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\PALAYAN CITY NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL Atate, Palayan City INVESTIGATION OF SELECTED PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF TALISAY (Terminalia catappa L.) SEED OIL An Investigatory Project Report presented to the Regional Scientific Review Committee as official entry to the Science and Technology Fair 2011-2012 RAMOS, Maria Elaine F. CORTEZ, Niña Jemia D. RIAZA, Rizza Mae A.

Investigatory Project- TALISAY

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  • 1. PALAYAN CITY NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOLAtate, Palayan CityINVESTIGATION OF SELECTED PHYSICAL PROPERTIESOF TALISAY (Terminalia catappa L.) SEED OILAn Investigatory Project Report presented to the Regional Scientific ReviewCommittee as official entry to the Science and Technology Fair 2011-2012RAMOS, Maria Elaine F.CORTEZ, Nia Jemia D.RIAZA, Rizza Mae A.JOEL R. GALLARDEAdult SponsorSeptember 2011

2. Table of ContentsAbstractChapter I. Research PlanMaterialsEquipmentMethodTestingStatistical AnalysisChapter II. IntroductionBackgroundStatement of the ProblemHypothesisSignificance of the StudyScope and DelimitationsReview of Literature and StudiesChapter III. Results and DiscussionChapter IV. ConclusionsChapter V. RecommendationsBibliography / ReferencesAcknowledgement 3. ABSTRACTThis study aims to make use of Talisay nuts as an alternative source of cookingoil. The Talisay fruits used were from different locations in Palayan City, Nueva Ecija.The gathered talisay fruits were mature. The talisay fruit pulp were removed using ahammer. Out of 2kg of mature talisay fruit 200g of nuts were obtained. To produce oilout of talisay nuts, the researchers directly dried the collected talisay nuts under the sun.After sun drying the nuts became 175g. The nuts were pressed using G-clamp in 10gpacks. Based on the procedure that the researchers conducted, it yields 42.86 % of oilfrom 175 g of dried talisay nuts. Smoke point was measured and found out that talisayoil reaches a smoke point of 230C. Viscosity test results showed that the talisay oil haveno significant difference with that of the high and low valued palm oils.With the use of statistical tools, the researchers then concluded that there were nosignificant difference between talisay (Terminalia catappa) nuts, high quality and lowquality cooking oil in terms of color, viscosity and smoke point. 4. RESEARCH PLANMaterialsThis study was conducted in the Science Laboratory of Palayan City NationalHigh School, Brgy. Atate, Palayan City, for the period of June 20, 2011 to September 1,2011.The talisay fruits were collected under the talisay trees in Palayan City. Onlymature fruits were collected since these brown colored fruits have mature nutsappropriate for the purpose of the study. Two kilograms of mature talisay fruit wereobtained, cleaned and husked. A hammer was used to collect the seeds/nuts from themature talisay fruit.The researcher weighed the obtained nuts from mature talisay fruits. Twohundred grams of clean nuts were then scattered in a perforated tray and was dried underdirect sunlight for 3 days at 6 hours per day.Oil ExtractionOil extraction from nuts can be done using a number of methods: manual press,expeller, and solvent extraction (practical action, 2011). This study utilized the manualpress system.In making talisay oil the materials used are 200g of fresh mature talisay nuts, G-clamp,sterile container, perforated tray, glass funnel, beaker, test tube rack, filter paper,graduated cylinder and an improvised sample bag made of mosquito net.Ten grams of dried talisay nuts were placed in an improvised sample bag. Each of 5. the bags were then subjected to pressure using a G-Clamp. The oil was then collectedusing a sterile container as a catch basin. This process was repeated until all samples areused up.Oil FiltrationThe extracted oil was filtered in a glass funnel using a filter paper No. 102. Thefiltration set up was simply composed of a test tube rack, beaker, funnel and filter paper.The researchers let the oil drip for 24 hours and the resulting filtrate volume was thenmeasured using a graduated cylinder, and was weighed using a gram scale.TestingVisual EvaluationThe color and the clarity of the oils were observed by placing 20mL of the threeoil samples in three test tubes placed in a test tube rack. The treatment labels are asfollows:T1- talisay cooking oilT2- low quality cooking oil (palm oil)T3- high quality cooking oil (pure palm oil)The qualities observed were ranked by the range of 1-3 with 1 being the highestand 3 being the lowest. 