117344333 Phy Investigatory Project

  • View
    217

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

Text of 117344333 Phy Investigatory Project

  • 8/13/2019 117344333 Phy Investigatory Project

    1/26

  • 8/13/2019 117344333 Phy Investigatory Project

    2/26

  • 8/13/2019 117344333 Phy Investigatory Project

    3/26

    INDEX:

    Aim

    Certificate

    Acknowledg

    ement

    Apparatus

    Introduction

    Theory

    Conclusion

    Bibliography

  • 8/13/2019 117344333 Phy Investigatory Project

    4/26

    AIM:

    To determine the faradays

    law of electromagnetic

    induction using a copper

    wire wound over an iron rodand a strong magnet

  • 8/13/2019 117344333 Phy Investigatory Project

    5/26

    CERTIFICATE

    Thisis to certify that the PHYSICS project titled

    ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION has been

    successfully completed by KARTHIK PREMANAND of

    Class XII ROSE in partial fulfillment of curriculum of

    CENTRAL BOARD OF SECONDARY EDUCATION(CBSE) leadin to the a!ard of annual e"amination of the

    year #$%#$%'(

    I)TER)*+ EX*,I)ER TE*CHER I)&CH*R-E

  • 8/13/2019 117344333 Phy Investigatory Project

    6/26

    SCHOO+ SE*+ PRI)CIP*+

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

    First and foremost I thank my teacher Mrs.

    VEMURI who has assigned me this term paper tobring out my creative capabilities.

    I epress my gratitude to my parents for being acontinuous source of encouragement for all theirfinancial aid.

    I would like to acknowledge the assistance provided to me by

    the library staff of !"# !$"R"%I &U!#I' ('$))#.

    My heartfelt gratitude to my classmates and for helping meto complete my work in time.

    arthik Prema nand

  • 8/13/2019 117344333 Phy Investigatory Project

    7/26

    APPARATUS

    1. Insulatedcopper wire

    2. A iron rod

    3. A strong magnetand

    4. A light emittingdiode (LED)

  • 8/13/2019 117344333 Phy Investigatory Project

    8/26

    INTRODUCTION:

    Faraday's law of induction is a basic lawof electromagnetism that predicts how a magnetic

    field will interact with an electric circuit to produce

    an electromotive force E!F"# It is the fundamental

    operating principle of transformers$ inductors$ and many

    types of electrical motors and generators#

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetismhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetic_fieldhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetic_fieldhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetic_fieldhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_circuithttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromotive_forcehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromotive_forcehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transformerhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inductorhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electricityhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_motorhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrical_generatorhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrical_generatorhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetic_fieldhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetic_fieldhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetic_fieldhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_circuithttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromotive_forcehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transformerhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inductorhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electricityhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_motorhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrical_generatorhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetism
  • 8/13/2019 117344333 Phy Investigatory Project

    9/26

    Electromagnetic induction was discovered independently

    by !ichael Faraday and %oseph &enry in ()* however$

    Faraday was the first to publish the results of his e+periments#Faraday e+plained electromagnetic induction using a concept he

    called lines of force# These e,uations for electromagnetics are

    e+tremely important since they provide a means to precisely

    describe how many natural physical phenomena in our universe

    arise and behave# The ability to ,uantitatively describe physical

    phenomena not only allows us to gain a better understanding of

    our universe$ but it also ma-es possible a host of technological

    innovations that define modern society# .nderstanding Faradays

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetic_inductionhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetic_inductionhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Faradayhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Henryhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lines_of_forcehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetic_inductionhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Faradayhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Henryhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lines_of_force
  • 8/13/2019 117344333 Phy Investigatory Project

