Lectures 6 and 7 Spatial Data Infrastructures

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Partnerships in Action. Lectures 6 and 7 Spatial Data Infrastructures. Longley et al. Chapter 20. Partnerships. Often fraught with hazards – can take longer and create friction BUT Often there is no real choice for they can bring: New staff skills Additional technology Marketing skills - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Lectures 6 and 7 Spatial Data Infrastructures

  • Lectures 6 and 7Spatial Data InfrastructuresPartnerships in ActionLongley et al. Chapter 20

  • PartnershipsOften fraught with hazards can take longer and create frictionBUTOften there is no real choice for they can bring:New staff skillsAdditional technologyMarketing skillsBetter brand imageNew insights on user needsNew productsCost- and risk-sharing

  • Local partnerships: an exampleChannel Island National Marine SanctuaryNOAA NMSSB County Planning & DevelopIsland PackersBlue PlanetCommercial Fisherman of SB, IncVentura CollegeUCSBChannel Islands National ParkCalif Coastal CommissionMany, many others

  • Local to global partnerships: an exampleGIS Day is an annual grassroots event which began in November 1999, designed to promote geographic literacy in schools, communities, and organizations. GIS Day GIS users and vendors open their doors to schools, businesses, and the general public to showcase real-world applications of the technology. News of the event is spread by use of the Internet and by advertising. Any organization can host such an event: 2,400+ organizations hosted GIS Day events in more than 91 different countries in 1999 (see map). About 2.4 million children and adults were enlightened on GIS technology on that day

  • www.gisday.com

  • National partnerships via NSDIsThe problem:Data duplication commonplace so waste occursAd hoc data sharing has many difficultiesData often tailored to one applicationBest data often collected in greatest detail at local level but not accessible to regional or national folkIndexes/metadata to available GI unknown until recentlyNo general protocols for any of this until NSDI

  • What is a National Spatial Data Infrastructure?the technology, policies, standards, and human resources necessary to acquire, process, store, distribute, and improve utilization of geospatial data

    Source: Presidential Executive Order #12906 (1994): 'Co-ordinating Geographic Data Acquisition and Access: The National Spatial Data Infrastructure' W Clinton.BUT what does it mean in practice?

  • Initial elements of the US NSDIDefined standards (mandated on federal agencies and encouraged for others) Minimizing inconsistencyClearinghouse metadata descriptions of existing data. Advertising what is availableNational geospatial data framework - a common template on which to assemble other data

  • The NSDI is composed ofMetadata Geo dataClearinghouseStandardsPartnerships

  • The data provide a core...Geographic/Geospatial Data

  • Categories of Geographic DataCommunity-developed data sets single purpose potential re-usecommon content specification Framework data

  • Categories of Geographic Data

  • Digital orthoimagery Elevation and bathymetryFramework Data

  • Web Sites of the Week

  • SpecializedFrameworkDescribing your data...

  • Metadata: nutritional label for GIS data setsInternally - saves 4 hrs research 10 times a year = (4x10x$50) = $2,000 (time it takes to look up or contact someone for information about a dataset)External Questions - refer 30 inquires/year (1hr/inquiry) = (30x1x $50)=$1,500 (time it takes to answer calls from people who want to use the data or find out more about it) Future reuse/enhancement -$5,000 to $25,000Liability (lawyers, courts) - $$$$

  • The uses of metadataProvides documentation of existing internal geospatial data resources within an organization (inventory)Permits structured search and comparison of held spatial data by others (advertising)Provides end-users with adequate information to take the data and use it in an appropriate context (liability)

  • SpecializedFrameworkMetadataMaking data discoverable...

  • Clearinghouse provides...Discovery of spatial data Distributed search worldwideUniform interface for spatial data searchesAdvertising for your data holdings

  • Clearinghouse operates as...Entry point to constellation of serversCollection of distributed servers, using a common protocol (e.g., Z39.50)A virtual Google for geographic data

  • WebClientGatewayClearinghouseNodes orServersThis is all ClearinghouseNOAAOregonUSGSNMDNGS

  • SpecializedFrameworkMetadataClearinghouse (catalog)Consistent approaches...

