organi/ation is a part of the

    project that is initiated from it (5ewis, 2::G. n addition,

    nowadays the due to the adaptation of lean beha'ior and

    continuous learning organi/ations ha'e started welcoming ideas

    from its employees. 7ue to the increased competition

    organi/ations need to de'elop an effecti'e project management

    plan in order to ensure the success and growth of the

    organi/ation and to gain a substantial maret share (5ewis,


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    =n effecti'e project plan cannot be constructed from the

    ideas that are e!tracted from the one a few mind. The

    probability of the success of an effecti'e project plan is

    increased if there is range of ideas) from which the best ideas

    could be chosen (tucenbruc, #$H#. This in'ol'es interaction

    of people and different frame of minds which gi'es rise to

    conflict while managing a project. These conflicts can be

    constructi'e as well as destructi'e depending upon the cause of

    the conflict (Reiss, #$$;. 0ence, organi/ations should

    carefully obser'e the nature of the conflict and adapt suitable

    conflict management style to resol'e it.

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    7insmore, P. Cabanis89rewin, I. (2::;, The =M= 0andboo of

    Project Management) 4nited tates1 =M=C>M

    "rame, I. (#$$$, Project Management Competence1 9uilding Dey

    ills for ndi'iduals, Teams, and >rgani/ations) 4nited

    tates1 Iossey89ass

    "rame, I. (2::2, The 6ew Project Management1 Tools for an =ge

    of Rapid Change, Comple!ity, and >ther 9usiness Realities)

    4nited tates1 Iossey89ass

    0owes, 6. (2::#, Modern Project Management1 uccessfully

    ntegrating Project Management Dnowledge =reas and

    Processes) 4nited tates1 =M=C>M

    Dahn, R. 9oulding, &. (#$;F, Power and Conflict in

    >rgani/ations) 4nited tates1 9asic 9oos

    5ewis, I. (2::G, "undamentals of Project Management) 4nited

    tates1 =M=C>M

    Pammer, A. Dillian, I. (2::3, 0andboo of Conflict Management)

    4nited tates1 Marcel 7eer

    Rahim, M. (#$$:, Theory and Research in Conflict Management)

    4nited tates1 Praeger

    Rahim, M. (2::#, Managing Conflict in >rgani/ations) 4nited

    tates1 @uorum 9oos

    Reiss, . (#$$?, Project Management 7emystified1 TodayEs Tools

    and Techniques) 4nited tates1 & J "6 pon

  • 8/14/2019 CONFLICT management.doc


    Reiss, . (#$$;, Program Management 7emystified1 Managing

    Multiple Projects uccessfully) 4nited tates1 & J "6 pon,

    Richman, 5. (2::2, Project Management tep8by8tep) 4nited

    tates1 =M=C>M

    tucenbruc, 5. (#$H#, The mplementation of Project

    Management1 The ProfessionalEs 0andboo) 4nited tates1


    Thompson, 5. 5e'ine, I. Messic, 7. (#$$$, hared Cognition in

    >rgani/ations1 The Management of Dnowledge) 4nited tates1

    5awrence &rlbaum =ssociates

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    Conflict in the )orkplace


    The purpose of this paper is to enlighten and e&plore the conflict in workplace. The main

    focus of the paper is on the hospitality industry and the characteristics of the conflicts in the

    workplace. This paper also discusses the role of human resource management in offering the

    remedies for the workplace conflicts in the hospitality industry. %n the modern, professional

    literature is widely used the term Etourism and hospitality industry, and although the hospitality

    is included in this term as an element, it should be noted that hospitality 0 it is more capacious

    and the general concept, since its obective is to meet the needs of not only tourists in the narrow

    sense, but consumers in general. Tourism and hospitality industry cannot be regarded as a

    different industry, as tourists 0 are primarily consumers with diverse needs, including specific,

    depending on the goals and motives of travel, as well as on a number of points. 'owever, the

    tourists are first and foremost consumers in generalA therefore, tourism and hospitality industry

    should be viewed as a whole because of the inseparable unity.

    'ospitality is one of the fundamental concepts of human civilization, is currently under

    the influence of technological process has become a powerful industry that employs millions of

    professionals, creating warmth and comfort for people. 'ospitality %ndustry unites the various

    professional fields of human activity tourism, hotel and restaurant business, catering, leisure and

    entertainment, conferences, seminars and e&hibitions, sports, museum, e&hibition, sightseeing

    activities, and vocational education in the field of hospitality. The hospitality industry 0 a

    comple&, comprehensive scope of professional people, whose efforts are aimed at meeting the

    diverse needs of customers (guests#, both tourists and locals.

