- 1.By:Aman Kr. RoyNo- 1117021
2. Light house of Alexandria(280 B.C) Pyramids of Giza(2575-2150 B.C.) Great Wall of China(7th century BC) Colosseum(70-80 A.D) Taj Mahal(1652 A.D) Eiffel tower(1889A.D) Burj Khalifa(2010 A.D) 3. Location: Pharaohs, Alexandria, Egypt Foundation : Stone Construction : Stone Masonry Height : 393450 ft. The Lighthouse of Alexandria was a tower builtbetween 280 and 247 BC. Its purpose was to guide sailors into the port of Alexandria. The lighthouse was completed After Alexander the Greatdied, by his grand son Ptolemy Philadelphos. 4. Constructed from large blocks of light-coloured stone, the tower wasmade up of three stages: a lower square section with a central core, amiddle octagonal section, and, at the top, a circular section. At its apex was positioned a mirror which reflected sunlight during theday; a fire was lit at night. The Pharaohs masonry blocks were interlocked, sealed together usingmolten lead, to withstand the pounding of the waves. DESTRUCTION The lighthouse was badly damaged in the earthquake of 956, then again in 1303 and 1323. It was damaged so badly that the Arab traveller Ibn Battuta reported no longer being able to enter the ruin. 5. It is by far the oldest of the ancient Wonders which still exists. This complex of ancient monuments lies on the Giza plateau. The Pyramids are thought to have been constructed to housethe remains of the deceased Pharaohs who ruled over AncientEgypt. The Pyramids consist of the Great Pyramid of Giza, the Pyramidof Khafre and the Pyramid of Menkaure a few hundred metersfurther south-west. The Great Sphinx lies on the east side of the complex. 6. Most theories are based on the idea that the pyramids werebuilt by moving huge stones from a quarry and dragging andlifting them into place. A recent theory proposes that the building blocks weremanufactured in-place from a kind of "limestone concrete". They would select a site on a flat area of bedrock whichprovided a stable foundation. The smooth exterior of the pyramid was made of a fine grade ofwhite limestone that was quarried across the Nile. To ensure the symmetry, the exterior casing stones all had tobe equal in height and width. 7. Graphical representation The Great Pyramids ofof the pyramid.Giza. 8. This is a series of fortifications made of stone, brick, tampedearth, wood, and other materials, across the historical northernborders of China in part to protect the Chinese Empire. The Great Wall stretches from Shanhaiguan in the east, to LopLake in the west, along an arc that roughly delineates thesouthern edge of Inner Mongolia. A comprehensive archaeological survey,, has concluded that theMing walls measure 8850 km. This is made up of 6259 kmsections of actual wall, 359 km of trenches and 2232km ofnatural defensive barriers such as hills and rivers. 9. Before the use of bricks, the Great Wall was mainly built fromrammed earth, stones, and wood. During the Ming Dynasty, however, bricks were heavily used inmany areas of the wall, as were materials such as tiles, lime, andstone. Stone can hold under its own weight better than brick, but ismore difficult to use. Consequently, stones cut in rectangularshapes were used for the foundation, inner and outer brims, andgateways of the wall. Battlements line the uppermost portion of the vast majority ofthe wall, with defensive gaps a little over 30 cm tall, and about23 cm wide. 10. The Colosseum, originally the Flavian Amphitheatre is anelliptical amphitheatre in the centre of the city ofRome, Italy, the largest ever built in the Roman Empire. Its construction started in 72 AD under the emperor Vespasianand was completed in 80 AD under Titus. Capable of seating 50,000 spectators, the Colosseum was usedto host gladiatorial shows as well as a variety of other events. 11. Unlike earlier Greek theatres that were built into hillsides, theColosseum is an entirely free-standing structure. It is elliptical in plan and is 189 meters long, and 156 meterswide, with a base area of 6 acres. The height of the outer wall is48 meters. The outer wall is estimated to have required over 100,000 cubicmeters of travertine stone which were set without mortar heldtogether by 300 tons of iron clamps. Two hundred and forty mast corbels were positioned around thetop of the attic. They originally supported a retractable awning,known as the velarium, that kept the sun and rain offspectators. 12. The amphitheatre was ringed by eighty entrances at groundlevel, 76 of which were used by ordinary spectators. The floor of the Podium was built on three layers of travertinestone. To keep the stone stable each block was bonded withmelted bronze, when the bronze hardened it acted as cement. The Romans used arches as the major support system in theColosseum. n arches, weight pushes down on the top of the archat its keystone then the weight gets channelled down the sidesof the arches through columns and safely to the ground. 