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adulteration in food stuff

Text of chem investigatory project

A Project Report On

ADULTERATION IN FOOD STUFF

Submitted By

HARSH SINGH

Class: XII A

Under the Guidance of

Ms. Neha

PGT (Chemistry)

Department of Chemistry

G.D. Salwan Public School, Rajinder Nagar

New Delhi.

Department of ChemistryG.D. Salwan Public School, Rajinder Nagar

New Delhi.

C E R T I F I C A T E This is to certify that HARSH SINGH Of Class XII A has prepared the report on the Project entitled Study Of Adulterants In Food Stuff. The report is the result of his efforts & endeavours. The report is found worthy of acceptance as final project report for the subject Chemistry of Class XII. He has prepared the report under my guidance.(Ms. Neha)PGT (Chemistry)Department of Chemistry G.D. Salwan Public School, Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi.

Department of Chemistry

G.D. Salwan Public School, Rajinder Nagar

New Delhi.

C E R T I F I C A T E

The project report entitled Adulteration In Food Stuff,

Submitted by HARSH SINGH of Class XII A for the CBSE Senior Secondary Examination class XII of Chemistry at G.D. Salwan Public School, Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi has been examined.

SIGNATURE OF EXAMINER

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to express a deep sense of thanks & gratitude to my project guide Ms. Neha Maam for guiding me immensely through the course of the project. She always evinced keen interest in my work. Her constructive advice & constant motivation have been responsible for the successful completion of this project.

My sincere thanks go to Ms. Vijay Laxmi Singh, Our principal maam, for her co-ordination in extending every possible support for the completion of this project.

I also thanks to my parents for their motivation & support. I must thanks to my classmates for their timely help & support for compilation of this project.

Last but not the least; I would like to thank all those who had helped directly or indirectly towards the completion of this project.

HARSH SINGH

Class: XIIA

AIM

Study Of Adulterants In Food Stuff

OBJECTIVE

The Objective of this project is to study some of the common food adulterants present in different food stuffs.

SOME OF THE COMMON FOOD ADULTERANTS IN FOOD ITEMS ARE:

FOOD ITEMSADULTERANTS

Desi ghee & ButterVanaspati ghee

Vegetable gheeParaffin wax

Mustard oilArgemone oil

SugarChalk powder, washing powder

ChilliRed lead, Brick powder

Turmeric powderYellow salts of lead, yellow chalk powder

EXPERIMENT 1 :

AIM: To test the presence of adulterant in Fats, Butter & Oils.

APPARATUS: Test-tubes, beakers, test-tube stand, filter paper, dropper etc.

CHEMICALS REQUIRED: For desi ghee & butter: conc. HCl, sugar, small amounts of vanaspati ghee or butter.For vegetable ghee: conc. acetic anhydride, small amounts of vegetable ghee.For oil: conc. Nitric acid, small amounts of edible oil.PROCEDURE:Common adulterants present in ghee and oil are paraffin wax, hydrocarbons, dyes and argemone oil. These are detected as follows:

(i) Adulteration of paraffin wax and hydrocarbon in vegetable ghee: Heat small amount of vegetable ghee with acetic anhydride. Droplets of oil floating on the surface of unused acetic anhydride indicate the presence of wax or hydrocarbons. (ii) Adulteration of dyes in fat: Heat 1mL of fat with a mixture of 1mL of conc. sulphuric acid and 4mL of acetic acid. Appearance of pink or red colour indicates presence of dye in fat.

(iii) Adulteration of argemone oil in edible oils: To small amount of oil in a test-tube, add few drops of conc. HNO3 and shake. Appearance of red colour in the acid layer indicates presence of argemone oil.

EXPERIMENT 2 :

AIM:To detect the presence of adulterants in sugar.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:Test-tubes, beakers, test-tube stand, filter paper, dropper etc.

CHEMICALS REQUIRED:conc. HCl

PROCEDURE:Sugar is usually contaminated with washing soda and other insoluble substances which are detected as follows:

Adulteration of various insoluble substances in sugar Take small amount of sugar in a test-tube and shake it with little water. Pure sugar dissolves in water but insoluble impurities do not dissolve.Adulteration of chalk powder, washing soda in sugar. To small amount of sugar in a test-tube, add few drops of HCl. Brisk effervescence of CO2 shows the presence of chalk powder or washing soda in the given sample of sugar.