6. Smoke PointTwenty millilitres of each oil samples were placed in a 100mL beaker andsubjected to heat using electric hot plate. The highest temperature is taken and recorded.The treatment labels are as follows:T1- talisay cooking oilT2- low quality cooking oil (palm oil)T3- high quality cooking oil (pure palm oil)ViscosityIn getting the viscosity of the talisay cooking oil, the researchers used an electricstove in heating 200 mL of water in a pyrex beaker and they let the water reached itssmoke point.The researchers poured 10 mL of talisay oil with 11 cm height in a test tube beforeheating and dropping the metal ball.Using test tube holder, the talisay oil was placed in the beaker with boiling water.Alcohol thermometer was used to measure the temperature of the talisay oil.When the temperature of the oil reached 100C, the metal ball metal ball wasreleased. Using the stopwatch, the time that the metal ball was released and touched thebottom of the test tube was recorded. The measurement was performed three times. Atong was used to remove the metal ball. The talisay oil was cooled by placing the testtube in an ice bath. The talisay oil was stirred to insure uniform temperature. Thetemperature of the oil was checked in every ten minutes. The talisay oil was recordedwhen it was no longer changed. 7. In getting the viscosity of the low and high quality cooking oil, the sameprocedures were performed.Statistical AnalysisData were presented using tables and computing means. Using the means fromthe data obtained, the t-test was used to compare if there is a significant differencebetween the means.HypothesisThere is no significant difference between cooking oil from talisay (Terminaliacatappa) nuts and commercial one on the physical properties being investigated. 8. INTRODUCTIONBackground of the studyPrices of cooking oil for the past years have significantly increased. Price ofcooking oil per liter has been significantly higher than prices of petroleum products.Cooking oil have been part of our modern day living. The demand for cooking oilis too high, we used it for our basic necessities such as frying, baking, flavoring, sauces,and margarine among others. People want to make sure that the cooking oil they areusing has high quality and at the same time economical and low cost.That's why the researchers desire to produce cooking oil out of talisay (Terminaliacatappa ) nuts.Statement of the ProblemDue to inevitable increase in the price of commodities, the demand on cooking oilhas been the main concern of the society and it has become a highly visible issue in ourcountry.This study was conducted to determine the physical properties of talisay(Terminalia catappa) nuts for the production of quality cooking oil.Specifically, it sought to answer the following:1. How much oil can be extracted from talisay nuts using manual presssystem expressed in percent yield? 9. 2. How could cooking oil from talisay (Terminalia catappa) nuts comparedto low quality and high quality palm oils in terms of some physicalproperties:a. Colorb. Clarityc. Boiling or Smoke Pointd. ViscositySignificance of the StudyThe aim of this study is to produce and to prove the feasibility of talisay(Terminalia catappa) nuts for the production of cooking oil based on the physicalproperties being invesigated. Specifically this study will be significant and helpful to thefollowing:Food vendors. They can have good quality of cooking oil at low price.Households. They can avoid the use of low quality cooking oil and they can assure thatthe cooking oil they are using is safe and healthy for their family and also can lessen theirexpenses.Farmers. They can start planting talisay tree as their another source of income. 