13. Built: 16321653 Architect: Ustad Ahmad Lahauri Architectural style: Mughal The Taj Mahal is a white marble mausoleum located in Agra.Itwas built by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his thirdwife, Mumtaz Mahal. The court chronicles of Shah Jahans grief illustrate the lovestory traditionally held as an inspiration for Taj Mahal. 14. The tomb is the central focus of the entire complex. Thislarge, white marble structure stands on a square plinth andconsists of a symmetrical building with an iwan topped by a largedome and finial. The base structure is essentially a large, multi-chambered cubewith chamfered corners, forming an unequal octagon that isapproximately 55 metres on each of the four long sides. Four minarets frame the tomb, one at each corner of the plinthfacing the chamfered corners. The Taj Mahal was built on a parcel of land to the south of thewalled city of Agra. The plinth and tomb took roughly 12 yearsto complete. The remaining parts of the complex took anadditional 10 years and were completed in order ofminarets, mosque and jawab, and gateway. 15. The total cost has been estimated to be about 32 million Rupeesat that time. The Taj Mahal was constructed using materials from all overIndia and Asia. The translucent white marble was brought from Makrana,Rajasthan, the jasper from Punjab, jade and crystal from China.The turquoise was from Tibet and the Lapis lazuli fromAfghanistan, while the sapphire came from Sri Lanka and thecarnelian from Arabia. 16. Architect: Stephen Sauvestre Structural engineer: Maurice Koechlin & mile Nouguier. The Eiffel Tower nickname the iron lady is a puddled ironlattice tower located on the Champ de Mars in Paris, namedafter the engineer Gustave Eiffel on the banks of river Siene. The tower stands 320 metres tall, about the same height as an81-story building. The tower has three levels for visitors. Tickets can bepurchased to ascend, by stairs or lift, to the first and secondlevels. The design of the Eiffel Tower was originated by MauriceKoechlin and mile Nouguier, two senior engineers who workedfor the Compagnie des Establissments Eiffel. 17. The foundation consists of 4 legs each leg resting on four 2 mconcrete slabs, one for each of the principal girders of each leg. Each slab needed two piles installed by using compressed-aircaissons 15 m long and 6 m in diameter driven to a depth of 22 mto support the concrete slabs, which were 6 m thick. Each of these slabs supported a block built of limestone eachwith an inclined top to bear a supporting shoe for the ironwork.Each shoe was anchored into the stonework by a pair of bolts 10cm in diameter and 7.5 m long. No drilling or shaping was done on site: if any part did not fit itwas sent back to the factory for alteration. At first the legs were constructed as cantilevers but abouthalfway to the first level construction was paused in order toconstruct a substantial timber scaffold. 18. The puddle iron structure of the EiffelTower weighs 7300 tonnes, while theentire structure, including non-metalcomponents, is approximately 10000tonnes. 19. Chief architect: Adrian Smith Structural engineer : Bill Baker Height: 828m Cost: $1.5 billion Burj Dubai includes 163 habitable floors, 46 maintenance levelsand 9 parking levels in the basement. Emaar Properties, said office space pricing at Burj Khalifareached US$4,000 per sq. ft. and the Armani Residences, alsoin Burj Khalifa, sold for US$3,500 per sq. ft. 20. The tower superstructure of Burj Dubai is designed as an allreinforced concrete building with high performance concretefrom foundation level to level 156. It is topped with structural steel braced frame from level 156to the pinnacle. The designers designed the structural concrete in shape of Yto reduce the wind forces on tower as well as to keep thestructure simple. The exterior exposed steel surface is protected with a flameapplied aluminium finish. The result is a tower that is extremely stiff laterally andtorsionaly similar to a closed tube. 21. The structural system can be described as a buttressed core.Each wing with its own high performance concrete corridor wallsand perimeter column, buttresses the other by a six sidedcentral core or hexagonal hub. The full 3D analysis model consisted of over 73500 shells &75000 nodes. A specially designed concrete mix was formulated to resist theattack from ground water. Most of the reinforcing bars for the core walls, wing walls andthe nose walls were pre fabricated at the ground level. This rebar fabrication and pre-assembly method in man qualitycontrol advantages and reduced the number of workers going upand down the tower.