EXPERIMENT 3 :

AIM :To detect the presence of adulterants in samples of chilli powder, turmeric powder and pepper.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:Test-tubes, beakers, test-tube stand, filter paper, dropper etc.

CHEMICALS REQUIRED:conc. HCl, dil. HNO3, KI solution.

PROCEDURE:Common adulterants present in chilli powder, turmeric powder and pepper are red coloured lead salts, yellow lead salts and dried papaya seeds respectively. They are detected as follows :(i) Adulteration of red lead salts in chilli powder: To a sample of chilli powder, add dil. HNO3. Filter the dil. solution and add 2 drops of potassium iodide solution to the filtrate. Yellow ppt. indicates the presence of lead salts in chilli powder. (ii) Adulteration of yellow lead salts to turmeric powder: To a sample of turmeric powder add conc. HCl . Appearance of magenta colour shows the presence of yellow oxides of lead in turmeric powder.(iii) Adulteration of brick powder in red chilli powder Add small amount of given red chilli powder in beaker containing water. Brick powder settles at the bottom while pure chilli powder floats over water.(iv) Adulteration of dried papaya seeds in pepper Add small amount of sample of pepper to a beaker containing water and stir with a glass rod. Dried papaya seeds being lighter float over water while pure pepper settles at the bottom.

EXPT. NO.EXPERIMENTPROCEDUREOBSERVATION

OBSERVATION :1.Adulteration of paraffin wax and hydrocarbon in vegetable ghee.Heat small amount of vegetable ghee with acetic anhydride. Droplets of oil floating on the surface of unused acetic anhydride indicate the presence of wax or hydrocarbon.

2.Adulteration of dyes in fatHeat 1mL of fat with a mixture of 1mL of conc. H2SO4 and 4mL of acetic acid.

3.Adulteration of argemone oil in edible oilsTo small amount of oil in a test tube, add few

drops of conc. HNO3 & shake.

4.Adulteration of various insoluble substances in sugarTake small amount of sugar in a test tube and shake it with little water..

5.Adulteration of chalk powder, washing soda in sugarTo small amount of sugar in a test tube, add a few drops of dil. HCl.

6.Adulteration of yellow lead salts to turmeric powderTo sample of turmeric powder, add conc. HCl .

7.Adulteration of red lead salts in chilli powder.To a sample of chilli powder, add dil. HNO3. Filter the solution and add 2 drops of KI solution to the filtrate.

8.Adulteration of brick powder in chilli powderAdd small amount of given red chilli powder in a beaker containing water

9.Adulteration of dried papaya seeds in pepperAdd small amount of sample of pepper to beaker containing water and stir with a glass rod..

RESULT

The required analysis for adulterants in food stuffs has been made.

PRECAUTIONS

By taking a few precautions, we can escape from consuming adulteratedproducts:(i) Take only packed items of well known companies.

(ii) Buy items from reliable retail shops and recognized outlets.

(iii) Check the ISI mark or Ag mark.

(iv) Buy products of only air tight popular brands.

(v) Avoid craziness for artificially colored sweets and buy only from reputedshops.

(vi) Do not buy sweets or snacks kept in open.

(vii) Avoid buying things fromstreet side vendors.

CONCLUSION

The increasing number of food producers and the outstanding amounts ofimported food stuffs enables the producers to mislead and cheat consumers. To differentiate of those who take advantage of legal rules from the once who commit food adulteration is very difficult. The consciousness ofconsumers has become very crucial. However, how can weexpect consequentbehaviour from them regarding controversial issues emerging day by day? In addition, ignorance and unfair market behaviours is endangering consumerhealth. So we need sanctions and judicial penalties with adequate restrainingforce to halt this process. BIBLIOGRAPHY1. Website www.wikipedia.org www.google.com www.yahoo.com

2. BOOKS: Comprehensive Practical Manual Pradeeps New Course Chemistry NCERT Class XII