Lagos is the fastest growing Megacity in Sub-Saharan Africa, with its population estimated to double in the first quarter of this century; it is expected to be the third largest urban agglomerations in the world. This growth is not without challenges, as the city is grappling with myriads of urban management problems. City planners lack the most important ingredient of land use management, which is Information. In spite of huge investment on spatial data infrastructures at the national and state levels of government, most land use planners at both state and local government level agencies are ignorant of existing geospatial technology portals and unlock the full potentials of information and communication technologies. A statewide survey of the spatial data infrastructures of the city’s urban and land use management ministry and agencies proves its pathetic state, thereby creating information gap void between urban development and intelligent management. The result is has led to a sporadic growth of slums and unplanned settlements which now accounts for over 60% of the city. To avoid an impasse, it is necessary to review the level of geospatial technologies used at the local level and recommend formidable means of integration in the decision making process. This paper examines the level of geospatial technologies and Spatial Data Infrastructure use in spatial planning agencies and barriers to implementation in the 20 local governments of Lagos State and suggests the way forward.
- 1. Building Spatial Data Infrastructure forSpatial Planning in African Cities: TheLagos ExperienceSamuel DekoloProf. Leke OduwayeDepartment of Urban and Regional PlanningUniversity of Lagos, NigeriaBeing a Presentation at the 3rd International Conference of Urban and Regional Planning (ICURP2014)The Urban Agenda for Africa Held at the University of Lagos, Nigeria. 13th -15th October, 2014
2. Presentation OverviewThe Planning Agency and Spatial Information SDI and Spatial PlanningSDI Initiatives (Africa, National and Lagos)Lessons from Lagos SDI Case Study Assessment 3. THE PLANNING AGENCY ANDSPATIAL INFORMATION 4. The Planning Agency and Needfor Spatial InformationSpatial information has become indispensable forplanning and management of cities.The management and planning of urban spacerequires spatially accurate and timely information onland use and changing pattern.Adequate monitoring provides the planners anddecision-makers with required information about thecurrent state of development and the nature ofchanges that have occurred over time. 5. The Need for Spatial InformationSpatial Informationis the most valuableand indispensableingredient in thespatial planningdecision makingprocess 6. Faludis Cybernetic Model of theLocal Planning AgencyThe Planning Agency is just like the Human Mind;Information Input will Determine Output ResponseModified from Faludi, 1973 7. Information-driven PlanningTheories and Frameworks1960s= Systems Theory played a dominant rolein the emergence of MIS in the 1960s and GIS in the1990s1980s= Functional and CommunicativeRationality . The former puts information gatheringand scientific analysis at the core of planning, whilethe latter emphasises an inclusive approach ofinformation sharing by all stakeholders2000s= e-planning is an extension of ICTapplications in planning with a focus on the product(the plan) and the process (planning). 8. If information gathering and sharing iscrucial to decision making in spatialplanning, how can the planning agencyachieve its aim? 9. SDI AND SPATIAL PLANNING 10. SDI ConceptSpatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) is an initiativeintended to create an environment that enables awide variety of users to access and retrievecomplete consistent data sets in easy and secureway. It is defined as the technology, policies, standards,and institutional arrangements necessary to acquire,process, store, distribute and improve the utilizationof geospatial data from different sources and for awide range of potential users. 11. SDI ComponentsPeopleAccess NetworkPolicyStandardsDataDynamicFrom Feeney et al, 2001 12. SDI ComponentsMetadataFundamentalGeospatialSDI DatasetsClearinghouseAccessInfrastructureHumanResources andPartnershipPoliciesStandards 13. SDI in Spatial Planning ContextSpatial planningcoordinates policiesand investment acrossagencies to achieve acommon objective foractivity places, whichmay span fromcommunities to supra-nationalspaces.SDI providesinformation linkageacross organizationsfrom local to globalscales.From Rajabifard 1999 14. Building SDI BlocksCorporate SDI is the foundation and lowest levelof SDI, which other blocks rest but most oftenneglected. This research examines the planningagency as a Corporate SDI Block (organization)From Rajabifard 2000 15. SDI INITIATIVE IN AFRICA,NIGERIA AND LAGOS 16. African SDI InitiativesEIS- AFRICA NetworkUN Eceonomic Commission for Africa Committeeon Information (CODI)Africover- East AfricaAfricaGIS Conferences/Workshops on SDISouth Africa National Spatial InformationFramework (NSIF).Ghana: National Framework for Geo-SpatialInformation Management (NAFGIM 17. Nigerian SDI InitiativesNational Geospatial Information Policy(2003)NGDI Committee/Sub-committees:2 Members from NASRDA (Lead Agency)2 Members from University2 Members from Polytechnic/Monotechnic6 Members from 6 Geopolitical Zones (Nodal Agencies)4 Private Sector, Inter-governmental Agencies& NGO11 Members from Federal Ministries/AgenciesUser Requirement Surveys,Provision of Fundamental DatasetsNational Workshops 18. NGDI Organizational FrameworkPresidencyNGDICommitteeServers/IntranetFeedbackNGDI CouncilNASRDAStakeholdersGovernments(All Levels)Private SectorNGOs, CBOsAcademiaService