Textbook of surgical oncology

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  1. 1. TEXTBOOK OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY Edited by Graeme J Poston MB BS MS FRCS (Eng) FRCS (Ed) Head of Division of Surgery University Hospital Aintree Liverpool UK R Daniel Beauchamp MD Section of Surgical Sciences Vanderbilt University Hospital Vanderbilt University Medical Center Nashville, TN USA Theo J M Ruers MD PhD Surgeon Department of Surgery The Netherlands Cancer Institute Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital Amsterdam The Netherlands
  2. 2. 2007 Informa UK Ltd First published in the United Kingdom in 2007 by Informa Healthcare, Telephone House, 69-77 Paul Street, London EC2A 4LQ. Informa Healthcare is a trading division of Informa UK Ltd. Registered Office: 37/41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH. Registered in England and Wales number 1072954. Tel: +44 (0)20 7017 5000 Fax: +44 (0)20 7017 6699 Website: www.informahealthcare.com All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of the publisher or in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 or under the terms of any licence permitting limited copying issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency, 90 Tottenham Court Road, London W1P 0LP. Although every effort has been made to ensure that all owners of copyright material have been acknowledged in this publication, we would be glad to acknowledge in subsequent reprints or editions any omissions brought to our attention. Although every effort has been made to ensure that drug doses and other information are presented accurately in this publication, the ultimate responsibility rests with the prescribing physician. Neither the publishers nor the authors can be held responsible for errors or for any consequences arising from the use of information contained herein. For detailed prescribing information or instructions on the use of any product or procedure discussed herein, please consult the prescribing information or instructional material issued by the manufacturer. A CIP record for this book is available from the British Library. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Data available on application ISBN-10: 1 84184 625 2 ISBN-13: 978 1 84184 507 4 Distributed in North and South America by Taylor & Francis 6000 Broken Sound Parkway, NW, (Suite 300) Boca Raton, FL 33487, USA Within Continental USA Tel: 1 (800) 272 7737; Fax: 1 (800) 374 3401 Outside Continental USA Tel: (561) 994 0555; Fax: (561) 361 6018 Email: orders@crcpress.com Distributed in the rest of the world by Thomson Publishing Services Cheriton House North Way Andover, Hampshire SP10 5BE, UK Tel: +44 (0)1264 332424 Email: tps.tandfsalesorder@thomson.com Composition by Exeter Premedia Services Private Ltd., Chennai, India Printed and bound by Replica Press Pvt Ltd.
  3. 3. iii Contents List of contributors vii Preface xiii Acknowledgments xv Color plate xvii SECTION I GENERAL PRINCIPLES 1. Is there a surgical oncology? 1 Graeme J Poston 2. Principles of quality control in surgical oncology 5 Theo Wiggers 3. Principles of adjuvant radiotherapy 11 Pooja Jain, Azeem Saleem and Pat Price 4. Principles of chemotherapy 21 Emily Chan and Jordan D Berlin 5. Designing clinical trials in surgical oncology: the importance of quality assurance 33 Marcel den Dulk, Elma Meershoek-Klein Kranenbarg and Cornelis J H van de Velde 6. Palliative care in surgical oncology 41 Iain Lawrie and Mari Lloyd-Williams 7. Communication and psychological needs of the cancer surgery patient 49 Clare Byrne and Graeme J Poston SECTION II HEAD AND NECK 8. Oropharynx 61 J Matthew Conoyer and James L Netterville
  4. 4. SECTION III THORACIC 9. Lung and bronchus 77 Joe B Putnam 10. Esophagus 93 Joseph B Zwischenberger, Daina W Parker, Casey M Smlarz, Kristin Kucera, and Brent C Parker SECTION IV BREAST 11. Screen-detected breast cancer 105 Emiel J T Rutgers 12. Symptomatic breast cancer 113 Megan Baker Ruppel and David J Cole 13. Oncoplastic surgery for breast cancer 127 Judy C Boughey, Kelly K Hunt and Elisabeth K Beahm SECTION V GASTROENTEROLOGY 14. Gastric cancer 147 David J Joyce and Peter McCulloch 15. Small bowel and appendiceal tumors 157 Sarah T O'Dwyer 16. Cancer of the colon, rectum and anus 165 Nipun B Merchant, Alexander A Parikh, Carl R Schmidt and R Daniel Beauchamp 17. Pancreatic cancer and ampullary carcinoma 189 Dirk J Gouma, W L Vervenne and O R C Busch 18. Hepatocellular carcinoma 205 Dario Ribero, Eddie K Abdalla and Jean-Nicolas Vauthey 19. Carcinoma of the biliary tree and gallbladder 217 George Miller and William R Jarnagin 20. Liver metastases 239 Theo JM Ruers SECTION VI UROLOGY 21. Kidney renal cell carcinoma 249 Melissa R Kaufman, Michael S Cookson and Sam S Chang 22. Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder and upper tracts 259 William T Lowrance, Sam S Chang and Michael S Cookson 23. Prostate cancer 271 Philip A Cornford and Daniel M Burke 24. Testicular tumors 287 Mark Fordham and Peter Clark iv Contents
