Teaching of speaking

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Text of Teaching of speaking

  • 1. Teaching of Speaking

2. Teaching of Speaking Issues for Discussion: 1. Characteristics of Spoken Language 2. Principles for designing speaking activities 3. Using group work in speaking activities 4. Common types of speaking activities 3. What are the characteristics of spoken language? Speaking is a skill, just like swimming, driving a car, or playing ping-pong. Too often, in the traditional classroom, the learning of English has been relegated to linguistic knowledge only, e.g. knowledge of vocabulary and grammar rules, with little or no attention paid to practicing language skill. 4. How can we tell the difference between knowledge and skill? According to Bygate (1987:4) one fundamental difference is that both can be understood and memorized, but only a skill can be imitated and practiced. 5. Characteristics of spoken language Spontaneity Time-constraint 6. Characteristics of spoken language Spontaneity In most situations, people do not plan ahead of time what they are going to say. The fact that speech is spontaneous means that it is full of false starts, repetitions, incomplete sentences, and short phrases. Should we expect the students to produce complete sentences in language classroom? 7. Characteristics of spoken language Time-constraint The students must be able to produce unplanned utterances in real time; otherwise people will not have the patience to listen to them. Which of the following activities do you think would help to prepare students for real life speech in English? 8. Reading aloud (needs to be supplemented with more realistic activities as the level increases). Giving a prepared talk (may be used for advanced level) Learning a piece of text or dialogue by heart more realistic activities as the level increases). Interviewing someone, or being interviewed (Yes. It helps to prepare students for real life speech .) Doing a drill (needs to be supplemented with more realistic activities as the level increases) . 9. Reading aloud (needs to be supplemented with more realistic activities as the level increases). Giving a prepared talk (may be used for advanced level) Learning a piece of text or dialogue by heart more realistic activities as the level increases). Interviewing someone, or being interviewed (Yes. It helps to prepare students for real life speech .) Doing a drill (needs to be supplemented with more realistic activities as the level increases) . needs to be supplemented with more realistic activities as the level increases. may be used for advanced level. needs to be supplemented with more realistic activities as the level increases. It helps to prepare students for real life speech. needs to be supplemented with more realistic activities as the level increases. 10. Also students must consider whom they are talking to and be able to check if they are being understood. e.g. 11. Kelly: Hey Jack, hows the project coming along? Jack: What project? Kelly: The one you and Craig are working on. Jack: Craig and I? Kelly: Yeah, for the science fair. Jack: Oh, that project. Its finished. Im so busy working on another project for my economics class that I almost forgot about it. I hope itll work like we want to. Kelly: Oh, Im sure it will. 12. Designing Speaking Tasks One important consideration: Proficiency level of the students (challenging but not too difficult.) If the task is too easy or too difficult, the students may be demotivated. 13. Common Characteristics in Successful Speaking Tasks Maximum foreign talk Even participation High motivation Right language level 14. Maximum foreign talk Try to avoid students talking in the mother tongue, and avoid too much Teacher Talk. Even participation Try to avoid outstanding students dominating discussions. Try to guarantee equal opportunities for students of different levels. High motivation Interesting topic, and clear objective. Make sure that the task is in line with the students ability Right language level - 15. Right language level The task must be designed so that the students can complete the task successfully with the language that they have. Otherwise the task will become frustrating and the students are likely to give up or revert to the native language. 16. Using Group Work in Speaking Tasks There are four ways of organizing classroom activities: Lockstep Pair work Group work Individual study 17. Advantages of Using Group Work More opportunities. As compared with activities for the whole class, group work enables students to talk a lot because it increases the time for each student to practise speaking in one lesson. More motivation. Group work helps students avoid losing their face in front of a whole class, and thus it makes students courageous to speak. - 18. More authenticity. Speaking in a small group is more natural than speaking in a large group, because the latter is usually more formal and requires preparation. Different levels. Students can naturally perform to their abilities more readily in small groups than in a whole class, i.e. students of different levels can participate. More cooperation. Small group work helps students learn to work cooperatively and it helps develop interpersonal skill fostering development of tolerance, mutual respect and harmony. 