Text of Peer Assisted Learning presentation - reflections
1. Chris Jefferies Camille Kostov Medical Education (BSc)
2. What is Peer-Assisted Learning (PAL)? people from similar social groupings who are not professional teachers helping each other to learn and learning themselves by teaching (Topping 1996) 1. Topping, K. 1996. The Effectiveness of Peer Tutoring in Further and Higher Education: A Typology and Review of the Literature. Higher Education 32(3), pp. 321-345. as opposed to more able students helping less able students to learn in co-operative working pairs or small groups carefully organised by a teacher
3. Background to PAL PAL has been used as a teaching method since the 1980s2 PAL in communication skills (Glynn et al 2006)3 positive effects on examination scores, student satisfaction and personal and professional development A PAL programme was launched at Cardiff University in 20114 First described as being used in clinical skills training by Field et al. in 2007. It was popular with student tutors and learners.
4. Why use PAL? Developing students skills as a teachers and educators is encouraged by the GMC5 . Rated highly by PAL tutors and peers2 reciprocity of experience is unique & valued6 Learners value being taught by other students, who are approachable and understanding4 Tutors develop new competencies and gain confidence as teachers4 Students taught by PAL tutors or experienced clinicians have been shown to perform the same in examinations6
5. What is reflection? metacognitive process that creates a greater understanding of both the self and the situation so that future actions can be informed by this understanding7 Experiential learning cycle (Kolb) Experience alone is not sufficient for learning to take place. Reflection is vital for active process of learning8
6. Why do reflections? re ectere bend back Development of expertise requires more than just knowledge Inform future actions Reflection = deeper learning, new knowledge integrated with existing knowledge and skills
7. Our Journey
8. Reflections Gibbs Cycle: 7. Gibbs, G. (1988) Learning by Doing: A Guide to Teaching and Learning Methods. Oxford: Further Educational Unit, Oxford Polytechnic.
9. What skills have we taught? Venepuncture and blood cultures Arterial blood gas IV cannulation and fluids Suturing Safe injections and drug calculations Male and female catheterisation Vital signs monitoring Histories and examinations C21 curriculum
10. Venepuncture simple? Performed many times in practice Practiced twice in SDL area beforehand Feelings: nerves! Evaluation Ran the session with another PAL confidence+++ rollercoaster of experiences, emotions and thoughts Inspiring experience Identity -> medical educator? Chris: the first teaching session
11. Camille: Issues of Competence (3rd teaching session) Teaching safe Injections to first years Nerves settled rapidly familiar territory. Surprised by the behaviour of some students. 2 students: -one questioned the necessity of asepsis -one struggling to follow any of the steps Assessing competence difficult; differs from clinical performance (Newble 1992). Professionalism can be switched on (Finn et al 2010) Consider my role as a PAL: peer vs (/ and) tutor Wider context helps understand the behaviour of students. Our role to support them in the clinical skills lab
12. New skill session C21 curriculum = difficult to prepare thoroughly for (cf. venepuncture) Feelings: more confident, some apprehension -> new skill Evaluation Confidence building ability to facilitate an unknown session Ability to answer (and not answer) questions from students Chris: C21: drug calculations/discovery tasks
13. Camille: Supporting students (ZPD) Venepuncture and blood culture (first time) Fear of not succeeding at taking blood during demonstration; less experienced than other tutors (guilt) Session went well! Sometimes can be difficult to support students without singling them out Vygotskys Zone of Proximal Development (scaffolding) students can achieve more with support from peers12 Continue to gain confidence in teaching Scaffolding consider how to support students one-on-one
14. What did we learn from our reflections? How to reflect Identifying areas for improving as PAL tutors Knowledge of our own abilities and confidence as educators yes, I can do this This is sometimes not immediately apparent! Only on reflection do you realize/process - that session went really well
15. What did we gain from being PAL tutors? How to teach Opportunity to apply what we have learnt during the BSc Gaining confidence as medical educators Learning from clinical skills tutors and other PALs Refreshing our own clinical skills knowledge Becoming a part of the team / community of practice Poster prize at C21 showcase conference
16. Whats next? Continue to be PAL tutors (hopefully!) Find other areas where we can get involved with teaching, e.g. anatomy Encourage other students to become PAL tutors Continue to use reflections in our teaching and learning
17. Thank you for inviting us to be PAL tutors
18. References 1. Topping, K. 1996. The Effectiveness of Peer Tutoring in Further and Higher Education: A Typology and Review of the Literature. Higher Education 32(3), pp. 321-345. 2. Field, M., Burke, J., McAllister, D. and Lloyd, D. 2007. Peer-assisted learning: a novel approach to clinical skills learning for medical students. Medical Education 41, pp. 411-418. 3. Glynn, L., MacFarlance, A., Kelley, M., Cantillon, P. and Murphy, A. 2006. Helping each other to learn a process evaluation of peer assisted learning. BMC Medical Education 6(18) 4. Lau, D., Williams, SE., Chiu, E., Grant, A. and Sweetland, H. 2012. Peer-assisted learning in clinical procedural skills a pilot initiative. [Poster]. 5. GMC. 2009. Tomorrows Doctors. London. 6. Haist, S., Wilson, J., Fosson, N. nd Brigham, N. 1997. Are fourth-year medical students effective teachers of the physical examination to first-year medical students?. Journal of General Internal Medicine 12(3), pp. 177-81 7. Sandars, J. 2009. The use of reflection in medical education: AMEE Guide No. 44. Medical Education 31, pp 685-695. 8. Kolb DA. 1984. Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. 9. Gibbs, G. (1988) Learning by Doing: A Guide to Teaching and Learning Methods. Oxford: Further Educational Unit, Oxford Polytechnic. 10. Newble, D. 1992. Assessing clinical competence at the undergraduate level. Medical Education 26, pp. 504- 11. 11. Finn, G., Garner, J. and Sawdon, M. 2010. Youre judged all the time! Students views on professionalism: a multicentre study. Medical Education 44(8), pp. 814-25. 12. HEAN, S., CRADDOCK, D., & HAMMICK, M (2012). Theoretical insights into interprofessional education: AMEE Guide No. 62. Medical Teacher, AMEE Guide No 62, 34: , e78-e101.