Seven wonders of the worlld

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    22-Apr-2015

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A ppt about the seven wonders of the world that i did as my school project.I hope it would be useful.

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  • 1. Seven Wonders of the World
  • 2. At about the same time the pilgrims were landing at Plymouth Rock, the Taj Mahal was built. That was almost 400 years ago. It took over ten years to build. More than twenty thousand people and one thousand elephants helped build it. The Taj Mahal is in Agra near the capital of India.
  • 3. Shah Jahan was the emperor of India from 1628 to 1658. He deeply loved his wife Mumtaz Mahal. She died in 1631 when she was giving birth to their fourteenth child. The emperor was so heartbroken that he decided to build a massive tomb in honor of their love. The two of them were buried together inside the Taj Mahal. Since Shah Jahan loved his wife so much, he used only the finest marble. He also made sure that beautiful gems decorated her tomb. The Taj Mahal is one of the wonders of the world. It is also a great tribute to love.
  • 4. CONSTRUCTION
  • 5. THREATS General ideas of threats by people: Environmental pollution. Which is causing acid rain. Main threat is: Decrease in level of Yamuna at 5feet/year The results of threat: In 2010, cracks appeared in parts of the tomb. The minarets which surround the monument were showing signs of tilting. Some engineers predict that the tomb may collapse within 5 years.
  • 6. REASON?
  • 7. HOW AND WHY? These hydrogels expand by absorbing water and can retain water. When these are kept along the wood they can increase the ground level of water also. So these can protect the wood from rotting. This may be the best solution. Show the TAJ MAHAL to next generations as the TAJ MAHAL not in pictures
  • 8. Hagia Sophia
  • 9. The Great Pyramid of Khufu (Cheops in Greek) is the only surviving wonder of the Ancient times. It was built in the 26th century BC. There are actually three pyramids located there, along with the Great Sphinx of Giza and the biggest is The Great Pyramid of Khufu. This architectural marvel is found in the city of Giza, a necropolis of ancient Memphis, and today part of Greater Cairo, Egypt.
  • 10. King Khufu was the second pharaoh of the fourth dynasty of rulers in Egypt. It took about 20 years to build the pyramid of Khufu. He was buried alone in this massive tomb. The Pyramids of Ancient Egypt were built as tombs for Kings and it was the exclusive privilege to have a Pyramid tomb. His wives may have been buried nearby in smaller mastabas.
  • 11. The exact number of stones was originally estimated at 2,300,000 stone blocks weighing from 2-30 tons each, with some weighing up to 70 tons. The pyramid base covers an area of 13 square acres. The estimated total weight of the structure is 6.5 million tons.
  • 12. With 146.7 m high, the Great Pyramid stood as the tallest structure in the world until the French built the Eiffel Tower in 1889 . Today it stands at 137 m high, having lost 9.7 m from the top. Here's how the Great Pyramid compares to some modern structures.
  • 13. Thales Thales was one of the Seven Wise men of Greece. His fame as a mathematician rests upon his suppose discovery of seven geometrical propositions. Thales travelled extensively to the older centers of civilization when he was a young man. Naturally, Thales' visit to Egypt was not complete without a sightseeing trip to the desert plateau of Giza, to see the three pyramids and the Sphinx half-buried in the sand nearby. In 6oo BC the pyramids were about 2000 years old. Thales hired guides and took a Greek friend along.
  • 14. Thales figured out a way to measure the height of the pyramid. He measured the length of the pyramid's base and the height of his pole. Then at the same time of the day he measured the length pyramid's shadow and the length of the pole's shadow. This yields him the following data to work with: height of the pole (A): 2m shadow of the pole (B): 1.63m length of the pyramid base: 230m shadow of the pyramid: 65m HOW HIGH IS THE PYRAMID?
  • 15. From this he calculated: Knowing A,B and C he was now able to apply the intercept theorem to calculate:
  • 16. Triangles - Thales Theorem or Basic Proportionality Theorem The line drawn parallel to a side of a triangle intersecting other two sides at distinct points divides them in same ratio.
  • 17. The Great Wall of China is the worlds largest military structure. It was built as a defense to stop invaders from northern areas. Those invaders were mostly from Chinas neighbor to the north, Mongolia. The Great Wall is actually a series of walls built and rebuilt by different dynasties over 1,000 years. The Great Wall has a total length of over 1500 miles. A second wall, further south from the Great Wall measures about 342 miles long. What purpose do you think that wall served? What is the Great Wall?