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    Characteristics of Conflicts in %ospitality Industry

    Conflict is normal in a dynamic company, where ideas flow. The absence of tension

    would even rather bad sign. The notion of conflict is key and core of the thought of +sychology

    Social. Conflict is inherent in the interaction of man. Conflict pertains to different interests and

    opinions between two or more parties on a particular situation or issue. %t involves thinking and

    action of those involved. There are different types of conflicts that arise while managing a

    proect some of them are constructive and some destructive ($le&akis, !!2#. There are some

    characteristics of conflicts that usually take place in the workplace. These conflicts are not bound

    to any particular industry or business field. >evertheless, these categories are the core types of

    conflicts that take place in the workplace. %n the hospitality industry these characteristics are

    commonly observed (/aum, !!3#.

    &nterest'(ase$ Conflicts

    These conflicts are about the actual or perceived competition by different people or

    groups have conflicting interests over the content or procedures work, how they evaluate the

    work and people of the hospitality industry. +ossible management interventions recommended in

    such conflicts are to define obective criteria for ordering and assessing tasks, focus on interests

    and not positions of people and develop solutions that integrate the interests of different parties

    ($le&akis, !!2#.

    Structural Conflicts

    %n the hospitality industry, the perception of authority and une6ual distribution (fair share

    of resources#, environmental factors that hinder cooperation. %n these cases, possible

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    management interventions are recommended clear definitions of tasks, authority and

    responsibility, role changes, reallocation of resources and control, establishing decision0making

    processes that are acceptable to the parties to modify styles influence, much less EcoercionE and

    more persuasive (Choi, ickson, !"!#.

    Conflict of )alues

    These conflicts re6uire using different criteria to evaluate ideas and decisions, different

    perceptions about the same things different specific goals and values governing hospitality and

    tourism. +ossible management interventions may be directed to allow the parties to a diversity of

    approaches and in some cases, encourage this, to identify Esuper obectiveE that can be shared

    between the parties or to encourage the elimination of their differences, to eliminate the problem

    definition in terms of EvaluesE (/ruc, !!G#.

    Conflicts of Relations

    These conflicts arise due to the poor communication, repetitive negative behaviors

    between the parties, strong emotions, stereotypes and misunderstandings among the workforce of

    the hospitality industry. $mong the recommendations made to management to act in these cases

    are to clarify perceptions, establish procedures, general rules and e&changes between the parties,

    promote the e&pression of emotions, feelings legitimate, promote effective communications,

    changing the structure and roles (/ruc, !!G#.

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    Conflicts of &nformation

    These conflicts arise due to the absence or limited information, different views on what

    are most important, differences in valuation procedures, decisions and situations. %n these cases,

    the possible intervention of the heads may be directed to decide what the most important data,

    clarify the process of collecting and distributing information, using e&perts Eoutside opinionsE.

    Approaches and Styles in Conflict &esolution

    There are several approaches and styles through which the conflicts can be resolved. The

    process of resolving workplace conflicts is sophisticated and re6uire short0term and long0term

    decision making. The leaders of the hospitality industry adapt different approaches and tactics

    according to the nature of the conflict in order to resolve it effectively (1ulford, Doutroumanis,

    ;othman, !!G#. $ll people do not react the same way to situations of conflict. The behavior

    Epersonal responseE is what is called style in conflict managementE.

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    +eople in which, as a trend, the prevailing style of E$voiding (bypass# try to avoid,

    postpone, or even unaware of the conflict. %n general, they fear the possible conse6uences of

    dealing with conflict, do not feel prepared to address it, or feel should be decided by others more

    likely. %n style ECommitE, it comes to finding a solution EcompromiseE on each side give in

    something, it is common to Esplit the differenceE. +eople in the prevailing style of ECollaborateE

    tend to work with the other party, to find solutions that meet the interests of both, which re6uires

    e&ploring the issues in dispute to find solutions to Ewin0win: ($ndrews, !!G#. $lthough this

    might be the preferred style for dealing with conflict is only possible when both parties are

    willing to share (%T;, !!3#.