ProvidersVendors/UsersPublic SectorsDefence/SecurityOthersMapping Organisations & OtherNGDI Node AgenciesNGDIPolicyRulesStandardsLegislationSub-CommitteesFrom Agbaje & Akinyede2005 19. SDI Initiatives in LagosComplete Digital Mapping/Geographic InformationSystem (GIS) for the whole StateAerial photos at a scale of 1:4000 whiledigital maps at a scale of 1/500 for Lagos metropolis and1/1000 for rural areasOrthophotos for the whole state is at 1/2000 and DTM.Electronic Data Management Systems (EDMS)LAGIS Project (Lagos Enterprise GIS)Lagos Navigation Systems (upcoming)Draft GI Policy for Lagos State 20. Lagos Enterprise GISOrthophoto Overlay Cadastral Map Layer 21. Lagos Enterprise GISLand Use and Acquisition Layers 22. Lagos Enterprise GISAdministrative/Boundaries Layers 23. Lagos Enterprise GISLand Use Zones/Streets Layers 24. Lagos Enterprise GISParcel/Cadastral Layers 25. CASE STUDY OF LAGOS SDIPLANNING AGENCIES 26. Research Methodology The research adopted a survey approach, in which sets ofquestionnaire were administered in agencies and departmentsof the Lagos State Ministry of Physical Planning and UrbanDevelopment across the Local Government Areas of LagosState. The following are the agencies: Regional and Master PlanningDepartment, Physical Planning Department, DevelopmentMatters, Urban Development, Lagos State Urban RenewalAgency, Lagos State Planning Information Centre, UrbanFurniture Regulatory Unit, Lagos State Physical PlanningPermit Authority and Lagos State Building Control Agency. The New Towns Development Authority (NTDA) was alsoincluded in the survey. 27. The Organizational Structure of Ministry ofPhysical Planning and Urban DevelopmentAgencies of the Lagos State Ministry of Physical Planning and Urban Development 28. SDI Thematic Areas and Response The investigation covered the following: Awareness, use and usefulness of LAGIS website availability of ICT infrastructure, availability of core SDI data data sharing and coordination, perceived barriers and benefits of ICT in urban planning. The survey recorded 100% response from state level agencies, whileresponse only 30% response was recorded at the local level agencies,however, respondent agencies were spread across 12 of the 20 LocalGovernment Areas, which also represent 58% of the total land mass ofthe state. 54.5% of the respondents are in the professional cadres,while respondents in the technical and administrative cadres were36.4% and 9.1% respectively. 29. Awareness, Use and Usefulness ofthe LAGIS Project 30. Available ICT InfrastructuresAccess to Communication Networks 31. Available ICT InfrastructuresAccess to Computer Hardware 32. Available ICT InfrastructuresAccess to Geospatial Software 33. Fundamental DatasetsFundamental GeospatialDatasetsResponse %Mean RankValidMissingValid %None0Paper1Digital2Paper/Digital4Approved Private Layouts 20 2 35.0 45.0 15.0 5.0 0.90 1Aerial Photographs 21 1 57.1 14.3 14.3 14.3 0.86 2Digital Satellite Imageries 21 1 61.9 4.8 19.0 14.0 0.86 2Development Permit Register 21 1 42.9 42.9 4.8 9.5 0.81 4Government Residential20 2Schemes45.0 35.0 15.0 5.00.805Land Use Zoning 21 1 52.5 28.6 9.5 9.5 0.76 6Topographic Data 21 1 52.4 33.3 9.5 4.8 0.67 7Transportation 21 1 57.1 23.8 14.3 4.8 0.67 7Model City Plans 21 1 61.9 19.0 9.5 9.5 0.67 7Industrial Schemes 20 2 70.0 15.0 15.0 0.0 0.45 10Administrative Maps 21 1 76.2 14.2 4.8 4.8 0.38 11Land Cover/Vegetation 21 1 76.2 9.5 14.3 0.0 0.38 11Renewal/Regeneration Maps20 275.0 20.0 5.0 0.00.3013Hydrological Data 21 1 85.7 4.8 9.5 0.0 0.24 14Climate 21 1 85.7 4.8 9.5 0.0 0.24 14Cadastral/Land Tenure 21 1 85.7 9.5 4.8 0.0 0.19 16Health Data 21 1 85.7 9.5 4.8 0.0 0.19 16Demographic/Population 21 1 85.7 9.5 4.8 0.0 0.19 16Wetland Maps 21 1 90.4 4.8 4.8 0.0 0.14 19Soil Maps 21 1 90.4 4.8 4.8 0.0 0.14 19Forestry 21 1 90.4 4.8 4.8 0.0 0.14 19Economic Data 21 1 90.4 4.8 4.8 0.0 0.14 19Geodetic Data 22 0 95.5 0.0 4.5 0.0 0.09 23Bathymetry Data 21 1 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.00 24 34. Common Challenges to SDIDevelopment in AfricaPolicy and Coordination ProblemsAwareness and IgnoranceSocio-economic, Cultural and Political DiversityPartnership and Collaboration ProblemsFinancial IssuesLack of Political WillAccountable and TransparencyInsufficiency Human and Technical Capacities 35. Way Forward for SDI Developmentin African CitiesThere is an urgent need for of creating awareness on the SDIinitiative.SDI needs assessment for cities should be coordinated at City level.Inter-institutional committee or organization should be formed at citylevels in each country to develop a work plan, identify working groupsand tasks, hold awareness workshops and build support, developpolicy and laws.Developing countries should develop and endorse policiespromoting greater public access to geoinformation. Such policiesshould remove barriers to as well as promote access and sharing.Metadata should be developed, maintained, standardized andpublished at local, national and regional levels as frequent aspossible.Formal City SDI programme must be launched in a systematic way,collaborating donor organization, international and local stakeholders. 36. Way Forward for SDI Developmentin African CitiesSDI initiatives should focus on customers interests and needs, i.e.,State SDI should focus on city and corporate interest, while NationalSDI should focus on sub-national concerns.GSDI should provide technical assistance to regional and nationalSDI. Since SDI is a relatively new concept, most developing countrieswill need assistance to capacity building.Financial strategy should be developed. Sustainable finance iscentral to any successful SDI implementation; therefore, countriesshould make business cases that will attract i