  • 18. During the Zhou Dynasty, southern tribes frequently attacked northern border states within China. The northern states eventually built their own walls for defense purposes. These walls were different than the Great Wall that you see today. Qin (pronounced Chin) was the first emperor of China and is considered the first person who actually thought about and considered a Great Wall. His Great Wall was different than the wall you see today. He was a relentless tyrant whos dynasty eventually fell to peasant uprising. Who Built The Great Wall? First Emperor Qin Shi Huang
  • 19. It is estimated that over 3 million people (70% of Chinas population at the time) were involved in the construction of the wall. Who Built The Great Wall? A section of the Qin Wall built using the tamped-earth process. According to historical records, the Qin Great Wall was built in 10 years or about 25 miles a month. In modern dollars, the estimated cost to build the Qin Great Wall would be $260 billion.
  • 20. Who Built The Great Wall? The major contribution of the Han Dynasty to the Great Wall was the watchtowers. This was the place where guards could be on the look-out for invaders. A section of the Han Wall built using water, gravel, and willow reeds.
  • 21. Who Built The Great Wall? Facts Different dynasties contributed to the Walls design. The dynasties mentioned are not the only ones that contributed to the design. Today, the Wall is split into four sections for the benefit of travelers. The Great Wall is the longest man-made structure in the world. The Chinese invented the wheel-barrow and used it to help build the wall.
  • 22. The Eiffel Tower was originally built as the entrance arch for the World's Fair in 1889. It is named after Gustave Eiffel, whose company was in charge of the project. The Eiffel Tower is 320 metres (1050 feet) in height and was the tallest man made structure in the world for 41 years before being surpassed by the Chrysler Building in New York. The Eiffel Tower is made of iron and weighs around 10000 tonnes with which 1000 locomotives can be made. Around 50 tonnes of paint are added to the Eiffel Tower every 7 years to protect it from rust.
  • 23. Gustave Eiffel December 15, 1832 December 27, 1923 French Architect & Engineer Had 3 Daughters & 2 Sons with his wife Marie Gaudelet Eiffel as a reference to the Eifel mountains
  • 24. Important datesof the 19th centuryeiffeltower 1887 - Construction Started 31 March 1889 - Construction Finished as Worlds Tallest & Open to Public 10 September 1889 - Thomas Edison Visited the Eiffel Tower 1925- Sold for Scrap Metal TWICE 1930- Lost Worlds Tallest Structure Title Due to Chrysler Building in NYC 1940-1944 Eiffels Dance with Hitler Adventurous people have always
  • 25. The Design Largest amphitheater in the Roman World Perimeter = 545 m. across Built out of travertine with iron clamps to hold the blocks Who Built It Begun in AD 70, finished by AD 80 Also known as the Flavian Amphitheater Begun by emperor Vespasian, finished by his son, Titus
  • 26. Daily Shows Morning Wild Animal Hunts also known as Venationes Midday Public Executions Afternoon Gladiatorial Contests Who watched the shows Women were not encouraged to attend, but Romans would sometimes take their children to the fights so they could learn good moral behavior (how to die like a Roman) Upper class did not usually attend public executions
  • 27. History (contd): the construction Construction began in 1173 and continued off and on until 1372. Political crises caused breaks. Used multiple architects. First began tilt in 1178 with 3rd floor.
  • 28. So What happened Engineering was often trial and error due to lack of technology. The foundation was poorly constructed and was only about 3 meters thick. Built on an ancient riverbed just 6ft above sea level, made up of weak sand and clay.
  • 29. The first lean of the tower was South. After trying to even the floors, it leaned North. This is an over exaggerated picture of the plan to make it straight The soil compacted and settled due to the length of construction Without the break the tower would have fallen. It was built of limestone, which can handle more stress than most stone.
  • 30. Attempts to Straighten the Tower Mussolini drilled and filed holes in the base with concrete, this made it tilt worse. (1934) Became unstable forcing the Italy government hired several engineers to stabilize it. (1964) Was forced to close in 1990 due to increasing tilt. Later, it was stabilized by removing 40 cubic meters of soild from the raised end. Reopened to the public in 2001.
  • 31. Why is it still leaning? Engineers decided not to straighten the tower for tourists. Instead, they gave it the relatively stable tilt of 13 degrees. It is believed to stand for at least another 300 years.

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