    Fach of these styles has its advantages and disadvantages. +eople are likely to EmoveE in

    the five styles ($ndrews, !!G#. 'owever, research shows that everyone has their preferences,

    which ultimately are what determine their behavior. 1or these reasons, it is useful to know the

    situations in which it is most effective a particular style, and with this information, namely the

    EstrategyE (style# that organization must apply. $ccording to e&perts, the situations which are

    more effective each of these styles can be summarized as follows

    %t is recommend to use the strategy (style# E1orceE when need a 6uick decision, there are

    important issues on which decisions are unpopular or against individual behaviors that can take

    advantage of more Efle&ibleE, and considered a weakness ($ndrews, !!G#. The strategy of

    E$ssignE, it is recommended that organizations should understand that they are wrong or made a

    mistake (this gives us more authority in the future#, the matter is more important to the other

    party for us and the EcostE that pay is not significant, and to gain acceptance in subse6uent issues

    most important to us (%T;, !!3#.

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    The strategy of EcompromiseE may be appropriate when the two EopponentsE have e6ual

    power and seeking mutually e&clusive goals, to make temporary fi&es on comple& issues, or

    when competition and collaboration are not successful. The strategy of E)orkingE is

    recommended to integrate interests and opinions of people with different points of view whose

    satisfaction is only possible with the cooperation of both, to achieve accession to incorporate

    interest in consensus, solve problems of feelings that have hampered a relationship, or when the

    obective is to secure an agreement that lasts. This strategy is only possible when both parties

    share (/ai, 7aw, )en, !!#.

    The 'unctions of %uman &esource (anager to Avoid Conflicts of the %ospitality Industry

    There are several functions and procedures implemented by the human resource manager

    in the hospitality industry that assists the growth and development of the organization. These

    measures are effective to ease the regulation of work in the organization and offers ade6uate

    remedies for the conflicts in the workplace (Dandasamy, $ncheri, !!2#.

    Recruitment an$ Retention of "eople

    The fair recruitment and employee retention are the most comple& tasks that ';4 has to

    perform. ue to the globalization the competition in the hospitality industry has become intense.

    'ence, the ';4 strives to retain their workforce by fulfilling their needs and re6uirements. This

    process also facilitates the practices in the workplace and the conflicts can be avoided. %n case of

    unfair the labor union of the organization can agitate (/ai, 7aw, )en, !!#. This would results

    in ineffective completions of the assigned tasks and provides several reasons for the conflicts in

    the workplace (7ashley, !!2#. Similarly, a satisfied employee would not participate in any

  • 8/14/2019 CONFLICT management.doc


    agitation or the conflicting situation in the workplaceA hence, the strategies proposed in employee

    retention process minimize the possibilities of conflicts in the workplace. %n assessing the skills

    and motivation to the recruitment, we make sure to have ade6uate staff in number and

    6ualification (7ashley, !!2#.

    $c6uisition of 'uman ;esources is defined as the management of employment and

    recruitment programs, plans, careers, change and advancement, ob analysis and evaluation of

    individuals (/ai, 7aw, )en, !!#. %ts obective is to provide the association and availability of

    skilled human resources and placement of workers to the position which best suits them. %t

    facilitates the organization to ma&imize the use of human resources. %t includes the role of

    identifying, recruiting, recruit and retains members of a team.

    ';4 $ctivities also includes the observation of the performance of each employee and

    find out capabilities of the employees and utilize them wherever need and the re6uirement

    (/aum, !!G#. %t is a very important step in the 6uest for efficiency and performance in any

    organization since the conse6uences of poor recruitment are enormous and can be probably fatal

    to the company. )hen an employee is at work, his5her abilities should be fully utilized in order

    to increased productivity.

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    training. %n this scenario, the employees are not left with enough time to participate in the

    conflicting activities in the workplace. %n addition, these incentives are intended to convey to the

    employee that his interest is to do the best ob possible.

    Compensation an$ Re*ar$s

    Compensation is always a sensitive issue, closely linked to the issue of motivation and

    employee satisfaction (Choeng, 4orrison, !!#. The human resource department in the

    hospitality industry contribute their ma&imum efforts to improve their reward systemA because, it

    plays a maor role in employee satisfaction. $ccording to diverse studies, a motivated and

    satisfied employee is a significant asset to an organization, and refrains from the unethical

    practices in the workplace. 4oney is a motivator when people are at the bottom of 4aslowHs

    hierarchy. The special recognitions and awards may be monetary or not, formal or informal,

    individual or group (Choeng, 4orrison, !!#. The awards are a visible means to promote

    6uality efforts and employees that the organization values their efforts, which stimulates their

    motivation to improve.

    "erformance Evaluation

    This is the system incorporated by the ';4 to evaluate an employee of timely basis.