19. Type of Speaking Tasks It is important to provide the students with a variety of speaking activities because: A variety of speaking activities will enable students to cope with different situations in reality. Variety helps keep motivation high. Variety may suit students of different learning styles. 20. There are two major purposes for listening. One is to get information and the other is for social reasons. Since speaking is reciprocal of listening, the same is true of speaking. 21. According to Littlewood, communicative speaking activities can be divided into two types: functional communication activities, and social interaction activities: 22. Structural Activities Pre-C.A. Quasi-com. Activities (sent. pattern drills, dialogues, etc.) Functional Com. Act. Com. Act. (obtaining information) Social Interaction Act. (role-playing, problem-solving, etc.) Information Gap, Choices & Feed-back) 23. For beginning students, pre-communicative activities are also necessary, which are more structural and allow the learner to practise the forms of the language. However, we should make speaking tasks as communicative as possible. 24. Some Types of Speaking Activities Information-gap activities Dialogues and role-plays Activities using pictures Problem-solving activities Other speaking activities 25. Information-gap activities Compare 2 activities: 26. Activity B: Use the same pictures, but cut them up, paste them on cards, and give each student a different picture. 27. Directions: Ask your partner what is in his/her picture. Fore example: Student A: Whats in your picture? Student B: There is __________. Whats in your picture? Student A: There is __________. 28. Obviously the second activity includes an information gap that the first one does not. Information-gap activities can be designed at a very elementary level, so that communicative practice can be done from almost the very beginning of foreign language learning. 29. Dialogues and Role Plays Two problems with most dialogues in textbooks: Not authentic or natural. The natural speech of native speakers is often phrases or sentence fragments full of pauses, false starts, and repetitions. The way most dialogues are taught. Teachers ask students to memorize dialogues by heart. 30. What can a teacher do to make a dialogue more communicative? Example 1: Playing the roles in a dialogue 31. Step 1. Practice the dialogue in pairs A: What time is it? B: Its 3:00. Why? A: Oh, I need to go to the store! Do you want to come? B: OK. Just a minute. I need to finish this first. 32. Step 2. Ask a few pairs to perform the dialogue in front of the whole class, speaking in different moods such as happy, irritated, bored, or in different role relationships such as parent and a child, husband and wife, two friends, etc. The students may paraphrase the underlined parts: go to the post office, go to the bank, etc. instead of go to the store. find my jacket/shoes, etc. instead of finish this first. 33. Example 2: Using Cue Cards Card A You are talking to a new classmate. Begin the conversation with a greeting. 1. Greet your partner. 2. Ask your partner which school he/she went to before. 3. Ask your partner if he/she lives near the school. 4. Suggest you go shopping together after school. 34. Card B You are a new student at this school. One of your classmates greets you. 1. Greet your partner back. 2. Answer the question. 3. Answer the question. 4. Respond to the suggestion. 35. Then students should be ready to move quickly into less controlled types of role plays, where only the situation and the relationship between the two speakers are specified: Card A You and your friend are going out to eat lunch. You need to decide where to go. You would like to try something different because youre tired of the same food. You make a suggestion. 36. Notice that the outcome of this role play is not specified in the cue cards. It only sets up a point of disagreement. Card B You and your friend are going out to eat lunch. You need to decide where to go. You would like to go to the place where you always go, because you like the food. You dont agree with your friends suggestion. 37. Factors that Affect the Success of Role Plays (Ur, 1996:133) Teachers enthusiasm; Careful instructions; Clear situation and roles; Making sure that the students have the language they will need to carry out the role-play. 38. Activities Using Pictures In groups of 3 or 4: 39. A secretary is appointed to mark a tick for each sentence said. Check which group has got most