10. Environment. Planting talisay trees can help lessen the air pollution and prevent floodsand landslides.Researcher. It can serve as a basis for further development. This study will enhance theirskill and knowledge in conducting experiments which they can use for personal and evenfor income generation.Students. This may serve as an eye opener and encourage them to undertake productdevelopment.Scope and Delimitations of the StudyThis study using talisay (Terminalia catappa) nuts was conducted to identify afeasible source of edible oil. Physical properties are limited to the following: color,clarity, smoke point, and viscosity.The research was conducted from June 20, 2011 to September 1, 2011.Preparation of the samples and conduct of different tests were held at the ScienceLaboratory Room, Palayan City National High School at Atate, Palayan City.Operational Definition of TermsWords which are used extensively in this study have been defined for betterunderstanding of prospective readers. These terms are as follows: 11. G-clamp- a simple device used to press the dried talisay nuts in order to get the oil.Pound- a process of removing the pericarp of the talisay fruits with the use of hammer.Perforated tray- a container in which the talisay nuts were place during the sundryingprocess.Mature fruit- is the ripe fruit of talisay that had fallen off and was collected in the feet ofthe tree.Smoke point- the highest temperature that the liquid applied with heat at roomtemperature.Review of Related LiteratureCooking OilCooking oil is purified fat of plant origin, which is usually liquid at roomtemperature (saturated oils such as coconut and palm are more solid at room temperaturethan other oils). 12. Some of the many different kinds of edible vegetable oils include: olive oil, palmoil, soybean oil, canola oil, pumpkin seed oil, corn oil, sunflower oil, safflower oil,peanut oil, grape seed oil, sesame oil, argan oil and rice bran oilEarly peoples learned to use the sun, a fire, or an oven to heat oily plant productsuntil the plants exuded oil that could then be collected. The Chinese and Japaneseproduced soy oil as early as 2000 B.C. , while southern Europeans had begun to produceolive oil by 3000 B.C. In Mexico and North America, peanuts and sunflower seeds wereroasted and beaten into a paste before being boiled in water; the oil that rose to thesurface was then skimmed off. Africans also grated and beat palm kernels and coconutmeat and then boiled the resulting pulp, skimming the hot oil off the water. Some oilshave become available only recently, as extraction technology has improved. Corn oilfirst became available in the 1960s.A stamper press that was invented in Holland in the 1600s and used until the1800s to extract oil, a roll mill invented by English engineer John Smeaton in 1750 tocrush vegetable matter more efficiently, and the hydraulic press, invented by JosephBramah in England. The first improved screw press was invented by V. D. Anderson inthe United States in 1876. His Expeller (a trade name) continuously operated a cagepress. When vegetable matter was placed in Anderson's closed press, the resultant oildrained out of slots in the side. A screw increased the pressure through the cage toward arestricted opening.Enhancements in grinding and pressing plant matter were followed by 13. improvements in extracting the oil. In 1856, Deiss of England obtained the first patent forextraction of oil using solvents, following experiments by Jesse Fisher in 1843. At first,solvents such as benzene were pumped through the material and drained through falseperforated bottoms. Later, Bollman and Hildebrandt of Germany independentlydeveloped continuous systems that sprayed the material with solvent. Both methods wereeventually improved, and today solvent extraction is standard in the vegetable oilindustry.Related StudiesOil ExtractionIn a study conducted by Haque M.A. and others (2009), oil from the seeds areextracted through pressure. Before subjecting the seeds to pressure, the seeds were sun-driedfor several hours. It is also noted that in the absence of direct sunlight, the seedsmay be roasted in an oven for 10 minutes.Likewise, in an article published in practical action, oil extraction process can bedone by using presses or simply by directly applying pressure. Soft nuts and seeds can bepressed while hard nuts need the use of solvents in the extraction process. 