    This system assists the organizations in the hospitality industry to analyze the employee that is

    their asset and the one that is their liability. The employees categorized as liabilities to the

    company are often separated from the organizationsA because, these employees often engage in

    the unethical practices and play a significant part in the conflicts of the organizations. 4oreover,

    these employees influence the effective employees through labor union and deteriorate their

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    e&pertise. 'ence, the appropriate approach would be to separate such employees from the

    organization and compensate the ones that perform e&ceptionally (Choeng, 4orrison, !!#.

    +erformance evaluation is an e&tremely difficult activity of human resource management.

    Communication an$ Transparency

    Communication plays a significant role to minimize the conflicting situations in the

    workplace. There are series of workplace conflicts that occur due to the miscommunication or

    the lack of communication in the workforce. $ccording to diverse studies, communication is the

    most significant tactic to cater the issues in the workplace. The conflicts in the hospitality

    industry often result in agitation against the organization (Choeng, 4orrison, !!#. %n this

    scenario, communication plays an active role as the agitations against the company can be

    resolved through appropriate negotiation. The most difficult task for the '; professionals is to

    maintain a win0win situation in the organization as it is the perfect remedy for the conflicts in the

    workplace. %t is essential that the employee has the information to accomplish its task, and have a

    clear idea of evolution and goals of the company itself and its environment. >owadays, the

    abundance of information has necessitated the establishment of systems of information

    management, systems such as knowledge management (ohertyb, =reenidgec, !!3#.

    Measuring an$ Monitoring "erformance

    %n today9s world, the role of a human resource manger has been diversified and dynamic.

    +eople have different e&pectations from their workplace. )hile they feel their bad performances

    should go unnoticed, they re6uire reinforcement and recognition for e&emplary work. Their

    productivity should certainly not be denied. %n this case, the management finds hard to devise

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    strategies and systems that offer such mechanisms of recognition and management of impressive

    performance (ohertyb, =reenidgec, !!3#. The company has to come up with new and

    modified systems of appraisal, compensation management and performance management.

    +erformance management has been put in the most important place in ';4, as well as in the

    strategic management. 'owever, performance appraisal, the core of ';4, has become a deep

    gap between performance appraisers and employees.

    Recognition of the +igher Rate "erformances

    $ proper employee appraisal system should be implemented in any organization so that it

    represents true and fair picture of employee performance. There should be a uniform system of

    performance appraisal all over the world (?anta, 7ugosi, !""#. %n order to implement the

    performance appraisal system in any organization, the organization must lay down a set of value

    called mission statement and goal system. Deeping in mind the mission and goal, the

    organization must implement an appraisal system. The organization should manage resources

    that make use of both internal and e&ternal environments.

    The recognition of the employees fulfills their self0fulfillment needs. $ccording to the

    4aslow9s hierarchy of needs, the self0fulfillment need is the most crucial want to be fulfilled by

    the organization (?anta, 7ugosi, !""#. %f this need of an employee is fulfilled, the employee

    regards himself as a part of an organization. 'ence, it would minimize the possibility of an

    employee engaging in the conflicting situations in the workplace. The eight areas are related to

    issues of 6uality e&cellence in the recruitment and retention, internal performance, customer

    service and continuous improvement, five of them, however, involve issues of human resource

  • 8/14/2019 CONFLICT management.doc


    management. Therefore, to achieve the goal of superior service company, it needs to ensure that

    human resource strategies are supportive of this goal (+iso, !!2#.

    +ealth an$ Safety

    The '; professional along with the higher authorities of the organizations operating in

    the hospitality industry must effectively design their health and safety measures. The accidents

    are inevitable in the workplaceA however, the ade6uate measures can minimize their occurrence.

    %f the employees of an organization are not provided a safe and healthy environment to work,

    they will agitate against the company and the flow of work would be affected. 'ealth and safety

    have always been priorities in most companies, but working conditions are now going beyond

    the basics of keeping the work area safe and clean (+iso, !!2#.

    4ost companies have many opportunities to contribute to the 6uality of life in work can

    give personal advice and professional career development and ob placement services, recreation

    and cultural activities, child care, special permits responsibilities unrelated to work or

    community service fle&ible working hours and higher health care for retirees. 4eet and e&ceed

    customer e&pectations begin with the recruitment of appropriate staff skills and attitudes which

    support and enhance the obectives of the organization. Therefore, organizations design and

    adapt effective health and safety measures in order to avoid the conflicting situations in the

    organization (/aum, !!3#.