  5. 5. SECTION VII GYNECOLOGY 25. General principles of gynecological oncology for the general surgeon 295 Robert E Kingston SECTION VIII SKIN 26. Squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma of the skin 303 JJ Bonenkamp 27. Melanoma 311 Charles R Scoggins and Kelly M McMasters SECTION IX ENDOCRINE 28. Adrenal tumors 327 Barney Harrison and Sabapathy P Balasubramanian 29. Thyroid cancer 339 Douglas Fraker 30. Parathyroid carcinoma/malignancy 353 Alison Waghorn 31. Neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract 363 Menno R Vriens and Inne H M Borel Rinkes SECTION X SARCOMA 32. Soft tissue sarcoma 369 Andrew J Hayes and Isaac M Cranshaw 33. Skeletal malignancies 379 Ginger E Holt and Herbert S Schwartz SECTION XI BRAIN TUMORS 34. Neurosurgical oncology: neoplasms of the brain and meninges 393 Charles B Stevenson and Reid C Thompson Index 411 Contents v
  6. 6. vii Contributors Eddie K Abdalla Division of Hepatobiliary Surgery M D Anderson Cancer Center Houston, TX USA Megan Baker Ruppel MD Department of Surgery Medical University of South Carolina Charleston, SC USA Sabapathy P Balasubramanian MBBS MS FRCSEd Academic Unit of Surgical Oncology University of Sheffield Sheffield UK Elisabeth K Beahm MD FACS Professor, Departments of Surgical Oncology and Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery The University of Texas MD Anderson Center Houston, TX USA R Daniel Beauchamp MD Section of Surgical Sciences Vanderbilt University Hospital Vanderbilt University Medical Center Nashville, TN USA Jordan D Berlin MD Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center Nashville, TN USA J J Bonenkamp MD PhD Radboud University Medical Centre Department of Surgery Nijmegen The Netherlands Inne H M Borel Rinkes MD PhD Department of Surgery University Medical Center Utrecht The Netherlands Judy C Boughey MD Department of Surgery The Mayo Clinic Rochester, MN USA Daniel M Burke MB BS FRCS (Urol) Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Hospital Liverpool UK O R C Busch Department of Surgery Department of Medical Oncology Academic Medical Centre from the University of Amsterdam Amsterdam The Netherlands. Clare Byrne MSc RN Liverpool Supra-Regional Hepatobiliary Unit University Hospital Aintree Liverpool UK
  7. 7. Emily Chan MD PhD Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center Nashville, TN USA Sam S Chang MD Vanderbilt University Medical Center Nashville, TN USA Peter Clark MA MD FRCP Clatterbridge Centre for Oncology Liverpool UK David J Cole MD Department of Surgery Medical University of South Carolina Charleston SC USA J Matthew Conoyer MD PhD Department of Otolaryngology Vanderbilt University Medical Center Nashville, TN USA Michael S Cookson MD Department of Urologic Surgery Vanderbilt University Medical Center Nashville, TN USA Philip A Cornford BSc(hons) MB BS(hons) FRCS (Urol) MD FEBU Department of Urology Royal Liverpool University Hospital Prescot Street Liverpool UK Isaac M Cranshaw MBChB FRACS Surgical Oncology Royal Marsden Hospital London UK Marcel den Dulk MD Department of Surgery Leiden University Medical Center Leiden The Netherlands Mark Fordham FRCS Royal Liverpool University Hospital Liverpool UK Douglas Fraker MD Department of Surgery Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia Pennsylvania USA Dirk J Gouma MD Professor and Chairman of the Department of Surgery Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam Amsterdam The Netherlands Andrew J Hayes PhD FRCS Melanoma and Sarcoma Unit Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust London UK Barney Harrison MS FRCS Royal Hallamshire Hospital Sheffield UK Ginger E Holt MD Vanderbilt Orthopaedic Institute Nashville, TN USA Kelly K Hunt MD FACS Department of Surgical Oncology University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center Houston, TX USA Pooja Jain MRCP FRCR Academic Department of Radiation Oncology Christie Hospital NHS Trust Withington Manchester UK William R Jarnagin MD FACS Department of Surgery Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center New York, NY USA viii List of Contributors
  8. 8. David J Joyce MD Resident in Surgery Baltimore, MD USA Melissa R Kaufman MD PhD Department of Urologic Surgery Vanderbilt University Nashville, TN USA Robert E Kingston BSc MBChB FRCS(Eng) FRCOG Department of Gynecological Oncology Liverpool Women's Hospital Liverpool UK Kristin Kucera BS University of Texas Medical Branch Galveston, TX USA Elma Meershoek-Klein Kranenbarg MSc Department of Surgery Leiden University Medical Center Leiden The Netherlands Iain Lawrie MB ChB DipMedEd MRCGP Palliative Medicine The Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust Leeds UK Mari Lloyd-Williams MD FRCP FRCGP M Med Sci ILTM Palliative Medicine Academic Palliative and Supportive Care Studies Group (APSCSG) School of Population, Community and Behavioural Sciences University of Liverpool Liverpool UK William T Lowrance MD Department of Urologic Surgery Vanderbilt University Medical Center Nashville, TN U