Speaking is" the process of building and sharing meaning through the use of verbal and non - verbal symbols, in a variety of contexts " ( Chaney, 1998, p .13 ).
meaning contexts meaning contexts 8.
1- Giving advice
2- Expressing hope
3- Telling stories
In the street
At a mall
9. Do You know that ???
Many language learners regard speaking ability as the measure of knowing a language .
They regard speaking as the most important skill they can acquire, and they assess their progress in terms of their accomplishments in spoken communication .
Do You know that ??? 11.
Despite its importance, for many years, teaching speaking has been undervalued.
English language teachers have continued to teach speaking just as a repetition of drills or memorization of dialogues .
The main issues are: 12. No Communication No Interaction No Negotiation No Transaction No Information Exchange 13.
What Makes a Good Speaker?
Characteristics of a good language speaker
5 mn 15.
While speaking, we expect our students to be able to:
Produce the English speech sounds and sound patterns
Use word and sentence stress, intonation patterns and the rhythm of the second language.
Select appropriate words and sentences according to the proper social setting, audience, situation and subject matter.
Organize their thoughts in a meaningful and logical sequence.
Use language as a means of expressing values and judgments.
Use the language quickly and confidently with few unnatural pauses, which is called as fluency. (Nunan, 2003)
The above mentioned criteria are alsothe same criteria we use to test students ability to speak 16.
How do we teach speaking?
A sample speaking activity
Tense: Present Simple
Think about an activity
Meaning / Function Context Materials 5 mn 17. Teacher Activity
What do students need to talk fluently?
5 mn 18.
Teachers have to provide authentic practice that prepares students for real - life communication situations .) Practise speaking in class)
They have to help their students develop the ability to produce grammatically correct, logically connected sentences that are appropriate to specific contexts, and to do so using acceptable( that is, comprehensible )pronunciation .
Teach Pronunciation / Intonation
Equip them with everything they need to speak confidently and fluently.
Teachers should create a classroom environment where students havereal-life communication ,authentic activities , andmeaningful tasksthatpromote oral language . This can occur whenstudents collaboratein groups to achieve a goal or to complete a task.
Provide real-life situations 20. Activities that Promote Speaking Tactics for Speaking 21.
Activities that Promote Speaking
5 mn 22. Discussions
After a content-based lesson, a discussion can be held for various reasons. The students may aim to arrive at a conclusion, share ideas about an event, or find solutions in their discussion groups. Before the discussion, it is essential that the purpose of the discussion activity is set by the teacher.
23. Role Play
The teacher gives information to the learners such as who they are and what they think or feel. Thus, the teacher can tell the student that "You are David, you go to the doctor and tell him what happened last night, and" (Harmer, 1984)
Simulations are very similar to role-plays but what makes simulations different than role plays is that they are more elaborate. In simulations, students can bring items to the class to create a realistic environment. For instance, if a student is acting as a president, he/she wears a suit and brings a microphone to deliver his speech. Role plays and simulations have many advantages.
Such activities motivate the students and increase the self-confidence of hesitant students.
25. Information Gap
Students are supposed to be working in pairs.
One student will have the information that other partner does not have and the partners will share their information.
Information gap activities serve many purposes such as solving a problem or collecting information. Also, each partner plays an important role because the task cannot be completed if the partners do not provide the information the others need.
These activities are effective because everybody has the opportunity to talk extensively in the target language.
On a given topic, students can produce ideas in a limited time. Depending on the context, either individual or group brainstorming is effective and learners generate ideas quickly and freely.
The good characteristics of brainstorming is that the students are not criticized for their ideas so students will be open to sharing new ideas.
Students can briefly summarize a tale or story they heard from somebody beforehand,
They may create/imagine their own stories to tell their classmates.
Story telling fosters creative thinking. It also helps students express ideas in the format of beginning, development, and ending, including the characters and setting a story has to have.
Students can conduct interviews on selected topics with various people.
Conducting interviews with people gives students a chance to practice their speaking ability not only in class but also outside and helps them become socialized. After interviews, each student can present his or her study to the class.
Student Interviews Students Teachers Parents Family Staff 29. Story Completion
1- This is a very enjoyable, whole-class, free-speaking activity for which students sit in a circle.
2- For this activity, a teacher starts to tell a story, but after a few sentences he or she stops narrating.
3- Then, each student starts to narrate from the point where the previous one stopped. Each student is supposed to add from four to ten sentences.
4- Students can add new characters, events, descriptions and so on.
30. It was a very hot Friday morning. The weather was very nice and the streets were almost empty. Story completion with key words given: scared A loud crash injured bleeding Emergency services ambulance hospital Horribleexperience
Using a data-show projector, teacher can ask their students to look at the picture and try to imagine what happened.
Students can use some of the words
31. Picture Narrating
This activity is based on several sequential pictures.
Students are asked to tell the story taking place in the sequential pictures by paying attention to the criteria provided by the teacher as a rubric.
Rubrics can include the vocabulary or structures (past simple) they need to use while narrating.
Before coming to class, students are asked to read a newspaper or magazine and, in class, they report to their friends what they find as the most interesting news.
Teachers can also ask their students to watch a specific program on a specific channel. Time of the program should be given well-in-advance.
Then, students could be asked to report back what they have seen and express their views concerning what was presented in the program or cartoon film