    $ccording to the in0depth analysis of the data accumulated through different sources, it

    can be concluded that the conflicts in the hospitality industry are inclining with the passage of

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    time. These conflicts are often categorized as the workplace conflictsA in addition, maority of

    these conflicts result in agitation against the organization. There may be several reasons behind

    the workplace conflicts. The conflicts can occur due to the inade6uate dispersion of salaries,

    weak health and safety measures in organization, inade6uate performance appraisal system and

    lack of communication etc.

    The conflicts in the workplace are not always between the company and its employeesA

    but, the conflicts can also take place between the employees. %n both scenarios the organization

    is affected. %n order to minimize or diminish the conflict in the workplace the '; professionals

    propose diverse remedies to the organization in the hospitality industry. The core obective of the

    '; professionals is to maintain a win0win situation in the organization and avoid the conflicting

    situations in the workplace. $ccording to the diverse studies, an efficient employee is an asset to

    an organization and an ineffective employee is a liability. The role of '; professionals is to

    retain their asset and separate their liability in order to avoid workplace conflicts.

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    $ndrews, 4. (!!G#, %ntroduction to Tourism and 'ospitality %ndustry, Tata 4c=raw0'ill

    /ai, /. 7aw, ;. )en, %. (!!#, The %mpact Of )ebsite @uality On Customer Satisfaction $nd

    +urchase %ntentions Fvidence 1rom Chinese Online Iisitors, %nternational ?ournal of

    'ospitality 4anagement, G(J#

    /aum, T. (!!3#, ;eflections on the nature of skills in the F&perience Fconomy Challenging

    traditional skills models in hospitality. ?ournal of 'ospitality and Tourism 4anagement,


    /aum, T. (!!G# 'uman ;esources in Tourism Still )aiting for Change, Tourism 4anagement


    /ruc, S. (!!G#, Select 4en of Sober and %ndustrious 'abits $lcohol ;eform and Social

    Conflict in $ntebellum $ppalachia, ?ournal of Southern 'istory, Iol. GJ

    Choeng, '. 4orrison, $. (!!# Consumers9 ;eliance On +roduct %nformation $nd

    ;ecommendations 1ound %n

  • 8/14/2019 CONFLICT management.doc


    ohertyb, 7. =reenidgec, . (!!3# 'uman ;esource 4anagement $nd +erformance %n The

    /arbados 'otel %ndustry +hilmore $lleynea, 'ospitality 4anagement -

    1ulford, 4. ;othman, ;. (!!G#, Fffective 'r Strategies for Fnhancing the Organizational

    Commitment of 'iv0positive Fmployees, ?ournal of Organizational Culture,

    Communication and Conflict, Iol. ""

    ?anta, '. 7ugosi, +. (!""# Fmployment F&periences of +olish 4igrant )orkers in the orthern %lkley

  • 8/14/2019 CONFLICT management.doc


    Team /uilding F&ercise towards Conflict ;esolution

    Team building in a multicultural environment

    /uilding a team of people from different cultural backgrounds presents a variety of

    challenges. So, too, is the re6uirement for effective performance and appropriate professional

    behaviours in an international conte&t e6ually challenging. The re6uirement to participate in

    multicultural workgroups in international settings is increasing, and re6uires assessment and

    support for the development of appropriate competencies. $ J0page interpretive report

    additionally provides te&tual and pictorial descriptions of each dimension, detailed summaries of

  • 8/14/2019 CONFLICT management.doc


    high and low scores, and a cultural competency action planner. Separate group profiles and

    reports can also be generated to indicate overall team strengths and areas for development.

    1eedback by the accredited consultant is usually given by telephone, and involves an in0

    depth discussion of the individual9s report in relation to the opportunities and challenges of his or

    her present or future international or multicultural role and responsibilities. The purpose is to

    identify three or four dimensions which would benefit from better, greater and more fre6uent

    energy, emphasis and attention. The feedback enables the subse6uent production of a personal

    development plan (Symonette, !!G#.

    %ealthy Conflict

    $s one can witness from the graph mentioned above, it is clear that in the midst of

    creating a healthy team, healthy conflict must prevail for the purpose and obective of

    understanding and comprehending the true essence of work, thus delivering effective and

    outstanding performance. This failure to build trust is damaging because it leads to a fear of

    conflict. Teams that lack trust are incapable of engaging in unfiltered and passionate debates.

