Utrecht sa- hans van ginkel

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  • 1. Rising to theOccasionRoles of Universities in EfSD Dr. Hans van Ginkel Honorary Professor Utrecht University, The Netherlands

2. The cyclone and floods in theIrrawaddy-delta and the earthquake inSichuan are just two recent, horrificexamples of the unquestionable trendthat (un)natural disasters are on theincrease, both in frequency and inimpacts. Our common future is underthreat. 3. The two examples already indicatethat our environmental risks go wellbeyond climate change and includerisks of a geo-tectonic and a humannature. 4. Our Changing World 5. Our Changing WorldSalvador Dali: The Child Watches the Birth of New Man (1943) 6. Challenges of Our TimesCore Processes Leading to Change Globalization and Localization Increasing frequency and impact of environmental hazards Development of the knowledge society Growing importance of ethics and values 7. Challenges of Our TimesMain Challenges1. World governance, peace and security2. Climate change, risk and vulnerability3. Globalization and urbanization4. Global health5. International crime and terrorism6. Ethics, values and inter-cultural leadership7. Fragile ecosystems, access andbenefit-sharing 8. Precious Niche of UNU= given by the two parts of its name: United Nations and UniversityBeing a university provides the autonomy andindependence that guarantee its objectivity andintegrity;Being United Nations focuses the work of UNUon the agenda of UN: peace, security, governance;development, environment and the related scienceand technology. 9. Mission of UNUto contribute, through research and capacitydevelopment, to efforts to resolve thepressing global problems that are theconcern of the United Nations, its Peoples and Member States. 10. Some main contributions to UNSome examples:1. Programmatic 2. ConceptualHuman and Social DevelopmentDevelopment as FreedomGrowth Standards for Children Human SecurityWater CrisisHorizontal InequalitiesMega-cities Responsibility to ProtectLand degradationZero EmissionsAccess and Benefit sharingInter-linkagesRisk and VulnerabilityAgro-BiodiversityRegional Integration 11. Core Messages atWorld Conferences (1)1. WCHE, Paris Real innovation in (higher) education must come from within ( GUNI, Barcelona)2. WSSD, JohannesburgInter-linkages (widely accepted)Subsidiarity ( partnerships)Concrete topics ( WEHAB)To be successful in ESD: education andeducators must be taken serious ( DESD) 12. Core Messages at World Conferences (2)3.Third World Water Forum, Kyoto All engineering leads to more engineeringthinkfirst, e.g. Aral Sea, Arsenic Pollution in Bangladesh( World Water Week, Stockholm) Related: e-governance with respect to water issues4.WCDR, Kobe Next disaster will be different again: imagine the un-imaginable ( quick start of UNU-EHS, modeling studies UNU- ESD; global consortium on floods, IFI, as well as one on landslides) 13. + RCEs + Online Learning ProjectsRCE Rhine MeuseRCE Greater Sendai RCE TorontoRCE BarcelonaRCE Tongyeong Global Virtual UniversityRCE JordanRCE Okayama REDMESOAsia Pacific Initiative Biological Water Virtual RCE Penang Conservation Learning CentreRCE Pacific 14. United Nations University Keio UniversityUniversity of RyukyuAsia Human Development & Environment Curriculum Introduction Coral Reef Management MEAs & Environmental Governance Kyoto Protocol: Negotiations &Landscape Diversity and EcosystemPacificWater Resource Managmt Sustainable Agriculture Impacts Functions of Coral Reefs Coastal Zone PlanningInitiative University of HawaiiEarth Observing TechnologiesClimate ChangeIntegrated Coastal ZoneManagementSustainable Development PlanningIsland Land Use PlanningThailandSustainable Agriculture Asian Institute of TechnologyIntegrated Water ResourceManagementPoverty Alleviation in the GreaterMekong Asian Development BankAdditional LecturesNational University FASID Economic Development in theUniversity of theof SamoaJiCA Greater Mekong and Pacific Islands South PacificEast-West Center Water Resource ManagementTerrestrial, Freshwater and MarineResearch Institute for the Sub- Land and Marine based Chemical TropicsBiogeography PollutionPacific Is. Global Ocean ObservingSustainable Fisheries Waste Water and Solid WasteSystemCommunity Based Marine Management Intl Society for MangroveConservation Sustainable AgricultureEcosystems1 15. Climate change,risk and vulnerability 16. Climate change,risk and vulnerability 17. Climate change,risk and vulnerability 18. Climate change,risk and vulnerability 19. Dimensions of Disaster 20. Climate change, risk and vulnerabilityEvents 830 Africa 476Death toll >10 million Asia 7.7 millionFinancial loss >60 billion Asia 16.1 billion 21. Climate change, risk and vulnerabilityEvents 2,777 Asia 1,155Death toll 6.9 million Asia 6.7 millionFinancial loss >345 billion US$ Asia >200 billion US$ 22. Climate change, risk and vulnerabilityEvents 806 Asia 456Death toll >2 million Asia >1.3 millionFinancial loss >415 billion US$ Asia >183 billion US$N.B.Windstorms:Death toll in Asia >1 millionFinancial loss in Americas >325 billion US$ 23. Creeping DisastersLand Degradation (1)Affects 23% of the landscape underhuman use, including about 60% of thearea of Africa and AsiaEach year an additional 20 millionhectares of agricultural land becomestoo degraded for crop production or islost to other uses 24. Creeping DisastersLand Degradation (3)Prevention and reversal of landdegradation fosters the achievement ofUN Millennium Development Goals(MDGs) and the objectives of majorglobal environment conventions 25. Shrinking of the Aral SeaMay 29, 1973 August 19, 1987 July 29, 2000 26. Climate change, risk and vulnerability Increase of Exposure (in money terms)Disasters 1950-1960 1990-2000 ----------------------------------------------------- Number 2082 ----------------------------------------------------- Losses US$38 billion US$535 billion 27. Human SecurityPeople first;(Un)natural disasters claim more casualties thanwar and violence;(Un)natural disasters are on the increase: duringthe 1990s more than 3 times as many naturaldisasters as in the 1960s Guiding Principle:Dimensions of (human) in-security 28. Environmental Individual and Risk CollectiveVulnerability (Un)Natural DisastersPrevention Infrastructural SolutionsMitigation Early WarningRelief CommunicationResilience Social Organization 29. Approaches to Reduce Risksdefine acceptable risks to each societyprioritize strengthening critical infrastructure includinglifelines, such as energy and water supplies,transportationdevelop policies to promote incremental strengtheningof infrastructure through legislation and incentivesfind ways to share risks through financial andinsurance mechanismsdevelop safety nets to support recovery afterdisasters 30. Education for Sustainable Development:a Vehicle to Build Winning Alliances A multi disciplinary approach Research on hard meaning infrastructure and soft meaning non-structural measures, to develop effective policies and innovative solutions An educated public supporting long term measures Community participation and support in strategic development agenda that incorporate disaster risk reduction in development planning 31. Decade of Educationfor Sustainable Development (DESD)Proposed in JPOI (2005-2014)Adopted by UN General Assembly in 2002The International Implementation Scheme (IIS)for DESD was approved in Sep. 2005.Governments are invited to consider the measuresto implement DESD in their educational strategiesand action plans. 32. DESD VisionCreation of the Global Learning Space for EfSD, based on RCEsCreate a world where everyone hasthe opportunity to benefit from qualityeducation and learn the values,behavior and lifestyles required for asustainable future and for positivesocietal transition. 33. Regional Centers of Expertise on EfSDFormal EducationNon-Formal Education(Research centers)Knowledge-related institutions UniversitiesUniversities (Science) museums SecondarySecondaryBotanical gardensSchoolsSchools Nature parksVertical linksLateral linksPrimaryPrimaryLocal GovernmentsSchoolsSchoolsCommunity LeadersMedia Horizontal links Local BusinessesLocal NGOs 34. 12 Previously Acknowledged RCEsand 23 New RCEs Greater SudburyRhine-Meuse SaskatchewanTorontoBarcelona Tongyeong Grand RapidsGreater SendaiJordanYokohamaOkayama CebuGhana GreaterPenangNairobi Pacific Island Countries Kwa-Zuku NatalCuritiba-ParanaMakana & Rural Eastern Cape 35. About Knowing You KnowIt is just not what you see, you know New Society: ...new challenges Surprise: be prepared Engineering:never stops Complexity:.. respect nature Education: WEHAB 36. Sea Level RisePeople at risk from a 44 cm sea-level rise by the 2080s assuming 1990s level offlood protection 37. Surprise 100 39, Moisture overlandPrecipitation on61landEvaporation on Land 424385 Evaporation from Precipitation onInterflowoceanocean 38 Unconfined Aquifer Surface Flow1 Confined Aquifergroundwater FlowOur knowledge of hydrological cycle, is not complete at thelocal scale.Increasing water stresses will ultimately alter thefragile balances through withdrawal, springingsurprises.Ground water contamination (arsenic, salt water), 38. Increased Flood vulnerability due to land subsidence in Tokyo Area below normal low tideArea below normal high tide Area below abnormal high tidePresent embankment to protect subsided areas 39. Is it always possible? Underground FloodDiversion tunnel 40. Need to look for sustainablesolutionsRestoration of water cycle through artificialinfiltration and onsite retention 41. Netherlands: Delta works 42. Glass City in The Netherlands 43. An important decision for the G-8 totake in Hokkaido would be to agreethat in all their countries in all curriculafrom primary to higher educationelements of EfSD must be included ina thoughtful, systematic way, as wasalready done e.g. in Sweden. 44. Another impor