Teaching of Listening and Speaking : Developing Listening and Speaking

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    15-Jul-2015

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Developing listening & speakingDeveloping listening & speakingIdentifying and integrating listening & speaking skillsAn Interactive Model Of Listening ComprehensionInvolves 8 process of which they occur simultaneously :raw speech image determine the type of speech colours the interpretation infer the objective of the speaker react schemata interpret the message assign literal meaning response assigns intended meaning response determine the time to response response delete certain parts of the message retain the important messages Types Of Spoken Languagemonologue dialoguePlanned unplanned interpersonal transactionalunfamiliar familiar unfamiliar familiarListening What makes listening & speaking difficult ?????** clustering ** redundancy ** Reduced forms ** Performance variables **colloquial language **rate of delivery **Stress, rhythm, and intonation ** interactionMicroskills macroskillsMicroskillsRetain chunks of language of different lengths in short-term memoryDiscriminate distinctive sounds of EnglishRecognize English sound structureRecognize reduced forms of words Distinguish word boundaries, recognize the core of words and interpret word order patterns and their significance Process speech at different rates of delivery Process speech containing pauses, errors, corrections, and other performance variablesRecognize grammatical word classes, systems, patterns, rules, elliptical forms.Detect sentence constituent and distinguish between major and minor constituent.Recognize that a particular meaning may be expressed in different grammatical forms.macroskillsRecognize cohesive devices in spoken discourseRecognize the communicative function of utterances, according to situation, participants, goals. Infer situations, participants, goals using real-world knowledge.From events ideas, describe predicted outcomes, infer links and connection between pages, deduce causes and effects, and detect such relations as main idea, supporting idea, new information, given information, generalization, and exemplification.Distinguish between literal and implied meanings Use facial kinesics, body language and other non-verbal clues to decipher meanings.Develop and use a battery of listening strategy such as detecting keywords, guessing the meaning of words from context appealing for help and signaling comprehension. reactive intensive responsiveSelective extensive interactiveTypes of classroom listening performances Principles of teaching listening skillsInclude a focus in an integrated-skills courseUse techniques that are intrinsically motivating Utilize authentic language and contextCarefully consider the form of listeners responsesEncourage the development of listening strategies Include both bottom-up and top-down listening techniquesSpeaking imitative intensive responsive extensive (monologue)Transactional (dialogue) interpersonal (dialogue)Types of classroom speaking performancesMicroskillsProduce chunks of language of different lengthsOrally produce differences among the English phonemesProduce English stress patterns, words in stressed and unstressed position, rhythmic structure, and intonational contours.Produce reduced forms of words and phrasesUse an adequate number of lexial units (words) in order to accomplish pragmatic purposesProduce fluent speech at different rates of delivery.Monitor you own oral production and use various strategic devise pauses , fillers, self-corrections, backtracking to enhance the clarity of the message.Use grammatical word classes (nouns, verbs, etc.) systems (e.g. tense agreement, pluralization), word order, patterns, rules, and elliptical forms.Produce speech in natural constituents in appropriate phrases, pause groups, breath groups, and sentences.Express a particular meaning in different grammatical forms.macroskillsUse cohesive devices in spoken discourseAccomplish appropriately communicative functions according to situations, participants, and goals.Use appropriate registers, implicature, pragmatic conventions, and other sociolinguistic features in face-to-face conversations.Convey links and connections between events and communicate such relations as main idea, supporting idea, new information, given information, generalization, and exemplification.Use facial features, kinesics, body language, and other nonverbal cues along with verbal language to convey meanings.Develop and use a battery of speaking strategies, such as emphasizing key words, rephrasing, providing a context for interpreting the meaning of words, appealing for help, and accurately assessing how well your interlocutor is understanding you. Principle for teaching speaking skillsFocus on both fluency and accuracy depending on your objectiveProvide intrinsically motivating techniquesEncourage the use of authentic language in meaningful contextProvide appropriate feedback and correction Capitalize on the natural link between speaking and listeningGive students opportunities to initiate oral communication Encourage the development of speaking strategiesTeaching conversationsUsing conversation for both transactional and interactional purposeProducing short and long turnManaging turn takingOpening and closingInitiating and responding to talk on a broad range of topicUsing casual style of speakingUsing conversation in different social settingsRepairing trouble spot in conversationMaintaining fluency in conversationProducing talk in a conversational mode Using conventional fillers and small talkUsing conversational routinesNative language age exposure innate phonetic ability Identity and language egoMotivation and concern for good pronunciationFactors of pronunciationDone by : Ayuni, zam and nabilah.THANK YOU