    %nstead, they resort to veiled discussions and guarded comments. They are unable to ,$iscuss the


    Contrary to the notion that teams waste time and energy arguingA those that smooth over

    or avoid die real issues doom themselves to revisiting them again and again without successful

    resolution. The team knows when this is happening and they will know that die team is simply

    not working. One of the most natural responses of a leader is to try to protect members from

    harmful conflict by intervening or allowing issues to be escalated too readily. This prevents

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    members developing their own conflict management skills and thus diminishes the very things

    that need to be brought out into the open.

    Therefore it is vital that leaders show restraint when their people engage in conflict and

    allow resolution to occur as naturally as possible. $ leaderHs ability to model appropriate conflict

    behaviour is essential 0 by avoiding or clumsily intervening, a team leader will simply encourage

    this dysfunction to derive. /y engaging in productive conflict, a team can more readily buy into

    a decision knowing that they have heard, and benefited from, everyoneHs ideas.

    Who is it for-

    The %nternational +rofiler is aimed at managers and professionals who need and want to

    develop adaptive skills for working in an international or multicultural environment. Typical

    candidates include

    ". 4anagers involved in e&patriation or mobilizationA

    . 7ocal managers with international rolesA

    J. 4anagers leading international teamsA

    L. 4anagers integrating operations across national boundariesA

    -. 4anagers operating in multicultural workplacesA

    3. %nternational proect managersA

    G. +rofessionals with international business careersA and

    . Specialists on international committees

    %usiness !pplications

    The %nternational +rofiler enables

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    ". /etter selection of candidates for international or multicultural appointments

    ;eduction of inappropriate appointmentsA

    . Ialid measurement of intercultural competencies for preparation and evaluation of

    training of individuals and teamsA

    J. %dentification of intercultural development needs of individuals or teams at any particular

    point in timeA and

    L. $cceleration of business0critical relationship development

    (ulti Culture) Ally or Obstacle towards effective team development#

    The beliefs, vision, obectives and business approaches and practices underpinning a

    company9s strategy towards team development may be compatible with its culture or they may

    not. )hen they are, the culture becomes a valuable ally in strategy implementation and

    e&ecution. )hen the culture, conversely, pertains to contradict some aspect of the company9s

    direction, performance targets, operations or strategy, the culture, undoubtedly, becomes a

    stumbling block that implies successful strategy implementation and e&ecution (Symonette,


    (ulticultural Teams

    In an increasingly global economy, multicultural work teams are

    becoming more commonplace, and fostering teamwork in multicultural

    teams is a growing challenge. The growing body of intercultural research

    suggests important cultures and points to the complexity of culturally

    diverse teams. Studies have shown that the composition of the team

  • 8/14/2019 CONFLICT management.doc


    determines the success of the group and may prevent the group from

    reaching its performance potential (Tesluk & athieu, !""#$.

    Studies on culturally diverse teams demonstrate that moderately

    heterogeneous groups experience significant communication problems,

    relational conflict, and low team identity that have a dysfunctional impact on

    team effectiveness. %s a rule, heterogeneous teams report reduced

    satisfaction with the team, which, in turn, negatively affects team

    performance. %lthough previous studies suggest important differences in

    teamwork across cultures, they do not adeuately address the complexity of

    issues affecting culturally diverse teams and do not identify the specific

    factors that contribute to these differences (Symonette, !""'$.

    % recurring criticism of existing research on intercultural teams and

    intercultural communication is of the methodology used. Intercultural

    differences arise as a result of differences in cognitive styles and cultural

    values that have not been adeuately examined in the current literature.

    u)*abcock (!""+$ points out that although most group communication

    research has been conducted by psychologists, little research has been done

    by communication researchers. In addition, some researchers criticie the

    attitudinal research methods and self)report that are typically used for

    studies in this area (Tushman, !""-$. The main criticisms of these methods

    are their subectivity and the assumption that the subects have great self)

    understanding and accurate self)perceptions and that they report honestly to

    the uestions. /ogelberg and /umery (#''0$ specifically recommend the use

  • 8/14/2019 CONFLICT management.doc


    of videotaped data analysis for investigating group interactions to overcome

    some of these problems.

    The field of intercultural communication has been criticied for failing

    to produce studies that focus on actual practices of communication,

    especially of intercultural encounters. 1arbaugh (!""2$ suggests that

    discourse analysis is one solution to this problem in that it brings together

    two important insights3 (a$ the cultural shaping of communication practices,

    including its nonverbal features, competence and (b$ the interactional

    dynamics that occur among culturally shaped communication practices

    (4rrieta, !""0$.