14. Percent YieldIn a study conducted by Matos and others, in 2009 the yield percentage iscomputed to approximate the production efficiency of the nuts in terms of the amount ofoil produced from the nuts. Shown below is the equation in solving the percentage yield:% yield of oil = weight of extracted oil x 100weight of seed (dried)Measurement of ViscosityBased on an online article published by the Hawaii Space Grant Consortium(1996) Viscosity of liquids can be measured with a special piece of glassware calleda viscometer. Fluid is drawn up from the cup on the lower left into the tube on the right,using a suction bulb. The suction is removed, and the time it takes for the fluid to drainout is measured. The higher the viscosity, the longer it will take the fluid to drain throughthe tube. To measure viscosity at different temperatures, the viscometer is placed in awater bath.The equation below (Equation 1) shows you how to calculate the viscosity fromyour measurements. It may look intimidating at first, because it has some Greek letters init, but don't let that scare you. The variable commonly used to represent viscosity is theGreek letter "eta" (). The variable commonly used to represent density is the Greek letter"rho" (). The capital Greek letter "delta" () is often used as shorthand for taking thedifference of something. The other variables in the equation are g, for the accleration dueto gravity (980 cm/s2), a for the radius of the sphere (in cm), and v for the averagevelocity of the sphere as it falls through the fluid (in cm/s). The result is in unitsof poise (g/cms). 15. So the equation tells you to take the density of the sphere minus the density of thefluid (), multiply this by 2ga2, and then divide the result by 9v. If the sphere falls morequickly (i.e. with greater velocity), v is greater and , the viscosity, is smaller, as wewould expect. Conversely, if the sphere falls more slowly, the viscosity is greater. Youwould also expect a sphere that has higher density (i.e., is less buoyant) would fall fasterthan a sphere with lower density (i.e., is more buoyant). The density factor in the equationaccounts for this. The amount of friction that the sphere experiences as it falls will berelated to its surface area, which is proportional to the square of the sphere's radius.A water bath can be used to heat or cool the oil to different temperatures in orderto see how its viscosity changes with temperature.Smoke PointThe smoke point generally refers to the temperature at which a cooking fat oroil begins to break down to glycerol and free fatty acids, and produce bluish smoke. Theglycerol is then further broken down to acrolein which is a component of the smoke. It isthe presence of the acrolein that causes the smoke to be extremely irritating to the eyesand throat. The smoke point also marks the beginning of both flavor and nutritionaldegradation. Therefore, it is a key consideration when selecting a fat for frying, with thesmoke point of the specific oil dictating its maximum usable temperature and therefore itspossible applications. For instance, since deep frying is a very high temperature process,it requires a fat with a high smoke point. 16. Hence, smoke point is one of the important characteristics to consider an edibleoil suitable for cooking.TalisayIn a study conducted by Matos(2007) as published in Advance Journal of FoodScience and Technology(2009). Proximate analyses showed that the seed contained4.13% moisture, 23.78% crude protein, 4.27% ash, 4.94% crude fiber, 51.80% fat,16.02% carbohydrate and 548.78 Kcal Calorific value.The seeds were found to be goodsources of minerals. Potassium (9280 0.14 mg/100g) was the highest, followed indescending order by Calcium (827.202.18 mg/100g), Magnesium (798.6 0.32mg/100g) and Sodium (27.89 0.42 mg/100g).The physical properties of the oil extracts showed the state to be liquid at roomtemperature. The oil was found to contain high levels of unsaturated fatty acids,especially oleic (up to 31. 48%) and linoleic (up to 28.93%).Terminalia catappa oil can be classified in the oleic-linoleic acid group. Thedominant saturated acids were palmitic (up to 35.96%) and stearic (up to 4.13%). The oilextracts exhibited good physical properties and could be useful as edible oils and forindustrial applications.Likewise, in a study conducted by Ibironke and others (2007), proves that talisaynuts and oil is not toxic in any amounts as compared to other oils being investigated.Fatty acid analysis of the oils showed that they have high amounts of unsaturated fattyacids with linoleic and oleic acids as the major ones. 17. VI. