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2. Many language learnersregard speaking ability asthe measure of knowing alanguage. 3. These learners define fluencyas the ability to converse withothers, much more than theability to read, write, orcomprehend oral language. 4. They regard speaking as the mostimportant skill they can acquire,and they assess their progress interms of their accomplishmentsin spoken communication. 5. Three Areas ofKnowledge that aLanguage Learner must Know 6. Mechanics(pronunciation, grammar, andvocabulary): Using the rightwords in the right order withthe correct pronunciation 7. Functions (transactionand interaction):Knowing when clarity ofmessage is essential(transaction/informationexchange) and whenprecise understanding isnot required(interaction/relationshipbuilding) 8. Social and cultural rules and norms(turn-taking, rate of speech, lengthof pauses between speakers, relativeroles of participants): Understandinghow to take into account who isspeaking to whom, in whatcircumstances, about what, and forwhat reason. 9. Communicative Model of LanguageTeaching Instructors help their studentsdevelop this body of knowledgeby providing authentic practicethat prepares students for real-life communication situations. 10. Communicative Model of LanguageTeaching They help their students develop theability to produce grammaticallycorrect, logically connectedsentences that are appropriate tospecific contexts, and to do so usingacceptable (that is, comprehensible)pronunciation. 11. Ideas to keep in mind inPlanning Speaking Activities 12. ContentAs much as possible, the contentshould be practical and usable inreal-life situations. Avoid too muchnew vocabulary or grammar, andfocus on speaking with the languagethe students have. 13. Correcting ErrorsYou need to provide appropriate feedback andcorrection, but dont interrupt the flow ofcommunication. Take notes while pairs orgroups are talking and address problems tothe class after the activity withoutembarrassing the student who made the error.You can write the error on the board and askwho can correct it. 14. Quantity vs. QualityAddress both interactive fluency and accuracy, striving foremost for communication. Get to know each learners personality and encourage the quieter ones to take more risks. 15. Conversation StrategiesEncourage strategies like asking for clarification, paraphrasing, gestures, and initiating (hey, so, by the way). 16. Teacher InterventionIf a speaking activity loses steam, you may need to jump into a role-play, ask more discussion questions, clarify your instructions, or stop an activity that is too difficult or boring. 17. Communicative efficiencyGOAL ofTeachingSpeaking 18. Communicative Efficiency Learners should be able to make themselvesunderstood, using their current proficiency tothe fullest. They should try to avoid confusion in themessage due to faultypronunciation, grammar, or vocabulary, and toobserve the social and cultural rules thatapply in each communication situation. 19. In developing the communicativeefficiency ofstudents,instructors mustcombine:LanguageStructured Communicativeinput outputoutput 20. Language input comes in the form of teacher talk,listening activities, reading passages,and the language heard and readoutside of class It gives learners the material theyneed to begin producing languagethemselves. 21. Form orientedContent-orientedLanguage Input 22. Content-oriented Content-oriented input focuses oninformation, whether it is a simpleweather report or an extended lectureon an academic topic. Content-orientedinput may also include descriptions oflearning strategies and examples of theiruse. 23. Form-oriented Form-oriented input focuses on waysof using the language: linguisticcompetence; discourse competence;sociolinguistic competence; strategiccompetence. 24. Competencies toenhance in using the Language 25. LinguisticCompetenceguidance from the teacher or another source on vocabulary, pronunciation, and grammar 26. Discourse Competence appropriate things to say inspecific contexts 27. Socio-linguistic Competence expectations for rate ofspeech, pause length,turn-taking, and othersocial aspects of languageuse 28. StrategicCompetenceexplicit instruction inphrases to use to ask for clarification and repair miscommunication 29. Preparing theStudent before aSpeaking Task 30. Introduce the topic Provide a model of the speech they are to produceClear and specificinstructions must be given Practice the actual speaking activity 31. Thank you!