    Impact of theories of management and leadership on team development

    >ow that we have discussed the effects of management and leadership over individual

    and organizational performance, we shall now discuss the maor theories that aim towards

    employee self0recognition and identification of organizational direction. $mongst the entire

    forms of leadership, the most prominent theories that have been highlighted are the trait theory

    and the very popular situational theory (Symonette, !!G#.

    Trait theory implies that all management decisions and verdicts that are obtained with

    reference to conte&t of the organizational performance only improves and develops due to traits

    and capabilities of individuals that the employee candidates and individuals have and display in

    their routine work. Situational theory, on the other hand and somewhat contrary to the trait

    theory, pressures and brings forward the concept that different situations call for different

    characteristics, provided they are being properly given and also prove fruitful at the situation

    (Symonette, !!#.

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    1or instance, under pressure, some individuals might face or display an anger

    management issue or fury stroke, whereas the most important and crucial phase is the display of

    calm and controlled behaviour that spans over a lengthy and given time interval. There shall be

    several instances where internal and e&ternal factors shall attempt to hinder the proper e&ecution

    and delivery of managerial functions. %nternal factors that affect the functioning of the

    organization include ethical standards, workload and environment. F&ternal factors include

    globalization, advances and e&tension in technological patterns and development and even

    innovation diversity can easily and greatly impact the functioning of the organization. /y

    imposing these T4/O standards on teams as they develop whilst controlling for threats to

    internal and e&ternal validity, researchers can confirm or disconfirm the strengths of the new


    Our work also has value for managers, especially those leading or seeking to lead teams.

    1irst, our work reminds managers that while older concepts can be and are valuable by

    themselvesA these perspectives can also be combined to provide additional insights about

    management topics. Second, we provide managers with guidance on how to enhance the

    performance of teams that they lead by intervening at each stage in the teamHs life. )ith the

    specific guidance that we have presented in the previous section, managers can approach team

    leadership with a potentially more effective method for encouraging team performance.

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    Symonette, '. (!!G#.Making evaluation *ork for the greater goo$: Supporting provocative

    possi(ility an$ responsive praxis in lea$ership $evelopment. %n D. 4. 'annum, ?. ).

    4artineau, * C. ;einelt (Fds.#,

    Symonette, '. (!!#. Cultivating self as responsive instrument: Working the (oun$aries an$

    (or$erlan$s for ethical (or$er crossings. %n . 4. 4ertens * +. F. =insberg (Fds.#, The

    handbook of social research ethics (pp. G202L#. Thousand Oaks, C$ Sage.

    Symonette, '. (!!2#. Cultivating self as responsive instrument: Working the (oun$aries an$

    (or$erlan$s for ethical (or$er crossings. %n . 4. 4ertens * +. F. =insberg (Fds.#, The

    handbook of social research ethics (pp. G202L#. Thousand Oaks, C$ Sage.

    Tesluk, +. F., * 4athieu, ?. F. (!!"#. .vercoming roa$(locks to effectiveness: &ncorporating

    management of performance (arriers into mo$els of *ork group effectiveness. ?ournal of

    $pplied +sychology, L !!0"G.

    Tushman, 4. 7. (!!L#. Special (oun$ary roles in the innovation process. $dministrative

    Science @uarterly, -G03!-.

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    %nterpersonal Conflict and ;esolution Strategies


    Conflict is not a simple difference of opinion, or feelings. %t is a total or partial incompatibilitybetween one or more individuals on obectives, intentions and interests. Conflicts between

    workers and employers are typical disputes because they include face to face factors of theproduction process, labor and capital in response to this situation. F&amples disputes arising

    from unfair dismissal, the breach of the collective agreement, and so on. The conflict is both an

    e&pression of need and the sign of an obstacle to the satisfaction of it (4asters, $lbright, !!#.Only by finding a new balance between these two components that allow the conflict to play it is

    the most pivotal role lead us to a fulfilling change. %n this paper, we will consider the study of

    $licia S.4. 7eung, and relate established understanding in different dimensions of practicality.

    Sources and Types of conflicts in Workplace

    $mong the sources of conflicts that arise in organizations are disagreements with the way theyare distributed resources (e6uipment, budget, authority#, poor communication, differences in

    e&pectations (on tasks, goals, hierarchy#, the organizational structure with inaccuracies, tasks and

    the interdependence of work, as well as interpersonal differences in values, positions, interests,

    personalities. %n order to suggest possible interventions that can managers do to manage conflict,e&perts classified the possible causes of conflict in an organization as follows

    ". %nterest0/ased Conflict, which can be about actual or perceived competition, by different

    people or groups have conflicted interests over the content or procedures of work, the

    way it evaluates the work and people.