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONThis part presents analyses, and interprets data gathered in an organized mannerregarding testing of the experimental variable and control variables.Weight of SamplesTable 1. Weight of SamplesWeight (g)CollectedMature FruitsNuts Nuts AfterDryingNuts afterpressingCrude oilextractTalisay 2000 200 175 89 75Percent YieldUsing the equation presented in the study conducted by Matos and others, thepercent yield computed amounted to 42.86%, this means that in every kilo of dried nuts,428.6 g of crude oil extract can be obtained.Recorded Data Time of Speed of the Ball BearingT1- talisay cooking oilT2- low quality cooking oilT3- high quality cooking oil 18. Table 2. Time it takes for the ball bearing to reach the bottom of the test tube at roomtemperature.Treatment Replication (s) Total Average1 2 3T1 19.88 20.17 19.31 59.36 19.79T2 21.56 20.97 21.24 63.77 21.26T3 20.04 19.26 18.13 57.43 19.14At room temperature the oil remains in liquid state. During the tests conducted,the metal ball at treatment 3 reached the bottom of the test tube in the fastest time with anaverage of 19.14s. While, treatment 2 showed the slowest time to reach the bottom of thetest tube with an average of 21.26s.Table 3. Time it takes for the ball bearing to reach the bottom of the test tube at 100C.Treatment Replication (s) Total Average1 2 3T1 5.94 4.79 5.08 15.81 5.27T2 6.24 6.68 5.21 18.13 6.04T3 3.36 5.16 4.27 12.79 4.26At 100C, Treatment 3 reached the bottom of the test tube in the fastest time withan average of 4.26 s. While treatment 2 had the slowest average time of 6.04 s.Table 4. Time it takes for the ball bearing to reach the bottom of the test tube in the icebath.Treatment Replication (s) Total Average1 2 3T1 23.26 24.87 23.32 71.45 23.82T2 23.89 26.65 25.40 75.66 25.22 19. T3 23.62 24.10 23.54 71.26 23.75In the ice water bath, all tree treatments went from liquid to semisolid state. Themetal ball at treatment 3 reached the bottom of the test tube in the fastest time with anaverage of 23.75 s. While, treatment 2 showed the slowest time to reach the bottom ofthe test tube with an average of 25.22 s.Table 5. Computed viscosity of the three treatments at 100C.Treatment Replication (kg/m.s) Total Average1 2 3T1 0.208 0.167 0.130 0.505 0.168*T2 0.204 0.218 0.170 0.592 0.197T3 0.123 0.188 0.156 0.467 0.156***Mean SE, T1 and T2 means are not significantly different at P>0.05**Mean SE, T3 and T1 means are not significantly different at P>0.05The high quality oil sample had the lowest computed viscosity value of 0.156kg/m.s. While the low quality oil sample had the highest computed viscosity value of0.197 kg/m.s. Statistical computations show that the three-treatment computedviscosities are not significantly different from one another. This means that talisaycooking oil is both comparable on the quality of the high quality and low quality cookingoil in terms of viscosity at hot temperatures.Table 6. Computed viscosity of the three treatments at room temperature.Treatment Replication (kg/m.s) Total Average1 2 3T1 0.695 0.706 0.675 2.076 0.692*T2 0.703 0.684 0.693 2.080 0.693T3 0.732 0.704 0.662 2.098 0.699** 20. *Mean SE, T1 and T2 means are not significantly different at P>0.05**Mean SE, T3 and T1 means are not significantly different at P>0.05The talisay or experimental oil sample had the lowest computed viscosity value of0.692 kg/m.s. While the low quality oil sample had the highest computed viscosity valueof 0.699 kg/m.s. Statistical computations show that the three-treatment computedviscosities are not significantly different from one another. This means that talisaycooking oil is both comparable on the quality of the high quality and low quality cookingoil in terms of viscosity at room temperature.Table 7. Computed viscosity of the three treatments at cold temperature (ice bath).Treatment Replication (kg/m.s) Total Average1 2 3T1 0.813 0.870 0.815 2.498 0.833*T2 0.779 0.869 0.819 2.467 0.822T3 0.863 0880 0.860 2.603 0.868***Mean SE, T1 and T2 means are not significantly different at P>0.05**Mean SE, T3 and T1 means are not significantly different at P>0.05Table 6 shows that the high quality oil sample had the highest computed viscosityvalue of 0.868 kg/m.s. While the low quality oil sample had the lowest computedviscosity value of 0.822 kg/m.s. Statistical computations show that the three-treatmentcomputed viscosities are not significantly different from one another even in coldtemperatures.Table 8. Smoke point of the oil samples 21. Treatment Replication (C) Total Average1 2 3T1 230 230 230 690 230T2 235 235 235 705 235T3 235 235 235 705 235High quality and low quality oils which are both palm oils share the same value ofsmoke point or smoke point. Oil produced from talisay nuts showed a slightly lowersmoke point of 230C which is near the value of other forms of oils obtained from nuts.Table 9. Visual Evaluation of the different oil samples.Treatment