  • Who builds standards?ISO - Intl Standards OrganizationFGDC Standards working group in partnership with . . .FGDC Thematic subcommitteesOpen Geospatial Consortium (OGC)Concerned organizationsProducers and users of geospatial data

  • Types of standardsData contentCommon classificationsCommon collection criteriaData managementMetadataSpatial Data Transfer Standard (SDTS)Data transfer protocols (e.g., WMS)

  • Clearinghouse/Catalog & StandardsImportant differences:Data models, data structures (formats), query languages, (syntactic) meaning of terms in metadata, meaning of values in data (semantic) E.g.: Metadata:Different metadata standards (ISO vs. FGDC)Different terms:Seabed vs. SeafloorCoastline vs. Shoreline

  • Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC)OGC Web Service:OGC specificationInterface allowing requests for geographic resources across the Web using platform-independent callsMain OGC services:Catalogue Service for the Web (CSW)Web Map Service (WMS) Web Feature Service (WFS)Web Coverage Service (WCS)

  • Catalog Services for the Web (CSW) ExampleInternational Coastal Atlas Network (ICAN)Connect individual coastal atlases to an integrated global atlas

  • Catalog Services for the Web (CSW) ExampleICAN CSW based on open source GeoNetworkGeonetwork-opensource.orgAtlas XISO Metadata&MIDA terminologyFGDC Metadata&OCA terminologyX Standard&X terminologySeabedSeafloor

  • Next step for ICAN is WMSCSWXWMSWFSWFSWFSCSWCSWWMSWMSLinking of terms in metadata helps ultimate to link to data:ICAN:Coastlineis similar toOCA:Shoreline

  • Web Mapping Service (WMS) ExampleDISMAR: Data Integration System for Marine Pollution and Water Quality. More current projects at http://interrisk.nersc.no/

  • International Coastal Atlas Networkican.science.oregonstate.edu

  • GEOdataFrameworkMetadataClearinghouse (catalog)Standards

  • Lots of people involvedFederal government (many agencies)State governmentLocal governmentPrivate sector contractors, value-adders, exploitersNot for profit organizationsCitizenryOthersNo one is in charge

  • Data.gov

  • Mapaction.org

  • Government and the private sectorNational governments own and control national mapping agenciesAll such mapping produced to national specifications until recentlyNew private sector providers:Produce imagery for anywhere in worldProduce road databasesHow do we get these to work together?

  • A Research AgendaFuture of the Spatial Information InfrastructureInformation policyIntellectual property rights, privacy, liabilityDigital government researchLocal generation and integration of dataPublic participation GIS

  • Short Term Research Prioritieswww.ucgis.org priorities-->researchInstitutional aspects of SDIsGI PartneringGI Resource MgmtGradation, Indeterminate BoundariesGeospatial Semantic WebSpatializationPervasive ComputingLocation Based ServicesSpatial ClusteringGeoslavery & SecurityGeospatial Data FusionGlobal Representation and ModelingData Mining and Knowledge DiscoveryDynamic Modeling

  • Other Research Priorities(Long Term)Geographic RepresentationScaleSpatial Data Acquisition & IntegrationSpatial CognitionSpatial OntologiesSpace and Space/Time Analysis & ModelingUncertaintyVisualizationGIS and SocietyGeographic Information Engineering

  • A Global Spatial Data Infrastructure?Difficult enough to get national players to work togetherIs GSDI a process, a general framework or a product?Who are the stakeholders?Who needs it? (military doing what they need themselves?)

  • Life, partnerships and GISWhen do you work in partnership with other people or organisations?What makes it worthwhile?The same applies to GIS partnerships:Commitment to a cause, wish to improve matters?Personal ambition? Influence? Fame? Status?Money?

  • Summary - 1Partnerships versus competitionLocalNational Spatial Data InfrastructureGeodata, Framework, Metadata, Clearinghouse, Standards, Partnerships Global Spatial Data InfrastructuresPolitical power in partnershipsBringing it all together: the GIS game

  • Summary - 2Partnerships potentially very powerful so look beyond the normal..Nothing is without costChoose GIS partners carefully, nurture relationships

    *ICAN currently involves over 30 institutions from 14 countries plus the UNESCO IODE (Intl Ocean Data/Information Exchange). Geospatial One-Stop E-Government InitiativeGeospatial One-Stop E-Government Initiative