    10/26

  • 8/13/2019 117344333 Phy Investigatory Project

    11/26

    Faradays /aw is the result of the e+periments of the English

    chemist and physicist !ichael Faraday # The concept of

    electromagnetic induction was actually discovered simultaneously

    in () by Faraday in /ondon and %oseph &enry$ an American

    scientist wor-ing in 0ew 1or- $ but Faraday is credited for the law

    since he published his wor- first # An important aspect of the

    e,uation that ,uantifies Faradays /aw comes from the wor- of

    &einrich /en2$ a Russian physicist who made his contribution to

  • 8/13/2019 117344333 Phy Investigatory Project

    12/26

    Faradays /aw$ now -nown as /en2s /aw$ in ()3 Institute of

    Chemistry"#

  • 8/13/2019 117344333 Phy Investigatory Project

    13/26

  • 8/13/2019 117344333 Phy Investigatory Project

    14/26

    Faradays law describes electromagnetic induction$ whereby an

    electric field is induced$ or generated$ by a changing magnetic

    field# 4efore e+panding upon this description$ it is necessary to

    develop an understanding of the concept of fields$ as well as

    the related concept of potentials#

    Faraday's first e+perimental demonstration of electromagnetic

    induction August 56$ ()"$ he wrapped two wires around

    opposite sides of an iron ring or 7torus7 an arrangement similar

    to a modern toroidal transformer" to induce current

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torushttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toroidal_transformerhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torushttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toroidal_transformer
  • 8/13/2019 117344333 Phy Investigatory Project

    15/26

  • 8/13/2019 117344333 Phy Investigatory Project

    16/26

    Figure 1 Faraday's First Experiment

    8ome physicists have remar-ed that Faraday's law is a single

    e,uation describing two different phenomena9 the motional

    E!F generated by a magnetic force on a moving wire

    see /orent2 force"$ and the transformer E!F generated by an

    electric force due to a changing magnetic field due to the

    !a+well:Faraday e,uation"# %ames Cler- !a+well drew attention

    to this fact in his (; paper

  • 8/13/2019 117344333 Phy Investigatory Project

    17/26

    to these two aspects of electromagnetic induction is made in

    some modern te+tboo-s#

  • 8/13/2019 117344333 Phy Investigatory Project

    18/26

    THEORY:

    !agnetic flu+9

  • 8/13/2019 117344333 Phy Investigatory Project

    19/26

    The magnetic flu+ often denoted > or >4" through a surface is

    the component of the 4 field passing through that surface#

    The 8I unit of magnetic flu+ is the weber ?b" in derived units9

    [email protected]"$ and the C8 unit is the ma+well# !agnetic flu+ is

    usually measured with a flu+meter$ which contains measuring

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetic_fieldhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SIhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unit_of_measurementhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weber_(unit)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Centimetre_gram_second_system_of_unitshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maxwell_(unit)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetic_fieldhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SIhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unit_of_measurementhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weber_(unit)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Centimetre_gram_second_system_of_unitshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maxwell_(unit)
  • 8/13/2019 117344333 Phy Investigatory Project

    20/26

    coils and electronics that evaluates the change of voltage in

    the measuring coils to calculate the magnetic flu+#

    If the magnetic field is constant$ the magnetic flu+

    passing through a surface of vector area 8 is

    where 4 is the magnitude of the magnetic field the magnetic flu+

    density" having the unit of ?bBm5 Tesla"$ 8 is the area of the

    surface$ and is the angle between the magnetic field lines and

    the normal perpendicular" to 8#

    For a varying magnetic field$ we first consider the magnetic flu+

    through an infinitesimal area element d8$ where we may consider

    the field to be constant

    9

    From the definition of the magnetic vector potentialA and

    the fundamental theorem of the curl the magnetic flu+ may

    also be defined as9

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vector_areahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tesla_(unit)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Field_linehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surface_normalhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetic_vector_potentialhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stokes'_theoremhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vector_areahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tesla_(unit)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Field_linehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surface_normalhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetic_vector_potentialhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stokes'_theorem
  • 8/13/2019 117344333 Phy Investigatory Project

    21/26

    where the line integral is ta-en over the boundary ofthe surface 8$ which is denoted D8#

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Line_integralhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Line_integral
  • 8/13/2019 117344333 Phy Investigatory Project

    22/26

    /A?9

    The most widespread version of Faraday's law states9