    . Structural Conflict the perception of authority and une6ual distribution Efair shareE of

    resources, environmental factors that hinder cooperation.

    J. Conflicts of values using different criteria to evaluate ideas and decisions, different

    perceptions of the same things different goals and values.

    L. Conflict in relationships by poor communications, repeated negative behaviors between

    the parties, strong emotions, stereotypes and misunderstandings.

    -. Conflicts of information the absence or limitations of information, different views on

    what is most important, differences in assessment procedures, decisions and situations.

    Chinese Settings in American Workplace nvironments

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    %n this study, we found cultures involved which see the world from different cultural windows. %f

    this situation we add that the culture of the ;epublic of China has evolved steadily over the past

    years, the situation is complicated. The prevailing custom of treatment is determined by theEcommitment of the wordE rather than by contract.

    7eung identified two maor forms of harmony EgenuineE and EsurfaceE. The former refers to

    holistic and sincere harmonious relationships, while the latter indicates that, although surfacerelationships may appear smooth, conflicts remain underneath. The usual treatment is gentle and

    delicate, even if they seem tough and pragmatic. %t is noted that when dealing with people who

    are in the same hierarchical level or within commercial negotiation attitudes of this kind take, forwhich the worst mistake you can make is to adopt a foreign employer rude language or attitudes,

    as well as threats evenings. 'owever, when dealing with subordinates tend to use a strong voice

    and assume arrogant attitudes, especially in their orders to the female employees. %n general,

    avoid having overt conflict. Organizational practices in China are seen to be highly respectful ofhierarchy, so much so they have a different status on wages, benefits, even in kitchens for

    management level employees, customarily speak Chinese.

    The dimensions of culture are multiple and often are responsible for organizations to crown with

    success or failure of their interactions, which are increasingly global market. Cultural forms cancause misunderstandings, disagreements and conflicts, or a comprehension and understanding of

    the other party. %mportantly, one of the findings is to be detected is that the organizationalclimate and stress defense, for which the work environment becomes very heavy, as people of

    Fastern origin only focus on results, unmotivated the staff. There is interest in establishing

    communication between them in areas other than work0related (7eung, !!#.

    Conflict &esolution

    !voi$ance$voidance is sometimes the best course of action. Sometimes the EtimeE alone will fi& the

    problem, and any attempt to solve alone can only worsen the situation. 'owever, avoidance only

    works sometimes, unfortunately, rare. $voidance is often a manifestation of the lack of conflictmanagement skills.

    !$aptation$daptation is a strategy that rarely leads to solve the problem. $t the beginning, of adaptation

    leads to a better understanding of the problem, and conse6uently did not seek any solutions to the

    crisis situation. Sometimes it is better to sail on top of a conflict than to continue in secret.

    /ighting1ighting is the opposition to adapt. 1orces the parties to the conflict manager to develop

    solutions and resolve the dispute. This method can even be aggressive. This way, unfortunately,

    rarely solves the problemA instead, it leads to a deepening of the conflict, increases aggressionand frustration.

    CompromiseCompromise is often referred to as the best way of resolving conflict. /ringing both parties to

    the agreement we seek the best way out of the situation. The compromise, however, also

    associated with the fact that both sides need of something important for them to resign.

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    Solving the pro(lem

    To solve the problem of success must agree to the following beliefs

    ". Cooperation is better than the competition.

    . The parties can trust each other.

    J. ifferences and disagreements can be minimized.

    L. %t is possible to find mutually acceptable solutions.

    On the basis, of these convictions manager should strive together with the parties to try to find a

    way to resolve the conflict. +robability of achieving a satisfactory solution is higher when the

    manager will lead parties to the conflict only to a certain point, and conse6uently they doindicate possible ways out of crisis (Collins, OH;ourke, !!#. )orkers who are in conflict can

    only come to an agreement, when they realize that finding a solution is in their interest.

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    Collins, S, OH;ourke, ?. (!!#, 0Managing Conflict an$ Workplace Relationships, Cengage7earning.

    7eung, $. (!!#, 0&nterpersonal conflict an$ resolution strategies1 !n examination of +ong

    2ong employees, Team +erformance 4anagement. /radford. Iol. "L, %ss. J5LA pp. "3-.4asters, 4, $lbright, ;. (!!#, 0The complete gui$e to conflict resolution in the *orkplace,

    $4$CO4 iv $merican 4gmt $ssn.