Qualities Total AverageColor(beforecooking)Color(aftercooking)ClarityT1 2 2 2 6 2T2 3 3 3 9 3T3 1 1 1 3 1Based on the qualities observed and perceptions of the observers, the high qualityoil topped the rating, seconded by talisay oil and lastly by the low quality oil. 22. CONCLUSIONAs based on the results of the experimentation and the computed t-value in thestatistical analysis, it can be therefore concluded that there is no significant differencebetween the high and low quality palm oils and the oil produced from talisay nuts.Also the following conclusions were reached:1. The percentage yield of talisay oil is relatively high compared to othersources of seed oils.2. a. In color and clarity, oil produced from talisay nuts are almostsimilar with the high quality oil.b. The smoke point of the talisay cooking oil is within the acceptablerange of smoke points for cooking oils which is 121C -252C.c. The viscosity of the oil produced from talisay nuts have nosignificant difference from the viscosities of the high quality and lowquality cooking oils.Therefore it can be inferred that oils produced from talisay nuts can be used asgood quality cooking oil as based on the tests conducted in this study. 23. RECOMMENDATIONSimilar researches can be conducted on other potential sources of edible oils thatcan be used for cooking. It can also be a possibility that further investigation on thehealth benefits of talisay nuts and its oil be explored. Different methods of oil extractionmay be tested to increase the percent yield. Different methods of filtration are alsoadvised to improve the quality of oil. The use of other refinement techniques can alsoincrease the oil quality. The possibility of making use of experimental oils as lubricatingagent in machines can also be investigated. 24. BIBLIOGRAPHYActa, Chim S. 1998. The Temperature Dependence of Dynamic Viscosityfor some Vegetable Oils. Department of Food Technology, Biotechnical Faculty,University of Ljubljana, 1000 Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, SloveniaAmit K. Das, et al, http://www.slideshare.net/amitkdas12/study-of-oil-deterioration-during-continuous-and-intermittent-fryingM.A. Haque, M. P. Islam, M.D. Hussain, F. Khan. Physical, Mechanical Properties andOil Content of Selected Indigenous Seeds Available for Biodiesel Production inBangladesh. Agricultural Engineering International: the CIGR Ejournal.Manuscript 1419, Vol. XI, 2009.Hawai'i Space Grant Consortium, Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology,University of Hawai'i, 1996http://www.spacegrant.hawaii.edu/class_acts/ViscosityTe.htmlIbironke A. And others (2007). Short-term toxicological evaluation of Terminaliacatappa, Pentaclethra macrophylla andCalophyllum inophyllum seed oils in rats.Accessed online August 23, 2011.L. Matos and others. (2007). Composition and Nutritional Properties of Seeds and OilFrom Terminalia catappa L. Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology1(1): 72-77, 2009Morton, J.F., 1985. Indian almond (Terminalia catappa),salt-tolerant, useful, tropical treewith "nut" worthy of improvement.Practical Action. 2011. Technical Brief: Oil Extraction. Accessed online:www.practicalaction.com 25. Vles, R.O. And J.J. Gottenbos, 1989. Nutritional Characteristics and Food Uses ofVegetable Oils. In:Oil crops of the world. G. Robblen, R.K. Downeyand A. Ashri,(Eds.). Accessed Online: August 23, 2011.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTIt is the researchers honor to acknowledge the persons who joined their handsand exerted their efforts in making this study successful one.To their research teacher, Joel R. Gallarde, for his full supervision andguidance just to make this research study a very successful one.The researchers would also like to express their deepest gratitude to MadamPaula A. Panggalangan, school principal, Maam Gloria N. Lising, Head teacher inScience.The Science Laboratory Manager, Mrs. Vergie A. Nueda, who allowed theresearchers to use the facilities and equipments in the laboratory. Also thank Mrs. Fermin,Mrs. Ronalyn Paulino and Mrs. Cristine Umali for pieces of advice and assistance.To their beloved and ever supportive parents for providing them moral andfinancial supports, whose undying love and sacrifices serve as an inspiration in all theirundertakings. 26. Most of all, to the creator of heaven and earth who united the researchers andgave them enough strength, courage and wisdom to finish this study.To God be the glory.